Steve Buttry, is Lamar Family Visiting Scholar at LSU’s Manship School of Mass Communication. Mr. Buttry’s blog post, The 5 W’s (and How) of writing for the Web, explains “The “5 W’s” of journalism are the building materials for web writing. Most journalists learned these fundamentals our first day in a newsroom or a journalism classroom. But we occasionally need reminding and refreshing.” Mr. Buttry is correct, unfortunately journalism is doing a very bad job when it comes to WHO!
Buttry writes :
Reporting. Accuracy and verification are Make sure you get the names spelled right. Ask a person to spell his or her name for you (even if it’s a common name), then spell it back and/or show what you wrote in the notebook. Get it in writing: from a business card, web bio or other source. If the written version doesn’t match what you have in your notes, resolve the conflict directly with the source. Who is more than a person’s name. Your research should uncover a person’s title and role in your story, the relationships, experience, perspective and motivation.
Writing. You need to identify key people early in most stories. If tweeting, see if the person is on Twitter and use her username. Link to a blog, biography or social media profile of the person. In a narrative, who becomes a character. You need more than the basic identification of the person. Reveal some motivation and help the reader get to know the person: aspirations, motivations, emotions, sense of humor, background.
Ethics. Who is the first of these journalism fundamentals, so you should be reluctant and demanding in agreeing to withhold a person’s identification. Seek documentation and confirmation from other sources, so you don’t have to base your story on unnamed sources. Use unnamed sources only for facts they know first-hand. Opinions, especially criticism of named people, count for nothing when people won’t stand behind their opinions. Learn whether a person is demanding confidentiality because she isn’t confident in the information she is giving you, because it’s just rumor or speculation.
Links: Who else has written about this person? Does he have his own website, with a biography and/or links to her work? How about a Wikipedia page? Does your website have a topic page on this person?
Visuals: The primary who of a story demands illustration with a photo, a video or both. Consider whether secondary who’s merit either or both as well.
This morning, May 20th, 2015 AP published a story titled AP Source: House panel subpoenas Hillary Clinton confidant. The story turns Christopher Stephen’s murder into a GOP vs Democrats political row. It isn’t until the third paragraph that we find the confidant is Sidney Blumenthal. Others who in the story are an anonymous official, Trey Gowdy, Christopher Stevens, two U.S. marshals, the U.S. marshal service, The State Department, Representative Elijha Cummings, the Benghazi Committee, John Kerry, Jamal Ware, Col. Moammar Gadhafi, and Bill Clinton.
Cummings, Ware and Gowdy are members of the Benghazi Committee
Anonymous Official, Christopher Stevens and 3 unnamed dead diplomats, Hillary Clinton, Bill Clinton, Sidney Blumenthal, and John Kerry are all connected through the State Department. There have been 68 secretaries of state :
- Thomas Jefferson (1790-1793)
- Edmund Jennings Randolph (1794-1795)
- Timothy Pickering (1795-1800)
- John Marshall (1800-1801)
- James Madison (1801-1809)
- Robert Smith (1809-1811)
- James Monroe (1811-1817)
- John Quincy Adams (1817-1825)
- Henry Clay (1825-1829)
- Martin Van Buren (1829-1831)
- Edward Livingston (1831-1833)
- Louis McLane (1833-1834)
- John Forsyth (1834-1841)
- Daniel Webster (1841-1843)
