Thomas Jefferson’s Republican Notes On Religion

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Notes on Locke and Shaftesbury, 11 October–9 December 1776

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How the CFR Engineered The Financial Crisis

Financialization is a new term used to discuss the emergence of a new form of capitalism in which financial markets dominate over the traditional industrial economy. Traditionally capitalism was th…

Source: How the CFR Engineered The Financial Crisis

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CFR Operation War on Terror – CFR/CIA Crystal Ball “Mapping the Global Future”

Brussels attacks 3/22/16 An injured woman sits on a chair at Brussels airport in the aftermath of a suicide attack In December 2004, Council on Foreign Relations member Robert L. Hutchings, Chair…

Source: CFR Operation War on Terror – CFR/CIA Crystal Ball “Mapping the Global Future”

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CFR Operation War on Terror – CFR/CIA Crystal Ball “Mapping the Global Future”

 

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Brussels attacks 3/22/16 An injured woman sits on a chair at Brussels airport in the aftermath of a suicide attack

In December 2004, Council on Foreign Relations member Robert L. Hutchings, Chairman of the National Intelligence Council of the CIA, presented the US president, members of Congress, cabinet members and key officials involved in policymaking a 123-page report titled “Mapping the Global Future” ( http://www.dni.gov/files/documents/Global%20Trends_Mapping%20the%20Global%20Future%202020%20Project.pdf ). In the preface Hutchings gives special recognition to Council on Foreign Relations member Matthew Burrows, Director of the NIC’s Analysis and Production Staff. The project took about a year and involved more than 1000 people.

The report foresees pervasive insecurity. Since that time the CFR has been working hard to produce that insecurity by convincing the American public that we should allow hundreds of thousands of middle east refugees into the USA. CFR cohorts in other nations have done the same. Six CFR former Secretaries of State James A. Baker III (served 1989-1992), Dr. Madeleine K. Albright (1997-2001), General Colin L. Powell USA (Ret.) (2001-2005), George Shultz (1982-1989), Dr. Condoleezza Rice (2005-2009), Dr. Henry A. Kissinger (1973-1977) said:

VIDEO TRANSCRIPTION

 MADELEINE ALBRIGHT I think it enriches our country to have refugees here.

 COLIN POWELL  And America has always had a history of welcoming, not only immigrants, but refugees

 HENRY KISSINGER I cannot imagine the United States living in the world in which we are without committing itself in some organized fashion to assist refugees on a global basis

 KISSINGER It would be totally incompatible with our values and our image of who we are.

 JAMES BAKER  The principles and values are very important because that’s what made this country great.  We have always been open to refugees  we have always been open to immigrants 

 BAKER We  are after all a country of immigrants

 ALBRIGHT without an organization like the IRC, I think an awful lot of people would fall through the cracks and would get no care at all. 

 POWELL For all these years, it has reached out, touched people, from the most desperate places in the world, brought them to this country.  

 POWELL  And having brought them here …then making sure they have a place to go.  And they had the beginning of a new home, a new life. 

 GEORGE SHULTZ  And refugees are people, really, fleeing from something or involved in something tragic in their country.  And so if you want to have a decent world, you have to worry about them.  

 POWELL No organization that I have ever worked with has done as much dealing with this population as the IRC has.  

ALBRIGHT It was an organization that worked so hard to do exactly the kind of things I think the US Government needed partners for – a non-governmental organization that was there to do the kind of work that distinguished America in so many ways, 

 CONDOLEEZA RICE –to see the human toll, the human cost, of conflict mitigated

 RICE…to speak for and to be advocates for people who would otherwise be voiceless  sometimes even stateless, as sometimes even refugees are.

 ALBRIGHT What I think is so interesting about the IRC these days is that it’s not just a matter of placing people somewhere, but almost being what I would call a full-service organization.  In many ways it helps to educate people.  It provides health care so that disease doesn’t spread.  And it really looks at the whole person so the refugee is not just an object that is kind of moved around like some game piece; but a human being that needs total care.

 KISSINGER It’s the American tradition. So, I feel very strongly that the United States has a responsibility.  And I’m an enormous admirer of the IRC for its efforts in that field.

 Not addressed by the speakers is that there is no way to screen hundreds of thousands of refugees for a small handful of terrorists that will surely be placed amongst them by ISIS. These terrorists will conduct attacks like those in Paris and Brussels and turn the West against the Muslims and their religion. The vast majority of innocent refugees will be the targets of hate caused by the few bad apples amongst them.The terrorist attacks will be used as an excuse for the New World Order crew to turn countries into police states and change constitutions to take away our freedoms and right to privacy. Bilderberger Hollande, a strong proponent and importer of middle east refugees, is using the Paris terrorist attacks to call for a constitutional change.

The CIA’s crystal ball predicts:

“We foresee a more pervasive sense of insecurity—which may be as much based on psychological perceptions as physical threats—by 2020.  Even as most of the world gets richer, globalization will profoundly shake up the status quo—generating enormous economic, cultural, and consequently political convulsionsWith the gradual integration of China, India, and other emerging countries into the global economy, hundreds of millions of working-age adults will become available foremployment in what is evolving into a more integrated world labor market.

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Military and Masked Police on the Streets of Brussels after Terror Attack 3/22/16

 This enormous work force—a growing portion of which will be well educated—will be an attractive, competitive source of low-cost labor at the same time that technological innovation is expanding the range of globally mobile occupations.

 The transition will not be painless and will hit the middle classes of the developed world in particular, bringing more rapid job turnover and requiring professional retooling. Outsourcing on a large scale would strengthen the antiglobalization movement. Where these pressures lead will depend on how political leaders respond, how flexible labor markets become, and whether overall economic growth is sufficiently robust to absorb a growing number of displaced workers.”

The report foresees International Terrorism :

“The key factors that spawned international terrorism show no signs of abating over the next 15 yearsFacilitated by global communications, the revival of Muslim identity will create a framework for the spread of radical Islamic ideology inside and outside the Middle East, including Southeast Asia, Central Asia and Western Europe, where religious identity has traditionally not been as strong. This revival has been accompanied by a deepening solidarity among Muslims caught up in national or regional separatist struggles, such as Palestine, Chechnya, Iraq, Kashmir, Mindanao, and southern Thailand, and has emerged in response to government repression, corruption, and ineffectiveness. Informal networks of charitable foundations, madrassas, hawalas1, and other mechanisms will continue to proliferate and be exploited by radical elements; alienation among unemployed youths will swell the ranks of those vulnerable to terrorist recruitment.

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Staff walks away after Brussels Terror Attack 3/22/2016

 We expect that by 2020 al-Qa’ida will be superceded by similarly inspired Islamic extremist groups, and there is a substantial risk that broad Islamic movements akin to al-Qa’ida will merge with local separatist movements. Information technology, allowing for instant connectivity, communication, and learning, will enable the terrorist threat to become increasingly decentralized, evolving into an eclectic array of groups, cells, and individuals that do not need a stationary headquarters to plan and carry out operations. Training materials, targeting guidance, weapons know-how, and fund-raising will become virtual (i.e., online).”

 The report lays out four possible scenarios for the future :

“Davos World provides an illustration of how robust economic growth, led by China and India, over the next 15 years could reshape the globalization process—giving it a more non-Western face and transforming the political playing field as well.

 Pax Americana takes a look at how US predominance may survive the radical changes to the global political landscape and serve to fashion a new and inclusive global order.

 A New Caliphate provides an example of how a global movement fueled by radicalreligious identity politics could constitute a challenge to Western norms and values as the foundation of the global system.

Cycle of Fear provides an example of how concerns about proliferation might increase to the point that large-scale intrusive security measures are taken to prevent outbreaks of deadly attacks, possibly introducing an Orwellian world.”

On December 12, 2005 Elisabetth Bumiller published an Article in the NY Times titled 21st-Century Warnings of a Threat Rooted in the 7th. The article is about the word “Caliphate”. The article is a limited hangout mentioning six members of the Council on Foreign Relations but links only one of them to the CFR.  “Just as we had the opportunity to learn what the Nazis were going to do, from Hitler’s world in ‘Mein Kampf,’ ” [Council on Foreign Relations member ] General Abizaid said, “we need to learn what these people intend to do from their own words.” Two Council on Foreign Relations members, George Shuster and William Langer edited the English version of “Mein Kampf” in 1939. Instead of warning the American people The Council on Foreign Relations brought Hitler and the National Socialists to power to cause World War II. ( http://www.bilderberg.org/roundtable/emhitler.html ).

The Council on Foreign Relations is now bringing Islamic Radicals to power to escalate the War on Terror and bring about World War III. The unrest in the Middle East is part of the Council on Foreign Relations plan. Sceanario three, A New Caliphate, is unfolding. The  Tunisian and Egyption revolutions in the middle east are a giant step forward in the plan.

Meanwhile the Council on Foreign Relations War on Terror is advancing scenario four, the Cycle of Fear, as western nations like the USA and Britain infringe on the liberties of their citizens, strip away their privacy, dignity and freedom and turn them into police states.

The article follows modified to identify the Council on Foreign Relations members.

ELISABETH BUMILLER/White House Letter: 21st-Century Warnings of a Threat Rooted in the 7th New York Times; Dec 12, 2005;

Defense Secretary [Trilateral Commission memberDonald H. Rumsfeld said it in a speech last Monday in Washington and again on Thursday on PBS. Eric S. Edelman, the under secretary of defense for policy, said it the week before in a round table at the Council on Foreign Relations. Stephen J. Hadley, the national security adviser, said it in October in speeches in New York and Los Angeles. [Council on Foreign Relations member] Gen. John P. Abizaid, the top American commander in the Middle East, said it in September in hearings on Capitol Hill.

Vice President[Council on Foreign Relations member ] Dick Cheney was one of the first members of the Bush administration to say it, at a campaign stop in Lake Elmo, Minn., in September 2004.

The word getting the workout from the nation’s top guns these days is “caliphate” – the term for the seventh-century Islamic empire that spanned the Middle East, spread to Southwest Asia, North Africa and Spain, then ended with the Mongol sack of Baghdad in 1258. The term can also refer to other caliphates, including the one declared by the Ottoman Turks that ended in 1924.

Specialists on Islam say the word is a mysterious and ominous one for many Americans, and that the administration knows it. “They recognize that there’s a lot of resonance when they use the term ‘caliphate,’ ” said [Council on Foreign Relations member ] Kenneth M. Pollack, a former Central Intelligence Agency analyst and now a scholar at the Saban Center at the Brookings Institution. [Council on Foreign Relations member ] Zbigniew Brzezinski, [Council on Foreign Relations member ] President Jimmy Carter’s national security adviser, said that the word had an “almost instinctive fearful impact.”

So now, [Council on Foreign Relations member ] Mr. Cheney and others warn, Al Qaeda’s ultimate goal is the re-establishment of the caliphate, with calamitous consequences for the United States. As Mr. Cheney put it in Lake Elmo, referring to Osama bin Laden and his followers: “They talk about wanting to re-establish what you could refer to as the seventh-century caliphate” to be “governed by Sharia law, the most rigid interpretation of the Koran.” Or as Mr. Rumsfeld put it on Monday: “Iraq would serve as the base of a new Islamic caliphate to extend throughout the Middle East, and which would threaten legitimate governments in Europe, Africa and Asia.”

 

Osama Bin Landen's lawyers

Lawyers CFR member’s Johnson and Preston Pave The Way to Kill Bin Laden

 [Council on Foreign Relations member ] General Abizaid was dire, too. “They will try to re-establish a caliphate throughout the entire Muslim world,” he told the House Armed Services Committee in September, adding that the caliphate’s goals would include the destruction of Israel. “Just as we had the opportunity to learn what the Nazis were going to do, from Hitler’s world in ‘Mein Kampf,’ ” [Council on Foreign Relations member ] General Abizaid said, “we need to learn what these people intend to do from their own words.”

A number of scholars and former government officials take strong issue with the administration’s warning about a new caliphate, and compare it to the fear of communism spread during the Cold War. They say that although Al Qaeda’s statements do indeed describe a caliphate as a goal, the administration is exaggerating the magnitude of the threat as it seeks to gain support for its policies in Iraq.

In the view of John L. Esposito, an Islamic studies professor at Georgetown University, there is a difference between the ability of small bands of terrorists to commit attacks across the world and achieving global conquest. “It is certainly correct to say that these people have a global design, but the administration ought to frame it realistically,” said Mr. Esposito, the founding director of the Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding at Georgetown. “Otherwise they can actually be playing into the hands of the Osama bin Ladens of the world because they raise this to a threat that is exponentially beyond anything that Osama bin Laden can deliver.”

CFR Ginsberg DeGioia Georgetown

Georgetown University a CFR’s Rat’s Nest

 [Council on Foreign Relations member ] Shibley Telhami, the Anwar Sadat professor for peace and development at the University of Maryland, said Al Qaeda was not leading a movement that threatened to mobilize the vast majority of Muslims. A recent poll Mr.Telhami conducted with Zogby International of 3,900 people in six countries – Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Jordan, the United Arab Emirates and Lebanon – found that only 6 percent sympathized with Al Qaeda’s goal of seeking an Islamic state.

The notion that Al Qaeda could create a new caliphate, he said, is simply wrong. “There’s no chance in the world that they’ll succeed,” he said. “It’s a silly threat.” (On the other hand, more than 30 percent in [Council on Foreign Relations member ] Mr. Telhami’s poll said they sympathized with Al Qaeda, because the group stood up to America.)

The term “caliphate” has been used internally by policy hawks in the Pentagon since the planning stages for the war in Iraq, but the administration’s public use of the word has increased this summer and fall, around the time that American forces obtained a letter from Ayman al-Zawahiri, the No. 2 leader in Al Qaeda, to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the leader of Al Qaeda in Mesopotamia. The 6,000-word letter, dated early in July, called for the establishment of a militant Islamic caliphate across Iraq before Al Qaeda’s moving on to Syria, Lebanon and Egypt and then a battle against Israel.

In recent weeks, the administration’s use of “caliphate” has only intensified, as Mr. Bush has begun a campaign of speeches to try to regain support for the war. He himself has never publicly used the term, although he has repeatedly described the caliphate, as he did in a speech last week when he said that the terrorists want to try to establish “a totalitarian Islamic empire that reaches from Indonesia to Spain.”

Six days earlier, Mr. Edelman, the under secretary of defense, made it clear. “Iraq’s future will either embolden terrorists and expand their reach and ability to re-establish a caliphate, or it will deal them a crippling blow,” he said. “For us, failure in Iraq is just not an option.”

The events of the last few weeks in Tunisia and Egypt  have emboldened the terrorists and expanded their reach and ability to re-establish a caliphate. Was this what the CFR had in store for the World when they backed Bin Laden during the Soviet/Afghan War ?

media terror

CFR run Main Stream Media is a Public Opinion Propaganda Machine

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Hillary Clinton’s CFR Neocon Allies and Probable Unelected Administrative Choices

In the NYT columnist Jacob Heilbrunn’s The Next Act of the Neocons Are Neocons Getting Ready to Ally With Hillary Clinton? We are warned,the neocon odyssey is about to continue. In 1972, [CFR member] Robert L. Bartley, the editorial page editor of The Wall Street Journal and a man who championed the early neocon stalwarts, shrewdly diagnosed the movement as representing “something of a swing group between the two major parties.” Despite the partisan battles of the early 2000s, it is remarkable how very little has changed.” Heilbrunn connects Hillary Clinton to many powerful neocons. What Heilbrunn leaves out is that almost all that are mentioned are members of the Council on Foreign Relations as is Hillary’s spouse Bill Clinton.

The article follows with the Council on Foreign Relations members identified using the Council on Foreign Relations membership list. Hyperlinks have been added to provide the reader with more in depth information about the characters involved. The reader is encouraged to bookmark the list and use it when they read main stream media articles or watch the the news. The Council on Foreign relations has run Main Stream Media and our Government for 100 years. They have surrounded every President from
Wilson on with unelected Council of Foreign Relations members in powerful administrative positions. These CFR members shape the President’s thinking and actions to further Council on Foreign Relations’ goals of perpetual war and perpetual war bucks making them rich and powerful. It is likely that quite a few CFR members mentioned in this article will be tapped to be part of Hillary Clinton’s administration if she is elected president in 2016. It is time for all Americans to know what is going on and take their country back.

Are Neocons Getting Ready to Ally With Hillary Clinton?

By JACOB HEILBRUNN JULY 5, 2014

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Devils in the details of forever war Council on Foreign Relations spouse Hillary Clinton, Council on Foreign Relations spouse Robert Kagan, Council on Foreign Relations member Kagan’s spouse Victoria Neuland

WASHINGTON — AFTER nearly a decade in the political wilderness, the neoconservative movement is back, using the turmoil in Iraq and Ukraine to claim that it is President Obama, not the movement’s interventionist foreign policy that dominated early George W. Bush [son of CFR member George H.W. Bush]-era Washington, that bears responsibility for the current round of global crises.

Even as they castigate Mr. Obama, the neocons may be preparing a more brazen feat: aligning themselves with Hillary Rodham Clinton [spouse of CFR member Bill Clinton] and her nascent presidential campaign, in a bid to return to the driver’s seat of American foreign policy.

To be sure, the careers and reputations of the older generation of neocons — [CFR member] Paul D. Wolfowitz, [CFR member] L. Paul Bremer III, [CFR member] Douglas J. Feith, Richard N. Perle — are permanently buried in the sands of Iraq. And not all of them are eager to switch parties: In April, William Kristol, [son of neocon CFR member Irving Kristol] the editor of The Weekly Standard, said that as president [CFR spouse] Mrs. Clinton would “be a dutiful chaperone of further American decline.”

But others appear to envisage a different direction — one that might allow them to restore the neocon brand, at a time when their erstwhile home in the Republican Party is turning away from its traditional interventionist foreign policy.

It’s not as outlandish as it may sound. Consider the historian [CFR member] Robert Kagan, the author of a recent, roundly praised article in The New Republic that amounted to a neo-neocon manifesto. He has not only avoided the vitriolic tone that has afflicted some of his intellectual brethren but also co-founded an influential bipartisan advisory group during Mrs. Clinton’s time at the [CFR run] State Department.

[CFR member] Mr. Kagan has also been careful to avoid landing at standard-issue neocon think tanks like the American Enterprise Institute [AEI is part of the CFR policy planning network],; instead, he’s a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution [Brookings is part of the CFR policy planning network], that citadel of liberalism headed by [CFR member] Strobe Talbott, who was deputy secretary of state under [CFR member] President Bill Clinton and is considered a strong candidate to become secretary of state in a new Democratic administration. ([CFR member] Mr. Talbott called the [CFR member] Kagan article “magisterial,” in what amounts to a public baptism into the liberal establishment [establishment is a CFR run Main Stream Media euphemism for the Council on Foreign Relations].)

CFR Policy Planning Network Institutes 2

Perhaps most significantly, [CFR member] Mr. Kagan and others have insisted on maintaining the link between modern neoconservatism and its roots in muscular Cold War liberalism. Among other things, he has frequently praised Harry S. Truman’s secretary of state, [CFR member] Dean Acheson, drawing a line from him straight to the neocons’ favorite president: “It was not [CFR member] Eisenhower or Kennedy or [CFR member] Nixon but Reagan whose policies most resembled those of [CFR member] Acheson and Truman.”

Other neocons have followed [CFR member] Mr. Kagan’s careful centrism and respect for [CFR spouse] Mrs. Clinton. Max Boot, a senior fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations, noted in The New Republic this year that “it is clear that in administration councils she was a principled voice for a strong stand on controversial issues, whether supporting the Afghan surge or the intervention in Libya.”

And the thing is, these neocons have a point. [CFR spouse] Mrs. Clinton voted for the Iraq war; supported sending arms to Syrian rebels; likened Russia’s president, Vladimir V. Putin, to Adolf Hitler; wholeheartedly backs Israel; and stresses the importance of promoting democracy.

It’s easy to imagine Mrs. Clinton’s making room for the neocons in her administration. No one could charge her with being weak on national security with the likes of [CFR member] Robert Kagan on board.

Of course, the neocons’ latest change in tack is not just about intellectual affinity. Their longtime home, the Republican Party, where presidents and candidates from Reagan to [CFR member] Senator John McCain of Arizona supported large militaries and aggressive foreign policies, may well nominate for president Senator Rand Paul of Kentucky, who has been beating an ever louder drum against American involvement abroad.

In response, Mark Salter, a former chief of staff to [CFR member] Senator McCain and a neocon fellow traveler, said that in the event of a Paul nomination, “Republican voters seriously concerned with national security would have no responsible recourse” but to support [CFR member] Mrs. Clinton for the presidency.

Still, Democratic liberal hawks, let alone the left, would have to swallow hard to accept any neocon conversion. [CFR spouse] Mrs. Clinton herself is already under fire for her foreign-policy views — the journalist Glenn Greenwald, among others, has condemned her as “like a neocon, practically.” And humanitarian interventionists like Samantha Power, the ambassador to the [CFR created] United Nations, who opposed the second Iraq war, recoil at the militaristic unilateralism of the neocons and their inveterate hostility to international institutions like the World Court.

But others in Mrs. Clinton’s orbit, like [CFR member] Michael A. McFaul, the former ambassador to Russia and now a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution, a neocon haven at Stanford, are much more in line with thinkers like [CFR member] Mr. Kagan and [CFR member] Mr. Boot, especially when it comes to issues like promoting democracy and opposing Iran.

Far from ending, then, the neocon odyssey is about to continue. In 1972, [CFR member] Robert L. Bartley, the editorial page editor of The Wall Street Journal and a man who championed the early neocon stalwarts, shrewdly diagnosed the movement as representing “something of a swing group between the two major parties.” Despite the partisan battles of the early 2000s, it is remarkable how very little has changed.

 

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A CFR Production – The Conflict in Syria

SYRIA-CRISIS/

Men walk on a road amid wreckage, after three blasts ripped through Aleppo’s main Saadallah al-Jabari Square…Men walk on a road amid wreckage, after three blasts ripped through Aleppo’s main Saadallah al-Jabari Square, and a fourth was reported a few hundred metres away near Bab al-Jinein, on the fringes of the Old City, where rebels and forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad have been fighting, October 3, 2012, in this handout photograph released by Syria’s national news agency SANA. Explosions in government-controlled districts of the northern Syrian city of Aleppo killed at least 27 people and wounded more than 70 on Wednesday, Lebanon’s Hezbollah-run al-Manar TV reported, quoting a Syrian official source. The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said at least 40 people were killed and 90 wounded, citing medical sources. REUTERS/SANA (SYRIA – Tags: CONFLICT CIVIL UNREST) FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. THIS IMAGE HAS BEEN SUPPLIED BY A THIRD PARTY. IT IS DISTRIBUTED, EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS

In 2011 during Arab Spring nationwide protests against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad’s government began. Assad’s government forces responded with a violent crackdown and a civil war broke out. In the United States seven think tanks and twenty-one media commentators participated in the media debate surrounding Syria. Seventeen of the twenty-one commentators were CFR members or CFR term members.

CFR Industry ties of commentators profiled
Commentator Identified as Industry ties
Stephen Hadley

CFR member

former National Security Advisor Raytheon, RiceHadleyGates, APCO Worldwide
James Cartwright

CFR member

former Vice Chair of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Raytheon, TASC, Accenture, Enlightenment Capital
Frances Townsend

CFR member

CNN national security analyst and member of CIA and DHS advisory committees MacAndrews & Forbes, Monument Capital Group, Decision Sciences
Anthony Zinni

CFR member

former Commander in Chief of US Central Command BAE Systems, DC Capital Partners
Jeremy Bash

CFR member 2001

former Chief of Staff to DoD and CIA Beacon Global Strategies
Nicholas Burns

CFR member 2001

former Under Secretary of State Cohen Group, Entegris
William S. Cohen

CFR member

former Secretary of Defense Cohen Group
Wesley Clark

CFR member

former Supreme Allied Commander of NATO Wesley K. Clark & Associates, MFG.com
Roger Cressey

CFR member 2001

former National Security Council staff Booz Allen Hamilton
Charles Duelfer

CFR member

former chief US weapons inspector Omnis
Adam Ereli former State Department deputy spokesperson and ambassador to Bahrain Mercury LLC
Michele Flournoy

CFR member

former Under Secretary of Defense Boston Consulting Group
Michael Hayden

CFR member

former CIA Director Chertoff Group, Alion Science and Technology, Next Century Corporation
Colin Kahl

CFR member

former deputy assistant Secretary of Defense for the Middle East consultant to the Defense Department with TS-SCI clearance
Brian Katulis

CFR member 2001

Senior Fellow at Center for American Progress Albright Stonebridge Group
Jack Keane

CFR member

former Vice Chief of Staff of the US Army General Dynamics, SCP Partners
Patrick Murphy Iraq veteran and former US Representative from Pennsylvania Fox Rothschild LLP
Madeline Albright

CFR member

former Secretary of State Albright Stonebridge Group
James “Spider” Mark

CFR members

former Commander of the US Army Intelligence Center Stony Lonesome Group, Willowdale Services http://www.invism.com/about-us/team.htm
Chuck Nash Fox News military analyst and retired US Navy Captain Applied Visual Sciences, Emerging Technologies International Inc.
John Negroponte

CFR member

former Director of National Intelligence McLarty Associates, Aamina, Oxford Analytica, Intelligence and National Security Alliance
Robert Scales Fox News military analyst and former Commandant of the US Army War College Colgen (see correction)

 

Authors Gin Armstrong, Whitney Yax, Kevin Connor wrote a report titled, Conflicts of interest in the Syria debate. The report,

“documents the industry ties of [Council on Foreign Relations member] Hadley, 21 other media commentators, and seven think tanks that participated in the media debate around Syria. Like Hadley, these individuals and organizations have strong ties to defense contractors and other defense- and foreign policy-focused firms with a vested interest in the Syria debate, but they were presented to their audiences with a veneer of expertise and independence, as former military officials, retired diplomats, and independent think tanks.

The report offers a new look at an issue raised by David Barstow’s 2008 Pulitzer Prize-winning New York Times series on the role military analysts played in promoting the Bush Administration’s narrative on Iraq. In addition to exposing coordination with the Pentagon, Barstow found that many cable news analysts had industry ties that were not disclosed on air.”