- Abel Parker Upshur (1843-1844)
- John Caldwell Calhoun (1844-1845)
- James Buchanan (1845-1849)
- John Middleton Clayton (1849-1850)
- Daniel Webster (1850-1852)
- Edward Everett (1852-1853)
- William Learned Marcy (1853-1857)
- Lewis Cass (1857-1860)
- Jeremiah Sullivan Black (1860-1861)
- William Henry Seward (1861-1869)
- Elihu Benjamin Washburne (1869-1869)
- Hamilton Fish (1869-1877)
- William Maxwell Evarts (1877-1881)
- Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen (1881-1885)
- James Gillespie Blaine (1881-1881)
- Thomas Francis Bayard (1885-1889)
- James Gillespie Blaine (1889-1892)
- John Watson Foster (1892-1893)
- Walter Quintin Gresham (1893-1895)
- Richard Olney (1895-1897)
- John Sherman (1897-1898)
- William Rufus Day (1898-1898)
- John Milton Hay (1898-1905)
- Elihu Root (1905-1909)
- Robert Bacon (1909-1909)
- Philander Chase Knox (1909-1913)
- William Jennings Bryan (1913-1915)
- Robert Lansing (1915-1920)
- Bainbridge Colby (1920-1921)
- Charles Evans Hughes (1921-1925)
- Frank Billings Kellogg (1925-1929)
- Henry Lewis Stimson (1929-1933)
- Cordell Hull (1933-1944)
- Edward Reilly Stettinius Jr. (1944-1945)
- James Francis Byrnes (1945-1947)
- George Catlett Marshall (1947-1949)
- Dean Gooderham Acheson (1949-1953)
- John Foster Dulles (1953-1959)
- Christian Archibald Herter (1959-1961)
- David Dean Rusk (1961-1969)
- William Pierce Rogers (1969-1973)
- Henry A. (Heinz Alfred) Kissinger (1973-1977)
- Cyrus Roberts Vance (1977-1980)
- Edmund Sixtus Muskie (1980-1981)
- Alexander Meigs Haig Jr. (1981-1982)
- George Pratt Shultz (1982-1989)
- James Addison Baker III (1989-1992)
- Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (1992-1993)
- Warren Minor Christopher (1993-1997)
- Madeleine Korbel Albright (1997-2001)
- Colin Luther Powell (2001-2005)
- Condoleezza Rice (2005-2009)
- Hillary Rodham Clinton (2009-2013)
- John Forbes Kerry (2013-)
Since 1905 there have been 30 Secretaries of state all but 8 have been members of the Council on Foreign Relations :
- Elihu Root (1905-1909)
- Charles Evans Hughes (1921-1925)
- Frank B. Kellogg (1925-1929)
- Henry L. Stimson (1929-1933)
- Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (1944-1945)
- Dean G. Acheson (1949-1953)
- John Foster Dulles (1953-1959)
- Christian A. Herter (1959-1961)
- Dean Rusk (1961-1969)
- William P. Rogers (1969-1973)
- Henry A. Kissinger (1973-1977)
- Cyrus R. Vance (1977-1980)
- Edmund S. Muskie (1980-1981)
- Alexander M. Haig Jr. (1981-1982)
- George P. Shultz (1982-1989)
- James A. Baker III (1989-1992)
- Lawrence S. Eagleburger (1992-1993)
- Warren M. Christopher (1993-1997)
- Madeleine K. Albright (1997-2001)
- Colin L. Powell (2001-2005)
- Condoleezza Rice (2005-2009)
- John Forbes Kerry (2013-present)
Bill Clinton ( Hillary’s husband), Sidney Blumenthal ( Hillary’s confidant), and John Kerry ( the Secretary of State who took Hillary’s place ) are all members of the Council on Foreign Relations. Why is the CFR WHO missing from the AP Benghazi story?
On September 12, 1939, the Council on Foreign Relations began to take control of the Department of State. On that day Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Editor of Foreign Affairs, and Walter H. Mallory, Executive Director of the Council on Foreign Relations, paid a visit to the State Department. The Council proposed forming groups of experts to proceed with research in the general areas of Security, Armament, Economic, Political, and Territorial problems. The State Department accepted the proposal. The project (1939-1945) was called Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies. Hamilton Fish Armstrong was Executive director.