The table of commentators above is from the Amrstrong, Yax and Connor report. It has been updated to identify the CFR members.

The think-tanks in the article include Brookings Institution, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Council on Foreign Relations, American Enterprise Institute, Atlantic Council, Center for American Progress and the Institute for the Study of War. In their paper, America’s Post-Cold War Grand Strategy-Makers and the Policy Planning Network,  Naná de Graaff and Bastiaan van Apeldoorn explain how the main think tank is the Council on Foreign Relations and the other think tanks are part of the Council’s Policy Planning Networks in the Clinton-Bush-Obama administrations.

CFR Policy Planning Network

 

Hardly one person in 1000 ever heard of the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR).

The Council on Foreign Relations was formally established in Paris in 1919 along with its British Counterpart the Royal Institute of International Affairs. The Council on Foreign Relations and Royal Institute of International Affairs can trace their roots back to a secret organization founded and funded by Cecil Rhodes, who became fabulously wealthy by exploiting the people of South Africa. Rhodes is the father of Apartheid.

The Council on Foreign Relations was founded by a group of American and British imperialists and racists intent on ruling the world. Many of the American members were American intelligence officers that belonged to the first American Intelligence Agency — THE INQUIRY. Many of the British members were British Intelligence Agents. THE INQUIRY and its members, who included such notable Americans as Col. Edward Mandel House, Walter Lippmann, Isaiah Bowman, and James Shotwell, wrote most of Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points.

The CFR/RIIA method of operation is simple — they control public opinion. They keep the identity of their group secret. They learn the likes and dislikes of influential people. They surround and manipulate them into acting in the best interest of the CFR/RIIA.

The Council on Foreign Relations, and the Royal Institute of International Affairs are adept at using the media to create massive psycho-political operations used to manipulate public opinion. The psycho-political operations are often designed to create tensions between different groups of people. The object is to keep the world in a state of perpetual tension and warfare to maximize profits from CFR/RIIA munition, medicine, media, energy, and food businesses.

The CFR has only 4000 members yet they control over three-quarters of the nations wealth. The CFR runs the State Department and the CIA. The CFR has placed 100 CFR members in every Presidential Administration since Woodrow Wilson. They work together to misinform and disinform the President to act in the best interest of the CFR not the best interest of the American People. At least five Presidents (Eisenhower, Ford, Carter, Bush, and Clinton) have been members of the CFR. The CFR has packed every Supreme court with CFR insiders. Three CFR members (Stephen Breyer, Ruth Bader Ginsberg, and Sandra Day O’Connor) sit on the supreme court. The CFR’s British Counterpart is the Royal Institute of International Affairs. The members of these groups profit by creating tension and hate. Their targets include British and American citizens.

The 100 CFR members that surround the president are “the Secret Team.” The “Secret Team” help carry out psycho-political operations scripted by CFR members in the state department and the Intelligence Organizations. The psycho-political operations are coordinated by a group of Council on Foreign Relations members called the Special Group. The Special Group evolved from the Psychological Strategy Board.

President Truman issued an executive order establishing the Psychological Strategy Board. The Board was run by CFR members Gordon Gray and Henry Kissinger. The PSB has close ties to the State Department and Intelligence Organizations. The purpose of the PSB was to co-ordinate psycho-political operations. Many of those operations were focused at Americans. The people became wary of the Psychological Strategy Board. Eisenhower issued an executive order changing its name to the Operations Coordination Board. The OCB was a bigger more powerful PSB. Gray and Kissinger ran the OCB too. President Kennedy abolished the OCB. It became an ad hoc committee called the “Special Group,” which exists today. The PSB/OCB/Special Group always has CFR members running and sitting on it. Since the Special Group was not formed by Executive Order it cannot be abolished.

On September 12, 1939, the Council on Foreign Relations began to take control of the Department of State. On that day Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Editor of Foreign Affairs, and Walter H. Mallory, Executive Director of the Council on Foreign Relations, paid a visit to the State Department. The Council proposed forming groups of experts to proceed with research in the general areas of Security, Armament, Economic, Political, and Territorial problems. The State Department accepted the proposal. The project (1939-1945) was called Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies. Hamilton Fish Armstrong was Executive director.

In February 1941 the CFR officially became part of the State Department. The Department of State established the Division of Special Research. It was organized just like the Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies project. It was divided into Economic, Political, Territorial, and Security Sections. The Research Secretaries serving with the Council groups were hired by the State Department to work in the new division. These men also were permitted to continue serving as Research Secretaries to their respective Council groups. Leo Pasvolsky was appointed Director of Research.

In 1942 the relationship between the Department of State and the Council on Foreign Relations strengthened again. The Department organized an Advisory Committee on Postwar Foreign Policies. The Chairman was Secretary Cordell Hull, the vice chairman, Under Secretary Sumner Wells, Dr. Leo Pasvolsky ( director of the Division of Special Research) was appointed Executive Officer. Several experts were brought in from outside the Department. The outside experts were Council on Foreign Relations War and Peace Studies members; Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Isaiah Bowman, Benjamin V. Cohen, Norman H. Davis, and James T. Shotwell.

In total there were 362 meetings of the War and Peace Studies groups. The meetings were held at Council on Foreign Relations headquarters — the Harold Pratt house, Fifty-Eight East Sixty-Eighth Street, New York City. The Council’s wartime work was confidential.17

In 1944 members of the Council on Foreign Relations The War and Peace Studies Political Group were invited to be active members at the Dumbarton Oaks conference on world economic arrangements. In 1945 these men and members of Britain’s Royal Institute of International Affairs were active at the San Francisco conference which ensured the establishment of the United Nations.

In 1947 Council on Foreign Relations members George Kennan, Walter Lippmann, Paul Nitze, Dean Achenson, and Walter Krock took part in a psycho-political operation forcing the Marshall Plan on the American public. The PSYOP included a “anonymous” letter credited to a Mr. X, which appeared in the Council on Foreign Relations magazine FOREIGN AFFAIRS. The letter opened the door for the CFR controlled Truman administration to take a hard line against the threat of Soviet expansion. George Kennan was the author of the letter. The Marshall Plan should have been called the Council on Foreign Relations Plan. The so-called Marshall Plan and the ensuing North Atlantic Treaty Organization defined the role of the United States in world politics for the rest of the century.

In 1950 another PSYOP resulted in NSC-68, a key cold war document. The NSC (National Security Council) didn’t write it — the Department of State Policy Planning Staff did. The cast of characters included CFR members George Kennan, Paul Nitze, and Dean Achenson. NSC-68 was given to Truman on April 7, 1950. NSC-68 was a practical extension of the Truman doctrine. It had the US assume the role of world policeman and use 20 per cent of its gross national product ($50 billion in 1953) for arms. NSC-68 provided the justification — the WORLD WIDE COMMUNIST THREAT!

NSC-68 realized a major Council on Foreign Relations aim — building the largest military establishment in Peace Time History. Within a year of drafting NSC-68, the security-related budget leaped to $22 billion, armed forces manpower was up to a million — CFR medicine, munition, food, and media businesses were humming again. The following year the NSC-68 budget rose to $44 billion. In fiscal 1953 it jumped to $50 billion. Today (1997) we are still running $300 billion dollar defense budgets despite Russia giving up because it went bankrupt.

America would never turn back from the road of huge military spending. Spending that included the purchase of radioactive fallout on American citizens in the 50’s, and buying thermonuclear waste from the Russians as we approach the year 2000. Spending resulting in a national debt of $16.3 Trillion Dollars that continues to grow, and interest payments of over $270 billion a year. Is the Council on Foreign Relations trying to make the United States economically vulnerable to influence from outside sources? Isn’t that treason?

THE INQUIRY, the PSB/OCB/Special group, the War and Peace Studies, the “X” Affair, and NSC-68 have had tremendous historical impact. Yet these events and the role played by the Council on Foreign Relations in sponsoring and carrying out the events are missing from our History books. You represent the people. Can you explain to me why the Council on Foreign Relations role in History has been left out of the History books? Why don’t we learn about them in High School History courses? Why don’t History majors in college learn about the Council on Foreign Relations?

Read America’s Post-Cold War Grand Strategy-Makers and the Policy Planning Network and  Conflicts of Interest in the Syrian Debate. Have you connected the dots yet? The Council on Foreign Relations has kept the world in a state of perpetual war for 100 years. When the cold war ended they produce the war on terror. Millions of people have died and millions families destroyed so that a small group of several thousand could become rich and powerful. Martin Luther King Jr said “There comes a time when silence is betrayal.” That time is now, it is time for everyone who knows what is going on to speak out about it and put a stop to the Council on Foreign Relations blood bath.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Hillary’s e-mails reveal Victoria Neuland, Wife of CFR member Robert Kagan Part of Benghazi Coverup

 

benghazi whale

The Conservative Tribune Website published an article titled, Leaked Benghazi Docs Directly Implicate Barack H. Obama… Spread This Everywhere. It involves Hillary Clinton e-mails with Council on Foreign Relations members who played a direct role in the “blame the video” cover operation following the 2012 Benghazi terrorist attack. Missing from the article are the CFR connections. I fixed that. I have modified the article so that the reader can identify the Council on Foreign Relations connections.

The article implicates Victoria Neuland in the cover-up. V ictoria Nuland’s husband is Council on Foreign Relations member Robert Kagan, a Neocon, historian and foreign-policy commentator at the Brookings Institution. The Brookings Institute is part of the Council on Foreign Relations Policy Planning Network.

During Council on Foreign Relations member Bill Clinton’s administration, Nuland was chief of staff to Deputy Secretary of State Council on Foreign Relations member Strobe Talbott before moving on to serve as deputy director for former Soviet Union affairs. Talbot is president of The Brookings Institute.

220px-Victoria_Nuland_State_DepartmentRobert Kagan

Victoria Neuland and CFR husband Robert Kagin

Nuland served as the principal deputy foreign policy adviser to Vice President Council on foreign Relations member  Dick Cheney and then as U.S. ambassador to Council on Foreign Relations run NATO. CFR Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (NATO), SHAPE and Commander of U.S. European Command include:

  1. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Army (1951-1952)
  2. Matthew Ridgway, Army (1952-1953)
  3. Alfred Gruenther, Army (1953-1956)
  4. Lauris Norstad, Air Force (1956-1963)
  5. Lyman L. Lemnitzer, Army (1963-1969)
  6. Andrew J. Goodpaster, Army (1969-1974)
  7. Alexander M. Haig Jr., Army (1974-1979)
  8. Bernard W. Rogers, Army (1979-1987)
  9. John R. Galvin, Army (1987-1992)
  10. John M. Shalikashvili, Army (1992-1993)
  11. George A. Joulwan, Army (1993-1997)
  12. Wesley K. Clark, Army (1997-2000)
  13. Joseph W. Ralston, Air Force (2000-2003)
  14. James L. Jones Jr., Marines (2003-2007)
  15. Bantz J. Craddock, Army (2007-2009)
  16. James G. Stavridis, Navy (2009-2013)

 

It also implicates Ben Rhodes. Rhodes is not a CFR member.  Rhodes is a CFR propaganda expert and possibly a covert intelligence operative. He is closely connected with the CFR and used to help them with intelligence cover-ups and limited hangouts that hide the CFR role in a story. Rhodes worked for five years as Special Assistant to CFR member Lee Hamilton. At the time former Indiana congressman was Director of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D.C. In 2004 Rhodes help draft recommendations of the 9/11 Commission. CFR member Hamilton was Vice Chairman of the Commission. In 2006 Rhodes drafted the report of the Iraq Study Group. Seven of the ten Iraq Study Group members belonged to the Council on Foreign Relations. The Iraq Study group members were :

Council on Foreign Relations member James A. Baker, III — Co-Chair

Council on Foreign Relations member Lee H. Hamilton — Co-Chair

Council on Foreign Relations member Lawrence S. Eagleburger — Member

Council on Foreign Relations member Vernon E. Jordan, Jr. — Member

Edwin Meese III — Member

Council on Foreign Relations member Sandra Day O’Connor — Member

Leon E. Panetta — Member

Council on Foreign Relations member William J. Perry — Member

Council on Foreign Relations member Charles S. Robb — Member

Alan K. Simpson — Member

BenRhodes

Ben Rhodes and Council on Foreign Relations Member John Kerry

 

hillary p-2

 

 

Leaked Benghazi Docs Directly Implicate Barack H. Obama… Spread This Everywhere

The week that will supposedly define President Obama’s legacy just got a splash of cold water thrown on it. New documents have surfaced showing that President Obama and his officials were directly involved in the “blame the video” narrative following the terrorist attack in Benghazi in 2012

The documents, released by a Freedom of Information Act Request, show that top Obama officials were directly involved in determining how to mislead the American people about the reason behind the terrorist attack that took the lives of 4 Americans.

As we all know, not much happens involving the White House that doesn’t have the approval of the president. At some level, President Obama was involved in the construction of this narrative, even if his name isn’t on ‘from’ line of an email, and now we have the documents that show that.

Judicial Watch’s coverage of the cover up reveals some fascinating information:

“A September 11, 2012, email sent at 6:21 p.m. by State Department spokesperson Victoria Nuland [wife of Council on Foreign Relations Member Robert Kegan] to Meehan [Bernadette Meehan, a spokesperson for the [Council on Foreign Relations run] National Security Council], Under Secretary for Management Patrick F. Kennedy, and Clinton’s personal aide Jacob Sullivan shows that the State Department deferred to the White House on the official response to the Benghazi attack.  Referencing pending press statements by Barack Obama and Clinton, Nuland wrote: ‘We are holding for Rhodes [then-White House deputy strategic communications adviser] clearance. BMM [Meehan], pls advise asap.’

“Meehan responded three minutes later, at 6:24 p.m.: ‘Ben is good with these and is on with Jake now too.’”

Sponsored by Revcontent

This clearly indicates that the White House was calling all of the shots on what information went to the public, including the false narrative about Muslim unrest over a Youtube video.

Additionally, an email sent by Rashad Hussain, the Obama administration’s special envoy to the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), on September 12th stresses the need to blame the attack on a film.

It states, “I am sure you are considering putting a statement on the film and the related violence.  In addition to the condemnation of the disgusting depictions, it will be important to emphasize the need to respond in a way that is consistent with Islamic principles, i.e. not engaging in violence and taking innocent life …”

Yes, by all means, let’s make sure to not offend the people who just butchered American citizens.

Another email, sent on September 14th by Ben Rhodes [Rhodes worked for Council on Foreign Relations member Lee Hamilton and in 2006 drafted the Iran Study Group Report. Seven of the 10 study group members were Council on foreign Relations members]  to prep former Ambassador [Council on Foreign Relations member] Susan Rice stated, ” ‘Goal’: To underscore that these protests are rooted in an Internet video, and not a broader failure or policy.” (H/TJudicial Watch)

hillary rice p-3

That doesn’t sound fishy at all…

This of course falls on top of the mountain of evidence that President Obama and his administration knew right away that this wasn’t a protest gone wrong, this was a terrorist attack.

This is absolutely disgusting. It’s time for Republican leadership in Congress to take measures to impeach Obama, or hold him accountable in some way.

Share this everywhere. Everyone needs to see this.

 

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PUlitzer Journalist Carl Bernstein’s CIA-PRESS Phony Cover Story

After leaving The Washington Post in 1977, Carl Bernstein spent six months looking at the relationship of the CIA and the press during the Cold War years. What Carl’s six month research missed was the relationship between the Council on Foreign Relations, the CIA, the press, and the senators who served on the Church committee. Was this simply oversight on PUlitzer prize winning journalist Bernstein’s part? Or is Bernstein’s omission part of a phony cover story to misinform the public, volunteering some of the truth while  withholding key and damaging facts in the case?

Bernstein’s 25,000-word cover story, published in Rolling Stone on October 20, 1977, is reprinted below. It has been modified to include the missing CFR connections.

Isn’t it time to convene a grand jury to investigate the wrong doing of CFR members in public and private positions of power that have taken over the Government of the U.S.A.?

carl PU-litzer bernsteinTHE CIA AND THE MEDIA [AND THE CFR]

How Americas Most Powerful [CFR run] News Media Worked Hand in Glove with the[CFR run] Central Intelligence Agency and Why the [CFR run] Church Committee Covered It Up

BY CARL BERNSTEIN

In 1953, Joseph Alsop, then one of America’s leading syndicated columnists, went to the Philippines to cover an election. He did not go because he was asked to do so by his syndicate. He did not go because he was asked to do so by the newspapers that printed his column. He went at the request of the CIA.

Alsop is one of more than 400 American journalists who in the past twenty‑five years have secretly carried out assignments for the Central Intelligence Agency, according to documents on file at CIA headquarters. Some of these journalists’ relationships with the Agency were tacit; some were explicit. There was cooperation, accommodation and overlap. Journalists provided a full range of clandestine services—from simple intelligence gathering to serving as go‑betweens with spies in Communist countries. Reporters shared their notebooks with the CIA. Editors shared their staffs. Some of the journalists were Pulitzer Prize winners, distinguished reporters who considered themselves ambassadors without‑portfolio for their country. Most were less exalted: foreign correspondents who found that their association with the Agency helped their work; stringers and freelancers who were as interested in the derring‑do of the spy business as in filing articles; and, the smallest category, full‑time CIA employees masquerading as journalists abroad. In many instances, CIA documents show, journalists were engaged to perform tasks for the CIA with the consent of the managements of America’s leading news organizations.

WORKING PRESS — CIA STYLE

To understand the role of most journalist‑operatives, it is necessary to dismiss some myths about undercover work for American intelligence services. Few American agents are “spies” in the popularly accepted sense of the term. “Spying” — the acquisition of secrets from a foreign government—is almost always done by foreign nationals who have been recruited by the CIA and are under CIA control in their own countries. Thus the primary role of an American working undercover abroad is often to aid in the recruitment and “handling” of foreign nationals who are channels of secret information reaching American intelligence.

Many journalists were used by the CIA to assist in this process and they had the reputation of being among the best in the business. The peculiar nature of the job of the foreign correspondent is ideal for such work: he is accorded unusual access by his host country, permitted to travel in areas often off‑limits to other Americans, spends much of his time cultivating sources in governments, academic institutions, the military establishment and the scientific communities. He has the opportunity to form long‑term personal relationships with sources and—perhaps more than any other category of American operative—is in a position to make correct judgments about the susceptibility and availability of foreign nationals for recruitment as spies.

“After a foreigner is recruited, a case officer often has to stay in the background,” explained a CIA official. “So you use a journalist to carry messages to and from both parties”

Journalists in the field generally took their assignments in the same manner as any other undercover operative. If, for instance, a journalist was based in Austria, he ordinarily would be under the general direction of the Vienna station chief and report to a case officer. Some, particularly roving correspondents or U.S.‑based reporters who made frequent trips abroad, reported directly to CIA officials in Langley, Virginia.

The tasks they performed sometimes consisted of little more than serving as “eyes and ears” for the CIA; reporting on what they had seen or overheard in an Eastern European factory, at a diplomatic reception in Bonn, on the perimeter of a military base in Portugal. On other occasions, their assignments were more complex: planting subtly concocted pieces of misinformation; hosting parties or receptions designed to bring together American agents and foreign spies; serving up “black” propaganda to leading foreign journalists at lunch or dinner; providing their hotel rooms or bureau offices as “drops” for highly sensitive information moving to and from foreign agents; conveying instructions and dollars to CIA controlled members of foreign governments.

Often the CIA’s relationship with a journalist might begin informally with a lunch, a drink, a casual exchange of information. An Agency official might then offer a favor—for example, a trip to a country difficult to reach; in return, he would seek nothing more than the opportunity to debrief the reporter afterward. A few more lunches, a few more favors, and only then might there be a mention of a formal arrangement — “That came later,” said a CIA official, “after you had the journalist on a string.”

Another official described a typical example of the way accredited journalists (either paid or unpaid by the CIA) might be used by the Agency: “In return for our giving them information, we’d ask them to do things that fit their roles as journalists but that they wouldn’t have thought of unless we put it in their minds. For instance, a reporter in Vienna would say to our man, ‘I met an interesting second secretary at the Czech Embassy.’ We’d say, ‘Can you get to know him? And after you get to know him, can you assess him? And then, can you put him in touch with us—would you mind us using your apartment?”‘

Formal recruitment of reporters was generally handled at high levels—after the journalist had undergone a thorough background check. The actual approach might even be made by a deputy director or division chief. On some occasions, no discussion would he entered into until the journalist had signed a pledge of secrecy.

“The secrecy agreement was the sort of ritual that got you into the tabernacle,” said a former assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence. “After that you had to play by the rules.” David Attlee Phillips, former Western Hemisphere chief of clandestine services and a former journalist himself, estimated in an interview that at least 200 journalists signed secrecy agreements or employment contracts with the Agency in the past twenty‑five years. Phillips, who owned a small English‑language newspaper in Santiago, Chile, when he was recruited by the CIA in 1950, described the approach: “Somebody from the Agency says, ‘I want you to help me. 1 know you are a true‑blue American, but I want you to sign a piece of paper before I tell you what it’s about.’ I didn’t hesitate to sign, and a lot of newsmen didn’t hesitate over the next twenty years.”

“One of the things we always had going for us in terms of enticing reporters,” observed a CIA official who coordinated some of the arrangements with journalists, “was that we could make them look better with their home offices. A foreign correspondent with ties to the Company [the CIA] stood a much better chance than his competitors of getting the good stories.”

Within the CIA, journalist‑operatives were accorded elite status, a consequence of the common experience journalists shared with high‑level CIA officials. Many had gone to the same schools as their CIA handlers, moved in the same circles, shared fashionably liberal, anti‑Communist political values, and were part of the same “old boy” network that constituted something of an establishment elite in the media, politics and academia of postwar America. The most valued of these lent themselves for reasons of national service, not money.

The Agency’s use of journalists in undercover operations has been most extensive in Western Europe (“That was the big focus, where the threat was,” said one CIA official), Latin America and the Far East. In the 1950s and 1960s journalists were used as intermediaries—spotting, paying, passing instructions—to members of the Christian Democratic party in Italy and the Social Democrats in Germany, both of which covertly received millions of dollars from the CIA. During those years “we had journalists all over Berlin and Vienna just to keep track of who the hell was coming in from the East and what they were up to,” explained a CIA official.

In the Sixties, reporters were used extensively in the CIA offensive against Salvador Allende in Chile; they provided funds to Allende’s opponents and wrote anti‑Allende propaganda for CIA proprietary publications that were distributed in Chile. (CIA officials insist that they make no attempt to influence the content of American newspapers, but some fallout is inevitable: during the Chilean offensive, CIA‑generated black propaganda transmitted on the wire service out of Santiago often turned up in American publications.)

According to CIA officials, the Agency has been particularly sparing in its use of journalist agents in Eastern Europe on grounds that exposure might result in diplomatic sanctions against the United States or in permanent prohibitions against American correspondents serving in some countries. The same officials claim that their use of journalists in the Soviet Union has been even more limited, but they remain extremely guarded in discussing the subject. They are insistent, however, in maintaining that the Moscow correspondents of major news organizations have not been “tasked” or controlled by the Agency.

The Soviets, according to CIA officials, have consistently raised false charges of CIA affiliation against individual American reporters as part of a continuing diplomatic game that often follows the ups and downs of Soviet‑American relations. The latest such charge by the Russians—against Christopher Wren of the New York Times and Alfred Friendly Jr., formerly of Newsweek, has no basis in fact, they insist.

CIA officials acknowledge, however, that such charges will persist as long as the CIA continues to use journalistic cover and maintain covert affiliations with individuals in the profession. But even an absolute prohibition against Agency use of journalists would not free reporters from suspicion, according to many Agency officials. “Look at the Peace Corps,” said one source. “We have had no affiliation there and they [foreign governments] still throw them out”

The history of the CIA’s involvement with the American press continues to be shrouded by an official policy of obfuscation and deception for the following principal reasons:

■ The use of journalists has been among the most productive means of intelligence‑gathering employed by the CIA. Although the Agency has cut back sharply on the use of reporters since 1973 primarily as a result of pressure from the media), some journalist‑operatives are still posted abroad.

■ Further investigation into the matter, CIA officials say, would inevitably reveal a series of embarrassing relationships in the 1950s and 1960s with some of the most powerful organizations and individuals in American journalism.

Among the executives who lent their cooperation to the Agency were [CFR member] Williarn Paley of the Columbia Broadcasting System, [CFR member]  Henry Luce of Tirne Inc., [CFR member] Arthur Hays Sulzberger of the New York Times, [CFR member] [CFR member]  Barry Bingham Sr. of the LouisviIle Courier‑Journal, and James Copley of the Copley News Service. Other organizations which cooperated with the CIA include the American Broadcasting Company, the National Broadcasting Company, the Associated Press, United Press International, Reuters, Hearst Newspapers, Scripps‑Howard, Newsweek magazine, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the Miami Herald and the old Saturday Evening Post and New York Herald‑Tribune.

By far the most valuable of these associations, according to CIA officials, have been with the New York Times, CBS and Time Inc.

The CIA’s use of the American news media has been much more extensive than Agency officials have acknowledged publicly or in closed sessions with members of Congress. The general outlines of what happened are indisputable; the specifics are harder to come by. CIA sources hint that a particular journalist was trafficking all over Eastern Europe for the Agency; the journalist says no, he just had lunch with the station chief. CIA sources say flatly that a well‑known ABC correspondent worked for the Agency through 1973; they refuse to identify him. A high‑level CIA official with a prodigious memory says that the New York Times provided cover for about ten CIA operatives between 1950 and 1966; he does not know who they were, or who in the newspaper’s management made the arrangements.

The Agency’s special relationships with the so‑called “majors” in publishing and broadcasting enabled the CIA to post some of its most valuable operatives abroad without exposure for more than two decades. In most instances, Agency files show, officials at the highest levels of the CIA usually director or deputy director) dealt personally with a single designated individual in the top management of the cooperating news organization. The aid furnished often took two forms: providing jobs and credentials “journalistic cover” in Agency parlance) for CIA operatives about to be posted in foreign capitals; and lending the Agency the undercover services of reporters already on staff, including some of the best‑known correspondents in the business.