In February 1941 the CFR officially became part of the State Department. The Department of State established the Division of Special Research. It was organized just like the Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies project. It was divided into Economic, Political, Territorial, and Security Sections. The Research Secretaries serving with the Council groups were hired by the State Department to work in the new division. These men also were permitted to continue serving as Research Secretaries to their respective Council groups. Leo Pasvolsky was appointed Director of Research.
In 1942 the relationship between the Department of State and the Council on Foreign Relations strengthened again. The Department organized an Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policies. The Chairman was Secretary Cordell Hull, the vice chairman, Under Secretary Sumner Wells, Dr. Leo Pasvolsky ( director of the Division of Special Research) was appointed Executive Officer. Several experts were brought in from outside the Department. The outside experts were Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies members; Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Isaiah Bowman, Benjamin V. Cohen, Norman H. Davis, and James T. Shotwell.
In total there were 362 meetings of the War and Peace Studies groups. The meetings were held at Council on Foreign Relations headquarters — the Harold Pratt house, Fifty-Eight East Sixty-Eighth Street, New York City. The Council’s wartime work was confidential.17
In 1944 members of the Council on Foreign Relations The War and Peace Studies Political Group were invited to be active members at the Dumbarton Oaks conference on world economic arrangements. In 1945 these men and members of Britain’s Royal Institute of International Affairs were active at the San Francisco conference which ensured the establishment of the United Nations.
In 1947 Council on Foreign Relations members George Kennan, Walter Lippmann, Paul Nitze, Dean Achenson, and Walter Krock took part in a psycho-political operation forcing the Marshall Plan on the American public. The PSYOP included a “anonymous” letter credited to a Mr. X, which appeared in the Council on Foreign Relations magazine FOREIGN AFFAIRS. The letter opened the door for the CFR controlled Truman administration to take a hard line against the threat of Soviet expansion. George Kennan was the author of the letter. The Marshall Plan should have been called the Council on Foreign Relations Plan. The so-called Marshall Plan and the ensuing North Atlantic Treaty Organization defined the role of the United States in world politics for the rest of the century. (http://www.bilderberg.org/roundtable/emhist.html )
In his article The Future Is Calling: War on Terror, Ed Griffin gives us insight into the nature of the CFR Secretary of State :
“In 1996, CBS reporter Lesley Stahl interviewed the American ambassador to the UN, Madeline Albright (a member of the CFR ). In the course of the interview, Stahl asked this question: “We have heard that a half-million children have died [as a result of this policy]. Is the price worth it?” Albright replied: “We think the price is worth it.” That interview was widely circulated in the Middle East. It was not merely an unfortunate choice of words. It was a forthright statement of collectivist morality: The sacrifice of a half-million children is acceptable because of the greater good of supposedly de-stabilizing Hussein’s regime, the greater good of world peace, the greater good of the New World Order. Remember, in the collectivist mind, anything can be justified by theorizing a greater good for a greater number, and a half-million children is a small number compared to the population of the world. In any event, these policies are well designed to aggravate whole populations into becoming enemies of America, and some of them will be willing to sacrifice their lives in revenge.” Watch the interview ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FbIX1CP9qr4 ).
Why is the CFR WHO missing from the AP Benghazi story? Was the attack on the U.S. embassy part of a CFR run State Department psycho political operation? Was Christopher Steven’s murder part of a CFR psych political operation gone bad? Are editors and reporters and members of the Benghazi Investigation Committee ignorant of the Council on Foreign Relations role in government and the story? Or are editors, and reporters and members of the Benghazi Investigation Committee purposely leaving the CFR WHO out of the Benghazi story to protect the CFR from taking responsibility for their actions, losing their control of government, and going to jail? The AP article follows with CFR connections added:
AP Source: House panel subpoenas Hillary Clinton confidant CFR member Sidney Blumenthal
May 20, 9:29 AM (ET) By MATTHEW DALY
WASHINGTON (AP) — A longtime confidant of Hillary Rodham Clinton, (wife of Council on Foreign member William Clinton, CFR member Sidney Blumenthal,) has been subpoenaed to testify before a special House panel investigating the deaths of four Americans at the U.S. diplomatic post in Benghazi, Libya, according to an official familiar with the probe (Christopher Stevens ,Tyrone Woods, Sean Smith, and Glen Doherty) Read more at: http://www.nationalreview.com/article/377040/hillarys-unconscionable-benghazi-lie-mona-charen.