In the field, journalists were used to help recruit and handle foreigners as agents; to acquire and evaluate information, and to plant false information with officials of foreign governments. Many signed secrecy agreements, pledging never to divulge anything about their dealings with the Agency; some signed employment contracts., some were assigned case officers and treated with. unusual deference. Others had less structured relationships with the Agency, even though they performed similar tasks: they were briefed by CIA personnel before trips abroad, debriefed afterward, and used as intermediaries with foreign agents. Appropriately, the CIA uses the term “reporting” to describe much of what cooperating journalists did for the Agency. “We would ask them, ‘Will you do us a favor?’”.said a senior CIA official. “‘We understand you’re going to be in Yugoslavia. Have they paved all the streets? Where did you see planes? Were there any signs of military presence? How many Soviets did you see? If you happen to meet a Soviet, get his name and spell it right …. Can you set up a meeting for is? Or relay a message?’” Many CIA officials regarded these helpful journalists as operatives; the journalists tended to see themselves as trusted friends of the Agency who performed occasional favors—usually without pay—in the national interest.

“I’m proud they asked me and proud to have done it,” said Joseph Alsop who, like his late brother, columnist Stewart Alsop, undertook clandestine tasks for the Agency. “The notion that a newspaperman doesn’t have a duty to his country is perfect balls.”

From the Agency’s perspective, there is nothing untoward in such relationships, and any ethical questions are a matter for the journalistic profession to resolve, not the intelligence community. As Stuart Loory, former Los Angeles Times correspondent, has written in the Columbia Journalism Review: ‘If even one American overseas carrying a press card is a paid informer for the CIA, then all Americans with those credentials are suspect …. If the crisis of confidence faced by the news business—along with the government—is to be overcome, journalists must be willing to focus on themselves the same spotlight they so relentlessly train on others!’ But as Loory also noted: “When it was reported… that newsmen themselves were on the payroll of the CIA, the story caused a brief stir, and then was dropped.”

During the 1976 investigation of the CIA by the Senate Intelligence Committee, chaired by Senator Frank Church, the dimensions of the Agency’s involvement with the press became apparent to several members of the panel, as well as to two or three investigators on the staff. But top officials of the CIA, including former directors [CFR member]  William Colby and [CFR member] George [H.W.] Bush, persuaded the committee to restrict its inquiry into the matter and to deliberately misrepresent the actual scope of the activities in its final report. The multivolurne report contains nine pages in which the use of journalists is discussed in deliberately vague and sometimes misleading terms. It makes no mention of the actual number of journalists who undertook covert tasks for the CIA. Nor does it adequately describe the role played by newspaper and broadcast executives in cooperating with the Agency.

THE AGENCY’S DEALINGS WITH THE PRESS BEGAN during the earliest stages of the Cold War. [CFR member]  Allen Dulles, who became director of the CIA in 1953, sought to establish a recruiting‑and‑cover capability within America’s most prestigious journalistic institutions. By operating under the guise of accredited news correspondents, [CFR member] Dulles believed, CIA operatives abroad would be accorded a degree of access and freedom of movement unobtainable under almost any other type of cover.

American publishers, like so many other corporate and institutional leaders at the time, were willing to commit the resources of their companies to the struggle against “global Communism.” Accordingly, the traditional line separating the American press corps and government was often indistinguishable: rarely was a news agency used to provide cover for CIA operatives abroad without the knowledge and consent of either its principal owner, publisher or senior editor. Thus, contrary to the notion that the CIA insidiously infiltrated the journalistic community, there is ample evidence that America’s leading publishers and news executives allowed themselves and their organizations to become handmaidens to the intelligence services. “Let’s not pick on some poor reporters, for God’s sake,” [CFR member]  William Colby exclaimed at one point to the Church committee’s investigators. “Let’s go to the managements. They were witting.”  In all, about twenty‑five news organizations including those listed at the beginning of this article) provided cover for the Agency.

In addition to cover capability, [CFR member]  Dulles initiated a “debriefing” procedure under which American correspondents returning from abroad routinely emptied their notebooks and offered their impressions to Agency personnel. Such arrangements, continued by [CFR member]  Dulles’ successors, to the present day, were made with literally dozens of news organizations. In the 1950s, it was not uncommon for returning reporters to be met at the ship by CIA officers. “There would be these guys from the CIA flashing ID cards and looking like they belonged at the Yale Club,” said Hugh Morrow, a former Saturday Evening Post correspondent who is now press secretary to former vice‑president [CFR member] Nelson Rockefeller. “It got to be so routine that you felt a little miffed if you weren’t asked.”

CIA officials almost always refuse to divulge the names of journalists who have cooperated with the Agency. They say it would be unfair to judge these individuals in a context different from the one that spawned the relationships in the first place. “There was a time when it wasn’t considered a crime to serve your government,” said one high‑level CIA official who makes no secret of his bitterness. “This all has to be considered in the context of the morality of the times, rather than against latter‑day standards—and hypocritical standards at that.”

Many journalists who covered World War II were close to people in the Office of Strategic Services, the wartime predecessor of the CIA; more important, they were all on the same side. When the war ended and many OSS officials went into the CIA, it was only natural that these relationships would continue. Meanwhile, the first postwar generation of journalists entered the profession; they shared the same political and professional values as their mentors. “You had a gang of people who worked together during World War II and never got over it,” said one Agency official. “They were genuinely motivated and highly susceptible to intrigue and being on the inside. Then in the Fifties and Sixties there was a national consensus about a national threat. The Vietnam War tore everything to pieces—shredded the consensus and threw it in the air.” Another Agency official observed: “Many journalists didn’t give a second thought to associating with the Agency. But there was a point when the ethical issues which most people had submerged finally surfaced. Today, a lot of these guys vehemently deny that they had any relationship with the Agency.”

From the outset, the use of journalists was among the CIA’s most sensitive undertakings, with full knowledge restricted to the Director of Central Intelligence and a few of his chosen deputies. [CFR member]  Dulles and his successors were fearful of what would happen if a journalist‑operative’s cover was blown, or if details of the Agency’s dealings with the press otherwise became public. As a result, contacts with the heads of news  organizations were normally initiated by [CFR member] Dulles and succeeding Directors of Central Intelligence; by the deputy directors and division chiefs in charge of covert operations—[CFR member] Frank Wisner, [CFR member] Cord Meyer Jr., [CFR member] Richard Bissell, Desmond FitzGerald, Tracy Barnes, Thomas Karamessines and , [CFR member]  Richard Helms himself a former UPI correspondent); and, occasionally, by others in the CIA hierarchy known to have an unusually close social relationship with a particular publisher or broadcast executive.1

James Angleton, who was recently removed as the Agency’s head of counterintelligence operations, ran a completely independent group of journalist‑operatives who performed sensitive and frequently dangerous assignments; little is known about this group for the simple reason that Angleton deliberately kept only the vaguest of files.

The CIA even ran a formal training program in the 1950s to teach its agents to be journalists. Intelligence officers were “taught to make noises like reporters,” explained a high CIA official, and were then placed in major news organizations with help from management. “These were the guys who went through the ranks and were told ‘You’re going to he [sic] a journalist,’” the CIA official said. Relatively few of the 400‑some relationships described in Agency files followed that pattern, however; most involved persons who were already bona fide journalists when they began undertaking tasks for the Agency.

The Agency’s relationships with journalists, as described in CIA files, include the following general categories:

■ Legitimate, accredited staff members of news organizations—usually reporters. Some were paid; some worked for the Agency on a purely voluntary basis. This group includes many of the best‑known journalists who carried out tasks for the CIA. The files show that the salaries paid to reporters by newspaper and broadcast networks were sometimes supplemented by nominal payments from the CIA, either in the form of retainers, travel expenses or outlays for specific services performed.  Almost all the payments were made in cash. The accredited category also includes photographers, administrative personnel of foreign news bureaus and members of broadcast technical crews.)

Two of the Agency’s most valuable personal relationships in the 1960s, according to CIA officials, were with reporters who covered Latin America—Jerry O’Leary of the Washington Star and Hal Hendrix of the Miami News, a Pulitzer Prize winner who became a high official of the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation. Hendrix was extremely helpful to the Agency in providing information about individuals in Miami’s Cuban exile community. O’Leary was considered a valued asset in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Agency files contain lengthy reports of both men’s activities on behalf of the CIA.

O’Leary maintains that his dealings were limited to the normal give‑and‑take that goes on between reporters abroad and their sources. CIA officials dispute the contention: “There’s no question Jerry reported for us,” said one. “Jerry did assessing and spotting [of prospective agents] but he was better as a reporter for us.” Referring to O’Leary’s denials, the official added: “I don’t know what in the world he’s worried about unless he’s wearing that mantle of integrity the Senate put on you journalists.”

O’Leary attributes the difference of opinion to semantics. “I might call them up and say something like, ‘Papa Doc has the clap, did you know that?’ and they’d put it in the file. I don’t consider that reporting for them…. it’s useful to be friendly to them and, generally, I felt friendly to them. But I think they were more helpful to me than I was to them.” O’Leary took particular exception to being described in the same context as Hendrix. “Hal was really doing work for them,” said O’Leary. “I’m still with the Star. He ended up at ITT.” Hendrix could not be reached for comment. According to Agency officials, neither Hendrix nor O’Leary was paid by the CIA.

■ Stringers2 and freelancers. Most were payrolled by the Agency under standard contractual terms. Their journalistic credentials were often supplied by cooperating news organizations. some filed news stories; others reported only for the CIA. On some occasions, news organizations were not informed by the CIA that their stringers were also working for the Agency.

■ Employees of so‑called CIA “proprietaries.” During the past twenty‑five years, the Agency has secretly bankrolled numerous foreign press services, periodicals and newspapers—both English and foreign language—which provided excellent cover for CIA operatives. One such publication was the Rome Daily American, forty percent of which was owned by the CIA until the 1970s. The Daily American went out of business this year,

■ Editors, publishers and broadcast network executives. The CIAs relationship with most news executives differed fundamentally from those with working reporters and stringers, who were much more subject to direction from the Agency. A few executives— [CFR member]  Arthur Hays Sulzberger of the New York Times among them—signed secrecy agreements. But such formal understandings were rare: relationships between Agency officials and media executives were usually social—”The P and Q Street axis in Georgetown,” said one source. “You don’t tell [CFR member]   Wilharn Paley to sign a piece of paper saying he won’t fink.”

■ Columnists and commentators. There are perhaps a dozen well known columnists and broadcast commentators whose relationships with the CIA go far beyond those normally maintained between reporters and their sources. They are referred to at the Agency as “known assets” and can be counted on to perform a variety of undercover tasks; they are considered receptive to the Agency’s point of view on various subjects. Three of the most widely read columnists who maintained such ties with the Agency are [CFR member]   C.L. Sulzberger of the New York Times, Joseph Alsop, and the late Stewart Alsop, whose column appeared in the New York Herald‑Tribune, the Saturday Evening Post and Newsweek. CIA files contain reports of specific tasks all three undertook. [CFR member]  Sulzberger is still regarded as an active asset by the Agency. According to a senior CIA official, “Young Cy Sulzberger had some uses…. He signed a secrecy agreement because we gave him classified information…. There was sharing, give and take. We’d say, ‘Wed like to know this; if we tell you this will it help you get access to so‑and‑so?’ Because of his access in Europe he had an Open Sesame. We’d ask him to just report: ‘What did so‑and‑so say, what did he look like, is he healthy?’ He was very eager, he loved to cooperate.” On one occasion, according to several CIA officials, Sulzberger was given a briefing paper by the Agency which ran almost verbatim under the columnist’s byline in the Times. “[CFR member]  Cy came out and said, ‘I’m thinking of doing a piece, can you give me some background?’” a CIA officer said. “We gave it to [CFR member]  Cy as a background piece and [CFR member]  Cy gave it to the printers and put his name on it.” [CFR member]  Sulzberger denies that any incident occurred. “A lot of baloney,” he said.

[CFR member]  Sulzberger claims that he was never formally “tasked” by the Agency and that he “would never get caught near the spook business. My relations were totally informal—I had a goodmany friends,” he said. “I’m sure they consider me an asset. They can ask me questions. They find out you’re going to Slobovia and they say, ‘Can we talk to you when you get back?’ … Or they’ll want to know if the head of the Ruritanian government is suffering from psoriasis. But I never took an assignment from one of those guys…. I’ve known [CFR member]  Wisner well, and [CFR member]  Helms and even [CFR member]  McCone [former [CFR member]   CIA director John McCone] I used to play golf with. But they’d have had to be awfully subtle to have used me.

[CFR member]  Sulzberger says he was asked to sign the secrecy agreement in the 1950s. “A guy came around and said, ‘You are a responsible newsman and we need you to sign this if we are going to show you anything classified.’ I said I didn’t want to get entangled and told them, ‘Go to my uncle [[CFR member]  Arthur Hays Sulzberger, then publisher of the New York Times] and if he says to sign it I will.’” His [CFR member]  uncle subsequently signed such an agreement, [CFR member]   Sulzberger said, and he thinks he did too, though he is unsure. “I don’t know, twenty‑some years is a long time.” He described the whole question as “a bubble in a bathtub.”

Stewart Alsop’s relationship with the Agency was much more extensive than [CFR member]   Sulzberger’s. One official who served at the highest levels in the CIA said flatly: “Stew Alsop was a CIA agent.” An equally senior official refused to define Alsop’s relationship with the Agency except to say it was a formal one. Other sources said that Alsop was particularly helpful to the Agency in discussions with, officials of foreign governments—asking questions to which the CIA was seeking answers, planting misinformation advantageous to American policy, assessing opportunities for CIA recruitment of well‑placed foreigners.

“Absolute nonsense,” said Joseph Alsop of the notion that his brother was a CIA agent. “I was closer to the Agency than Stew was, though Stew was very close. I dare say he did perform some tasks—he just did the correct thing as an American…. The Founding Fathers [of the CIA] were close personal friends of ours. [CFR member]   Dick Bissell [former CIA deputy director] was my oldest friend, from childhood. It was a social thing, my dear fellow. I never received a dollar, I never signed a secrecy agreement. I didn’t have to…. I’ve done things for them when I thought they were the right thing to do. I call it doing my duty as a citizen.

Alsop is willing to discuss on the record only two of the tasks he undertook: a visit to Laos in 1952 at the behest of [CFR member]   Frank Wisner, who felt other American reporters were using anti‑American sources about uprisings there; and a visit to the Phillipines in 1953 when the CIA thought his presence there might affect the outcome of an election. “Des FitzGerald urged me to go,” Alsop recalled. “It would be less likely that the election could be stolen [by the opponents of Ramon Magsaysay] if the eyes of the world were on them. I stayed with the ambassador and wrote about what happened.”

Alsop maintains that he was never manipulated by the Agency. “You can’t get entangled so they have leverage on you,” he said. “But what I wrote was true. My view was to get the facts. If someone in the Agency was wrong, I stopped talking to them—they’d given me phony goods.” On one occasion, Alsop said, [CFR member]  Richard Helms authorized the head of the Agency’s analytical branch to provide Alsop with information on Soviet military presence along the Chinese border. “The analytical side of the Agency had been dead wrong about the war in Vietnam—they thought it couldn’t be won,” said Alsop. “And they were wrong on the Soviet buildup. I stopped talking to them.” Today, he says, “People in our business would be outraged at the kinds of suggestions that were made to me. They shouldn’t be. The CIA did not open itself at all to people it did not trust. Stew and I were trusted, and I’m proud of it.”

MURKY DETAILS OF CIA RELATIONSHIPS WITH INDIVIDUALS and news organizations began trickling out in 1973 when it was first disclosed that the CIA had, on occasion, employed journalists. Those reports, combined with new information, serve as casebook studies of the Agency’s use of journalists for intelligence purposes. They include:

■ The New York Times. The Agency’s relationship with the Times was by far its most valuable among newspapers, according to CIA officials. From 1950 to 1966, about ten CIA employees were provided Times cover under arrangements approved by the newspaper’s late publisher, Arthur Hays Sulzberger. The cover arrangements were part of a general Times policy—set by Sulzberger—to provide assistance to the CIA whenever possible.

[CFR member]  Sulzberger was especially close to [CFR member]  Allen Dulles. “At that level of contact it was the mighty talking to the mighty,” said a high‑level CIA official who was present at some of the discussions. “There was an agreement in principle that, yes indeed, we would help each other. The question of cover came up on several occasions.  It was agreed that the actual arrangements would be handled by subordinates…. The mighty didn’t want to know the specifics; they wanted plausible deniability.

A senior CIA official who reviewed a portion of the Agency’s files on journalists for two hours onSeptember 15th, 1977, said he found documentation of five instances in which the Times had provided cover for CIA employees between 1954 and 1962. In each instance he said, the arrangements were handled by executives of the Times; the documents all contained standard Agency language “showing that this had been checked out at higher levels of the New York Times,” said the official. The documents did not mention Sulzberger’s name, however—only those of subordinates whom the official refused to identify.

The CIA employees who received Times credentials posed as stringers for the paper abroad and worked as members of clerical staffs in the Times’ foreign bureaus. Most were American; two or three were foreigners.

CIA officials cite two reasons why the Agency’s working relationship with the Times was closer and more extensive than with any other paper: the fact that the Times maintained the largest foreign news operation in American daily journalism; and the close personal ties between the men who ran both institutions.

[CFR member]  Sulzberger informed a number of reporters and editors of his general policy of cooperation with the Agency. “We were in touch with them—they’d talk to us and some cooperated,” said a CIA official. The cooperation usually involved passing on information and “spotting” prospective agents among foreigners.

[CFR member]  Arthur Hays Sulzberger signed a secrecy agreement with the CIA in the 1950s, according to CIA officials—a fact confirmed by his nephew, [CFR member]  C.L. Sulzberger. However, there are varying interpretations of the purpose of the agreement: [CFR member]  C.L. Sulzberger says it represented nothing more than a pledge not to disclose classified information made available to the publisher. That contention is supported by some Agency officials. Others in the Agency maintain that the agreement represented a pledge never to reveal any of the Times’ dealings with the CIA, especially those involving cover. And there are those who note that, because all cover arrangements are classified, a secrecy agreement would automatically apply to them.

Attempts to find out which individuals in the Times organization made the actual arrangements for providing credentials to CIA personnel have been unsuccessful. In a letter to reporter Stuart Loory in 1974, Turner Cadedge, managing editor of the Times from 1951 to 1964, wrote that approaches by the CIA had been rebuffed by the newspaper. “I knew nothing about any involvement with the CIA… of any of our foreign correspondents on the New York Times. I heard many times of overtures to our men by the CIA, seeking to use their privileges, contacts, immunities and, shall we say, superior intelligence in the sordid business of spying and informing. If any one of them succumbed to the blandishments or cash offers, I was not aware of it. Repeatedly, the CIA and other hush‑hush agencies sought to make arrangements for ‘cooperation’ even with Times management, especially during or soon after World War II, but we always resisted. Our motive was to protect our credibility.”

According to Wayne Phillips, a former Times reporter, the CIA invoked [CFR member]   Arthur Hays Sulzberger’s name when it tried to recruit him as an undercover operative in 1952 while he was studying at Columbia University’s Russian Institute. Phillips said an Agency official told him that the CIA had “a working arrangement” with the publisher in which other reporters abroad had been placed on the Agency’s payroll. Phillips, who remained at the Times until 1961, later obtained CIA documents under the Freedom of Information Act which show that the Agency intended to develop him as a clandestine “asset” for use abroad.

On January 31st, 1976, the Times carried a brief story describing the ClAs attempt to recruit Phillips. It quoted [CFR member]   Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, the present publisher, as follows: “I never heard of the Times being approached, either in my capacity as publisher or as the son of the late Mr. Sulzberger.” The Times story, written by John M. Crewdson, also reported that Arthur Hays Sulzberger told an unnamed former correspondent that he might he approached by the CIA after arriving at a new post abroad. Sulzberger told him that he was not “under any obligation to agree,” the story said and that the publisher himself would be “happier” if he refused to cooperate. “But he left it sort of up to me,” the Times quoted its former reporter as saying. “The message was if I really wanted to do that, okay, but he didn’t think it appropriate for a Times correspondent”

[CFR member]  C.L. Sulzberger, in a telephone interview, said he had no knowledge of any CIA personnel using Times cover or of reporters for the paper working actively for the Agency. He was the paper’s chief of foreign service from 1944 to 1954 and expressed doubt that his uncle would have approved such arrangements. More typical of the late publisher, said [CFR member]   Sulzberger, was a promise made to [CFR member]  Allen Dulles’ brother, [CFR member]   John Foster, then secretary of state, that no Times staff member would be permitted to accept an invitation to visit the People’s Republic of China without [CFR member]   John Foster Dulles’ consent. Such an invitation was extended to the publisher’s nephew in the 1950s; Arthur Sulzberger forbade him to accept it. “It was seventeen years before another Times correspondent was invited,” [CFR member]  C.L. Sulzberger recalled.

■ The Columbia Broadcasting System. CBS was unquestionably the CIAs most valuable broadcasting asset. CBS President [CFR member]   William Paley and [CFR member]  Allen Dulles enjoyed an easy working and social relationship. Over the years, the network provided cover for CIA employees, including at least one well‑known foreign correspondent and several stringers; it supplied outtakes of newsfilm to the CIA3; established a formal channel of communication between the Washington bureau chief and the Agency; gave the Agency access to the CBS newsfilm library; and allowed reports by CBS correspondents to the Washington and New York newsrooms to be routinely monitored by the CIA. Once a year during the 1950s and early 1960s, CBS correspondents joined the CIA hierarchy for private dinners and briefings.

The details of the CBS‑CIA arrangements were worked out by subordinates of both [CFR member]   Dulles and [CFR member]   Paley. “The head of the company doesn’t want to know the fine points, nor does the director,” said a CIA official. “Both designate aides to work that out. It keeps them above the battle.” [CFR member]  Dr. Frank Stanton, for 25 years president of the network, was aware of the general arrangements Paley made with Dulles—including those for cover, according to CIA officials. [CFR member]  Stanton, in an interview last year, said he could not recall any cover arrangements.) But [CFR member]  Paley’s designated contact for the Agency was [CFR member]   Sig Mickelson, president of CBS News between 1954 and 1961. On one occasion, [CFR member]  Mickelson has said, he complained to [CFR member]  Stanton about having to use a pay telephone to call the CIA, and [CFR member]  Stanton suggested he install a private line, bypassing the CBS switchboard, for the purpose. According to [CFR member]  Mickelson, he did so. [CFR member]  Mickelson is now president of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, both of which were associated with the CIA for many years.

In 1976, CBS News president Richard Salant ordered an in‑house investigation of the network’s dealings with the CIA. Some of its findings were first disclosed by Robert Scheer in the Los Angeles Times.) But Salant’s report makes no mention of some of his own dealings with the Agency, which continued into the 1970s.

Many details about the CBS‑CIA relationship were found in [CFR member]   Mickelson’s files by two investigators for Salant. Among the documents they found was a September 13th, 1957, memo to [CFR member]  Mickelson fromTed Koop, CBS News bureau chief  in Washington from 1948 to 1961. It describes a phone call to Koop from Colonel Stanley Grogan of the CIA: “Grogan phoned to say that Reeves [J. B. Love Reeves, another CIA official] is going to New York to be in charge of the CIA contact office there and will call to see you and some of your confreres. Grogan says normal activities will continue to channel through the Washington office of CBS News.” The report to Salant also states: “Further investigation of [CFR member]  Mickelson’s files reveals some details of the relationship between the CIA and CBS News…. Two key administrators of this relationship were Mickelson and Koop…. The main activity appeared to be the delivery of CBS newsfilm to the CIA…. In addition there is evidence that, during 1964 to 1971, film material, including some outtakes, were supplied by the CBS Newsfilm Library to the CIA through and at the direction of Mr. Koop4…. Notes in Mr. [CFR member]  Mickelson’s files indicate that the CIA used CBS films for training… All of the above [CFR member]  Mickelson activities were handled on a confidential basis without mentioning the words Central Intelligence Agency. The films were sent to individuals at post‑office box numbers and were paid for by individual, nor government, checks. …” [CFR member]  Mickelson also regularly sent the CIA an internal CBS newsletter, according to the report.

Salant’s investigation led him to conclude that Frank Kearns, a CBS‑TV reporter from 1958 to 1971, “was a CIA guy who got on the payroll somehow through a CIA contact with somebody at CBS.” Kearns and Austin Goodrich, a CBS stringer, were undercover CIA employees, hired under arrangements approved by Paley.

Last year a spokesman for [CFR member]   Paley denied a report by former CBS correspondent Daniel Schorr that [CFR member]  Mickelson and he had discussed Goodrich’s CIA status during a meeting with two Agency representatives in 1954. The spokesman claimed [CFR member]  Paley had no knowledge that Goodrich had worked for the CIA. “When I moved into the job I was told by [CFR member]   Paley that there was an ongoing relationship with the CIA,” [CFR member] Mickelson said in a recent interview. “He introduced me to two agents who he said would keep in touch. We all discussed the Goodrich situation and film arrangements. I assumed this was a normal relationship at the time. This was at the height of the Cold War and I assumed the communications media were cooperating—though the Goodrich matter was compromising.

At the headquarters of CBS News in New York, [CFR member]  Paley’s cooperation with the CIA is taken for granted by many news executives and reporters, despite tile denials. Paley, 76, was not interviewed by Salant’s investigators. “It wouldn’t do any good,” said one CBS executive. “It is the single subject about which his memory has failed.”

Salant discussed his own contacts with the CIA, and the fact he continued many of his predecessor’s practices, in an interview with this reporter last year. The contacts, he said, began in February 1961, “when I got a phone call from a CIA man who said he had a working relationship with [CFR member]  Sig Mickelson. The man said, ‘Your bosses know all about it.'”  According to Salant, the CIA representative asked that CBS continue to supply the Agency with unedited newstapes and make its correspondents available for debriefingby Agency officials. Said Salant: “I said no on talking to the reporters, and let them see broadcast tapes, but no outtakes.  This went on for a number of years—into the early Seventies.”