This official, speaking to The Associated Press on condition of anonymity, said the subpoena was issued by the panel headed by Rep. Trey Gowdy, R-S.C. The official declined to be identified publicly because he wasn’t authorized to discuss by name an investigation still in progress.
The panel has “a number of questions” for( CFR member) Sidney Blumenthal, the official said, including whether he had any business arrangements that led him to send emails to (CFR Spouse) Clinton and other officials concerning Libya while (CFR Spouse) Clinton was (CFR’s) secretary of state. (Since 1905 22 of the 30 Secretaries of State have been members of the CFR. CFR member) CFR member Blumenthal was not an employee of the (CFR run) State Department at the time.
(CFR Spouse) Clinton had initially been expected to testify this week on the September 2012 attacks that killed four Americans, including U.S. ambassador Christopher Stevens,( Tyrone Woods, Sean Smith, and Glen Doherty) but her testimony was put off after Gowdy complained that he lacked the necessary (CFR run) State Department documents to thoroughly question her. Clinton, who is seeking the Democratic Party’s presidential nomination, was in Iowa Tuesday for a campaign appearance.
Rep. Elijah Cummings of Maryland, ranking Democrat on the panel, issued a statement Wednesday assailing the committee’s GOP leadership for its handling of the subpoena.
“There was no need for the Select Committee to send two U.S. Marshals to the home of (CFR member) Sidney Blumenthal…especially since the committee never bothered to contact him first to ask him whether he would voluntarily come in,” Cummings said. “These heavy-handed, aggressive and unnecessary tactics waste the time of the U.S. Marshal service.”
“These latest moves by the Benghazi Committee — issuing a subpoena without first contacting the witness, leaking news of the subpoena before it was served, and not holding any committee debate or vote — are straight out the partisan playbook of discredited Republican investigations,” the congressman added. “The fact is that we have had these exact emails for three months, and the latest abuses by the committee are just one more example of a partisan, taxpayer-funded attack against Secretary Clinton and her bid for president.”
Gowdy complained to (CFR member) Kerry last week that the (CFR run) State Department had delayed providing emails and other documents involving Clinton and her top associates. “Simply put, the committee must have the records of communication requested more than six months ago before the secretary’s appearance can be scheduled,” Gowdy wrote.
The (CFR run) State Department said the department has provided 300 emails from Clinton, 19 witnesses and more than 40,000 pages of documents from the initial departmental investigation.
Democrats have complained that Gowdy and other Republicans are drawing out the Benghazi hearings in order to disrupt Clinton’s presidential campaign, but Gowdy said that the (CFR run) State Department is to blame for any delays.
Jamal Ware , a spokesman for the Benghazi committee, said Tuesday that “questions about why it will take so long and how much it will cost the department to comply with public records requests due to challenges stemming from former Secretary Clinton’s personal email arrangement are best directed to State and the former secretary.”
Ware added that Gowdy believes it is “imperative” for the sake of transparency that “the complete public record of Secretary Clinton’s time in office be made available for the American people as quickly as possible.” Ware said the committee is focused solely on Benghazi.
The New York Times reported earlier this week that (CFR member) Blumenthal, 66, had written then-Secretary Clinton a host of emails about Libya before and after the death of Col. Moammar Gadhafi. (CFR member) Blumenthal was a White House aide during (CFR member) Bill Clinton’s presidency.
On Tuesday (CFR Spouse) Clinton said she wants the State Department to speed release of her emails. ( No one can ever know how many Benghazi e-mails were deleted from her private e-mail server )