In 1964 and 1965, Salant served on a super-secret CIA task force which explored methods of beaming American propaganda broadcasts to the People’s Republic of China. The other members of the four‑man study team were [CFR member]   Zbigniew Brzezinski, then a professor at Columbia University; William Griffith, then professor of political science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology., and John Haves, then vice‑president of the Washington Post Company for radio‑TV5. The principal government officials associated with the project were [CFR member]   Cord Meyer of the CIA; [CFR member]   McGeorge Bundy, then special assistant to the president for national security; [CFR member]   Leonard Marks, then director of the USIA; and [CFR member]  Bill Moyers, then special assistant to President Lyndon Johnson and now a CBS correspondent.

Salant’s involvement in the project began with a call from [CFR member]   Leonard Marks, “who told me the White House wanted to form a committee of four people to make a study of U.S. overseas broadcasts behind the Iron Curtain.” When Salant arrived in Washington for the first meeting he was told that the project was CIA sponsored. “Its purpose,” he said, “was to determine how best to set up shortwave broadcasts into Red China.” Accompanied by a CIA officer named Paul Henzie, the committee of four subsequently traveled around the world inspecting facilities run by Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty both CIA‑run operations at the time), the Voice of America and Armed Forces Radio. After more than a year of study, they submitted a report to [CFR member]   Moyers recommending that the government establish a broadcast service, run by the Voice of America, to be beamed at the People’s Republic of China. Salant has served two tours as head of CBS News, from 1961‑64 and 1966‑present. At the time of the China project he was a CBS corporate executive.)

■ Time and Newsweek magazines. According to CIA and Senate sources, Agency files contain written agreements with former foreign correspondents and stringers for both the weekly news magazines.  The same sources refused to say whether the CIA has ended all its associations with individuals who work for the two publications. [CFR member]  Allen Dulles often interceded with his good friend, the late [CFR member]  Henry Luce, founder of Time and Life magazines, who readily allowed certain members of his staff to work for the Agency and agreed to provide jobs and credentials for other CIA operatives who lacked journalistic experience.

For many years, [CFR member]   Luce’s personal emissary to the CIA was [CFR member]  C.D. Jackson, a Time Inc., vice‑president who was publisher of Life magazine from 1960 until his death in 1964.While a Time executive, [CFR member]  Jackson coauthored a CIA‑sponsored study recommending the reorganization of the American intelligence services in the early 1950s. [CFR member]  Jackson, whose Time‑Life service was interrupted by a one‑year White House tour as an assistant to [CFR member]  President Dwight Eisenhower, approved specific arrangements for providing CIA employees with Time‑Life cover. Some of these arrangements were made with the knowledge of [CFR member]  Luce’s wife, [CFR member]  Clare Boothe. Other arrangements for Time cover, according to CIA officials including those who dealt with Luce), were made with the knowledge of [CFR member]   Hedley Donovan, now editor‑in‑chief of Time Inc. [CFR member]  Donovan, who took over editorial direction of all Time Inc. publications in 1959, denied in a telephone interview that he knew of any such arrangements. “I was never approached and I’d be amazed if [CFR member]  Luce approved such arrangements,” [CFR member]  Donovan said. “[CFR member]  Luce had a very scrupulous regard for the difference between journalism and government.”

In the 1950s and early 1960s, Time magazine’s foreign correspondents attended CIA “briefing” dinners similar to those the CIA held for CBS. And[CFR member] Luce, according to CIA officials, made it a regular practice to brief [CFR member]  Dulles or other high Agency officials when he returned from his frequent trips abroad. Luce and the men who ran his magazines in the 1950s and 1960s encouraged their foreign correspondents to provide help to the CIA, particularly information that might be useful to the Agency for intelligence purposes or recruiting foreigners.

At Newsweek, Agency sources reported, the CIA engaged the services of’ several foreign correspondents and stringers under arrangements approved by senior editors at the magazine. Newsweek’s stringer in Rome in the mid‑Fifties made little secret of the fact that he worked for the CIA. [CFR member]  Malcolm Muir, Newsweek’s editor from its founding in 1937 until its sale to the Washington Post Company in 1961, said in a recent interview that his dealings with the CIA were limited to private briefings he gave [CFR member]  Allen Dulles after trips abroad and arrangements he approved for regular debriefing of Newsweek correspondents by the Agency. He said that he had never provided cover for CIA operatives, but that others high in the Newsweek organization might have done so without his knowledge.

“I would have thought there might have been stringers who were agents, but I didn’t know who they were,” said [CFR member]  Muir. “I do think in those days the CIA kept pretty close touch with all responsible reporters. Whenever I heard something that I thought might be of interest to [CFR member]  Allen Dulles, I’d call him up…. At one point he appointed one of his CIA men to keep in regular contact with our reporters, a chap that I knew but whose name I can’t remember. I had a number of friends in [CFR member]  Alien Dulles’ organization.” [CFR member]  Muir said that Harry Kern, Newsweek’s foreign editor from 1945 until 1956, and [CFR member]   Ernest K. Lindley, the magazine’s Washington bureau chief during the same period “regularly checked in with various fellows in the CIA.”

“To the best of my knowledge.” said Kern, “nobody at Newsweek worked for the CIA… The informal relationship was there. Why have anybody sign anything? What we knew we told them [the CIA] and the State Department…. When I went to Washington, I would talk to [CFR member]   Foster or [CFR member]  Allen Dulles about what was going on. … We thought it was admirable at the time. We were all on the same side.” CIA officials say that Kern’s dealings with the Agency were extensive. In 1956, he left Newsweek to run Foreign Reports, a Washington‑based newsletter whose subscribers Kern refuses to identify.

[CFR member]  Ernest Lindley, who remained at Newsweek until 1961, said in a recent interview that he regularly consulted with [CFR member]  Dulles and other high CIA officials before going abroad and briefed them upon his return. “Allen was very helpful to me and I tried to reciprocate when I could,” he said. “I’d give him my impressions of people I’d met overseas. Once or twice he asked me to brief a large group of intelligence people; when I came back from the Asian‑African conference in 1955, for example; they mainly wanted to know about various people.”

As Washington bureau chief, [CFR member]  Lindley said he learned from [CFR member]  Malcolm Muir that the magazine’s stringer in southeastern Europe was a CIA contract employee—given credentials under arrangements worked out with the management. “I remember it came up—whether it was a good idea to keep this person from the Agency; eventually it was decided to discontinue the association,” [CFR member]  Lindley said.

When Newsweek was purchased by the Washington Post Company, publisher [CFR member]  Philip L. Graham [brother of former senator Bob Graham] was informed by Agency officials that the CIA occasionally used the magazine for cover purposes, according to CIA sources. “It was widely known that [CFR member]  Phil Graham was somebody you could get help from,” said a former deputy director of the Agency. “[CFR member]  Frank Wisner dealt with him.” [CFR member]  Wisner, deputy director of the CIA from 1950 until shortly before his suicide in 1965, was the Agency’s premier orchestrator of “black” operations, including many in which journalists were involved. [CFR member]  Wisner liked to boast of his “mighty Wurlitzer,” a wondrous propaganda instrument he built, and played, with help from the press.) [CFR member]  Phil Graham was probably [CFR member]  Wisner’s closest friend. But [CFR member]  Graham, who committed suicide in 1963, apparently knew little of the specifics of any cover arrangements with Newsweek, CIA sources said.

In 1965‑66, an accredited Newsweek stringer in the Far East was in fact a CIA contract employee earning an annual salary of $10,000 from the Agency, according to Robert T. Wood, then a CIA officer in the Hong Kong station. Some, Newsweek correspondents and stringers continued to maintain covert ties with the Agency into the 1970s, CIA sources said.

Information about Agency dealings with the Washington Post newspaper is extremely sketchy. According to CIA officials, some Post stringers have been CIA employees, but these officials say they do not know if anyone in the Post management was aware of the arrangements.

All editors‑in‑chief and managing editors of the Post since 1950 say they knew of no formal Agency relationship with either stringers or members of the Post staff. “If anything was done it was done by[CFR member]   Phil without our knowledge,” said one. Agency officials, meanwhile, make no claim that Post staff members have had covert affiliations with the Agency while working for the paper.6

[CFR member]  Katharine Graham, P[CFR member]  hilip Graham’s widow and the current publisher of the Post, says she has never been informed of any CIA relationships with either Post or Newsweek personnel. In November of 1973, [CFR member]  Mrs. Graham called [CFR member]  William Colby and asked if any Post stringers or staff members were associated with the CIA. [CFR member]  Colby assured her that no staff members were employed by the Agency but refused to discuss the question of stringers.

■ The Louisville Courier‑Journal. From December 1964 until March 1965, a CIA undercover operative named Robert H. Campbell worked on the Courier‑Journal. According to high‑level CIA sources, Campbell was hired by the paper under arrangements the Agency made with Norman E. Isaacs, then executive editor of the Courier‑Journal. [CFR member]  Barry Bingham Sr., then publisher of the paper, also had knowledge of the arrangements, the sources said. Both Isaacs and Bingham have denied knowing that Campbell was an intelligence agent when he was hired.

The complex saga of Campbell’s hiring was first revealed in a Courier‑Journal story written by James R Herzog on March 27th, 1976, during the Senate committee’s investigation, Herzog’s account began: “When 28‑year‑old Robert H. Campbell was hired as a Courier‑Journal reporter in December 1964, he couldn’t type and knew little about news writing.” The account then quoted the paper’s former managing editor as saying that Isaacs told him that Campbell was hired as a result of a CIA request: “Norman said, when he was in Washington [in 1964], he had been called to lunch with some friend of his who was with the CIA [and that] he wanted to send this young fellow down to get him a little knowledge of newspapering.” All aspects of Campbell’s hiring were highly unusual. No effort had been made to check his credentials, and his employment records contained the following two notations: “Isaacs has files of correspondence and investigation of this man”; and, “Hired for temporary work—no reference checks completed or needed.”

The level of Campbell’s journalistic abilities apparently remained consistent during his stint at the paper, “The stuff that Campbell turned in was almost unreadable,” said a former assistant city editor. One of Campbell’s major reportorial projects was a feature about wooden Indians. It was never published. During his tenure at the paper, Campbell frequented a bar a few steps from the office where, on occasion, he reportedly confided to fellow drinkers that he was a CIA employee.

According to CIA sources, Campbell’s tour at the Courier‑Journal was arranged to provide him with a record of journalistic experience that would enhance the plausibility of future reportorial cover and teach him something about the newspaper business. The Courier‑Journal’s investigation also turned up the fact that before coming to Louisville he had worked briefly for the Hornell, New York, Evening Tribune, published by Freedom News, Inc. CIA sources said the Agency had made arrangements with that paper’s management to employ Campbell.7

At the Courier‑Journal, Campbell was hired under arrangements made with Isaacs and approved by [CFR member]  Bingham, said CIA and Senate sources. “We paid the Courier‑Journal so they could pay his salary,” said an Agency official who was involved in the transaction. Responding by letter to these assertions, Isaacs, who left Louisville to become president and publisher of the Wilmington Delaware) News & Journal, said: “All I can do is repeat the simple truth—that never, under any circumstances, or at any time, have I ever knowingly hired a government agent. I’ve also tried to dredge my memory, but Campbell’s hiring meant so little to me that nothing emerges…. None of this is to say that I couldn’t have been ‘had.’” [CFR member]  Barry Bingham Sr., said last year in a telephone interview that he had no specific memory of Campbell’s hiring and denied that he knew of any arrangements between the newspaper’s management and the CIA. However, CIA officials said that the Courier‑Journal, through contacts with [CFR member]  Bingham, provided other unspecified assistance to the Agency in the 1950s and 1960s. The Courier‑Journal’s detailed, front‑page account of Campbell’s hiring was initiated by Barry Bingham Jr., who succeeded his father as editor and publisher of the paper in 1971. The article is the only major piece of self‑investigation by a newspaper that has appeared on this subject.8

■ The American Broadcasting Company and the National Broadcasting Company. According to CIA officials, ABC continued to provide cover for some CIA operatives through the 1960s. One was Sam Jaffe who CIA officials said performed clandestine tasks for the Agency. Jaffe has acknowledged only providing the CIA with information. In addition, another well‑known network correspondent performed covert tasks for the Agency, said CIA sources. At the time of the Senate bearings, Agency officials serving at the highest levels refused to say whether the CIA was still maintaining active relationships with members of the ABC‑News organization. All cover arrangements were made with the knowledge off ABC executives, the sources said.

These same sources professed to know few specifies about the Agency’s relationships with NBC, except that several foreign correspondents of the network undertook some assignments for the Agency in the 1950s and 1960s. “It was a thing people did then,” said Richard Wald, president of NBC News since 1973. “I wouldn’t be surprised if people here—including some of the correspondents in those days—had connections with the Agency.”

■ The Copley Press, and its subsidiary, the Copley News Service. This relationship, first disclosed publicly by reporters Joe Trento and Dave Roman in Penthouse magazine, is said by CIA officials to have been among the Agency’s most productive in terms of getting “outside” cover for its employees. Copley owns nine newspapers in California and Illinois—among them the San Diego Union and Evening Tribune. The Trento‑Roman account, which was financed by a grant from the Fund for Investigative Journalism, asserted that at least twenty‑three Copley News Service employees performed work for the CIA. “The Agency’s involvement with the Copley organization is so extensive that it’s almost impossible to sort out,” said a CIA official who was asked about the relationship late in 1976. Other Agency officials said then that James S. Copley, the chain’s owner until his death in 1973, personally made most of the cover arrangements with the CIA.

According to Trento and Roman, Copley personally volunteered his news service to then‑president [CFR member]  Eisenhower to act as “the eyes and ears” against “the Communist threat in Latin and Central America” for “our intelligence services.”  James Copley was also the guiding hand behind the Inter‑American Press Association, a CIA‑funded organization with heavy membership among right‑wing Latin American newspaper editors.

■ Other major news organizations. According to Agency officials, CIA files document additional cover arrangements with the following news‑gathering organizations, among others: the New York Herald‑Tribune, the Saturday‑Evening Post, Scripps‑Howard Newspapers, Hearst Newspapers Seymour K. Freidin, Hearst’s current London bureau chief and a former  Herald‑Tribune editor and correspondent, has been identified as a CIA operative by Agency sources), Associated Press,9 United Press International, the Mutual Broadcasting System, Reuters and the Miami Herald. Cover arrangements with the Herald, according to CIA officials, were unusual in that they were made “on the ground by the CIA station in Miami, not from CIA headquarters.

“And that’s just a small part of the list,” in the words of one official who served in the CIA hierarchy. Like many sources, this official said that the only way to end the uncertainties about aid furnished the Agency by journalists is to disclose the contents of the CIA files—a course opposed by almost all of the thirty‑five present and former CIA officials interviewed over the course of a year.

COLBY CUTS HIS LOSSES

THE CIA’S USE OF JOURNALISTS CONTINUED VIRTUALLY unabated until 1973 when, in response to public disclosure that the Agency had secretly employed American reporters, [CFR member]  William Colby began scaling down the program. In his public statements, [CFR member]  Colby conveyed the impression that the use of journalists had been minimal and of limited importance to the Agency.

He then initiated a series of moves intended to convince the press, Congress and the public that the CIA had gotten out of the news business. But according to Agency officials, [CFR member]  Colby had in fact thrown a protective net around his valuable intelligence in the journalistic community. He ordered his deputies to maintain Agency ties with its best journalist contacts while severing formal relationships with many regarded as inactive, relatively unproductive or only marginally important. In reviewing Agency files to comply with [CFR member]  Colby’s directive, officials found that many journalists had not performed useful functions for the CIA in years. Such relationships, perhaps as many as a hundred, were terminated between 1973 and 1976.

Meanwhile, important CIA operatives who had been placed on the staffs of some major newspaper and broadcast outlets were told to resign and become stringers or freelancers, thus enabling [CFR member]  Colby to assure concerned editors that members of their staffs were not CIA employees. [CFR member]  Colby also feared that some valuable stringer‑operatives might find their covers blown if scrutiny of the Agency’s ties with journalists continued. Some of these individuals were reassigned to jobs on so‑called proprietary publications—foreign periodicals and broadcast outlets secretly funded and staffed by the CIA. Other journalists who had signed formal contracts with the CIA—making them employees of the Agency—were released from their contracts, and asked to continue working under less formal arrangements.

In November 1973, after many such shifts had been made, [CFR member]  Colby told reporters and editors from the New York Times and the Washington Star that the Agency had “some three dozen” American newsmen “on the CIA payroll,” including five who worked for “general‑circulation news organizations.” Yet even while the Senate Intelligence Committee was holding its hearings in 1976, according to high‑level CIA sources, the CIA continued to maintain ties with seventy‑five to ninety journalists of every description—executives, reporters, stringers, photographers, columnists, bureau clerks and members of broadcast technical crews. More than half of these had been moved off CIA contracts and payrolls but they were still bound by other secret agreements with the Agency. According to an unpublished report by the House Select Committee on Intelligence, chaired by Representative Otis Pike, at least fifteen news organizations were still providing cover for CIA operatives as of 1976.

[CFR member]  Colby, who built a reputation as one of the most skilled undercover tacticians in the CIA’s history, had himself run journalists in clandestine operations before becoming director in 1973. But even he was said by his closest associates to have been disturbed at how extensively and, in his view, indiscriminately, the Agency continued to use journalists at the time he took over. “Too prominent,” the director frequently said of some of the individuals and news organizations then working with the CIA. Others in the Agency refer to their best‑known journalistic assets as “brand names.”)

“[CFR member]  Colby’s concern was that he might lose the resource altogether unless we became a little more careful about who we used and how we got them,” explained one of the former director’s deputies. The thrust of [CFR member]  Colby’s subsequent actions was to move the Agency’s affiliations away from the so‑called “majors” and to concentrate them instead in smaller newspaper chains, broadcasting groups and such specialized publications as trade journals and newsletters.

After [CFR member]  Colby left the Agency on January 28th, 1976, and was succeeded by [CFR member]   George [H.W.] Bush, the CIA announced a new policy: “Effective immediately, the CIA will not enter into any paid or contractual relationship with any full‑time or part‑time news correspondent accredited by any U.S. news service, newspaper, periodical, radio or television network or station” At the time of the announcement, the Agency acknowledged that the policy would result in termination of less than half of the relationships with the 50 U.S. journalists it said were still affiliated with the Agency. The text of the announcement noted that the CIA would continue to “welcome” the voluntary, unpaid cooperation of journalists. Thus, many relationships were permitted to remain intact.

The Agency’s unwillingness to end its use of journalists and its continued relationships with some news executives is largely the product of two basic facts of the intelligence game: journalistic cover is ideal because of the inquisitive nature of a reporter’s job; and many other sources of institutional cover have been denied the CIA in recent years by businesses, foundations and educational institutions that once cooperated with the Agency.

“It’s tough to run a secret agency in this country,” explained one high‑level CIA official. “We have a curious ambivalence about intelligence. In order to serve overseas we need cover. But we have been fighting a rear‑guard action to try and provide cover. The Peace Corps is off‑limits, so is USIA, the foundations and voluntary organizations have been off‑limits since ‘67, and there is a self‑imposed prohibition on Fulbrights [Fulbright Scholars]. If you take the American community and line up who could work for the CIA and who couldn’t there is a very narrow potential. Even the Foreign Service doesn’t want us. So where the hell do you go? Business is nice, but the press is a natural. One journalist is worth twenty agents. He has access, the ability to ask questions without arousing suspicion.”

ROLE OF THE CHURCH COMMITTEE

DESPITE THE EVIDENCE OF WIDESPREAD CIA USE OF journalists, the Senate Intelligence Committee and its staff decided against questioning any of the reporters, editors, publishers or broadcast executives whose relationships with the Agency are detailed in CIA files.

According to sources in the Senate and the Agency, the use of journalists was one of two areas of inquiry which the CIA went to extraordinary lengths to curtail. The other was the Agency’s continuing and extensive use of academics for recruitment and information gathering purposes.

In both instances, the sources said, former directors Colby and Bush and CIA special counsel Mitchell Rogovin were able to convince key members of the committee that full inquiry or even limited public disclosure of the dimensions of the activities would do irreparable damage to the nation’s intelligence‑gathering apparatus, as well as to the reputations of hundreds of individuals. [CFR member]  Colby was reported to have been especially persuasive in arguing that disclosure would bring on a latter‑day “witch hunt” in which the victims would be reporters, publishers and editors.

Walter Elder, deputy to former CIA director[CFR member]   McCone and the principal Agency liaison to the Church committee [CFR member Frank Church, Idaho, Chairman), argued that the committee lacked jurisdiction because there had been no misuse of journalists by the CIA; the relationships had been voluntary. Elder cited as an example the case of the Louisville Courier‑Journal. “Church and other people on the committee were on the chandelier about the Courier‑Journal,” one Agency official said, “until we pointed out that we had gone to the editor to arrange cover, and that the editor had said, ‘Fine.’”

Some members of the Church committee [five of whom were CFR members see below}  and staff feared that Agency officials had gained control of the inquiry and that they were being hoodwinked. “The Agency was extremely clever about it and the committee played right into its hands,” said one congressional source familiar with all aspects of the inquiry. “Church and some of the other members were much more interested in making headlines than in doing serious, tough investigating. The Agency pretended to be giving up a lot whenever it was asked about the flashy stuff—assassinations and secret weapons and James Bond operations. Then, when it came to things that they didn’t want to give away, that were much more important to the Agency, Colby in particular called in his chits. And the committee bought it.”

Church committee

The Senate committee’s investigation into the use of journalists was supervised by William B. Bader, a former CIA intelligence officer who returned briefly to the Agency this year as deputy to CIA director [CFR member] Stansfield Turner and is now a high‑level intelligence official at the Defense Department. Bader was assisted by [CFR member] David Aaron, who now serves as the deputy to [CFR member] Zbigniew Brzezinski, [CFR member] President Carter’s national security adviser.

According to colleagues on the staff of the Senate inquiry, both Bader and [CFR member] Aaron were disturbed by the information contained in CIA files about journalists; they urged that further investigation he undertaken by the Senate’s new permanent CIA oversight committee. That committee, however, has spent its first year of existence writing a new charter for the CIA, and members say there has been little interest in delving further into the CIA’s use of the press.

Bader’s investigation was conducted under unusually difficult conditions. His first request for specific information on the use of journalists was turned down by the CIA on grounds that there had been no abuse of authority and that current intelligence operations might he compromised. Senators Walter Huddleston, Howard Baker, [CFR member] Gary Hart, [CFR member] Walter Mondale and [CFR member] Charles Mathias—who had expressed interest in the subject of the press and the CIA—shared Bader’s distress at the CIA’s reaction. In a series of phone calls and meetings with [CFR member] CIA director George [H.W.] Bush and other Agency officials, the senators insisted that the committee staff be provided information about the scope of CIA‑press activities. Finally,  [CFR member]   Bush agreed to order a search of the files and have those records pulled which deals with operations where journalists had been used. But the raw files could not he made available to Bader or the committee, [CFR member]  Bush insisted. Instead, the director decided, his deputies would condense the material into one‑paragraph summaries describing in the most general terms the activities of each individual journalist. Most important, [CFR member]  Bush decreed, the names of journalists and of the news organizations with which they were affiliated would be omitted from the summaries. However, there might be some indication of the region where the journalist had served and a general description of the type of news organization for which he worked.

Assembling the summaries was difficult, according to CIA officials who supervised the job. There were no “journalist files” per se and information had to be collected from divergent sources that reflect the highly compartmentalized character of the CIA. Case officers who had handled journalists supplied some names. Files were pulled on various undercover operations in which it seemed logical that journalists had been used. Significantly, all work by reporters for the Agency under the category of covert operations, not foreign intelligence.) Old station records were culled. “We really had to scramble,” said one official.

After several weeks, Bader began receiving the summaries, which numbered over 400 by the time the Agency said it had completed searching its files.

The Agency played an intriguing numbers game with the committee. Those who prepared the material say it was physically impossible to produce all of the Agency’s files on the use of journalists. “We gave them a broad, representative picture,” said one agency official. “We never pretended it was a total description of the range of activities over 25 years, or of the number of journalists who have done things for us.” A relatively small number of the summaries described the activities of foreign journalists—including those working as stringers for American publications. Those officials most knowledgeable about the subject say that a figure of 400 American journalists is on the low side of the actual number who maintained covert relationships and undertook clandestine tasks.

Bader and others to whom he described the contents of the summaries immediately reached some general conclusions: the sheer number of covert relationships with journalists was far greater than the CIA had ever hinted; and the Agency’s use of reporters and news executives was an intelligence asset of the first magnitude. Reporters had been involved in almost every conceivable kind of operation. Of the 400‑plus individuals whose activities were summarized, between 200 and 250 were “working journalists” in the usual sense of the term—reporters, editors, correspondents, photographers; the rest were employed at least nominally) by book publishers, trade publications and newsletters.

Still, the summaries were just that: compressed, vague, sketchy, incomplete. They could be subject to ambiguous interpretation. And they contained no suggestion that the CIA had abused its authority by manipulating the editorial content of American newspapers or broadcast reports.

Bader’s unease with what he had found led him to seek advice from several experienced hands in the fields of foreign relations and intelligence[both areas in which most experienced hands were CFR members]. They suggested that he press for more information and give those members of the committee in whom he had the most confidence a general idea of what the summaries revealed. Bader again went to Senators Huddleston, Baker, [CFR member] Hart, [CFR member]  Mondale and [CFR member]  Mathias. Meanwhile, he told the CIA that he wanted to see more—the full files on perhaps a hundred or so of the individuals whose activities had been summarized. The request was turned down outright. The Agency would provide no more information on the subject. Period.

The CIA’s intransigence led to an extraordinary dinner meeting at Agency headquarters in late March 1976. Those present included Senators [CFR member] Frank Church who had now been briefed by Bader), and [CFR member]  John Tower, the vice‑chairman of the committee; Bader; William Miller, director of the committee  staff; [CFR member] CIA director Bush; Agency counsel Rogovin; and Seymour Bolten, a high‑level CIA operative who for years had been a station chief in Germany and Willy Brandt’s case officer. Bolten had been deputized by [CFR member]   Bush to deal with the committee’s requests for information on journalists and academics. At the dinner, the Agency held to its refusal to provide any full files. Nor would it give the committee the names of any individual journalists described in the 400 summaries or of the news organizations with whom they were affiliated. The discussion, according to participants, grew heated. The committee’s representatives said they could not honor their mandate—to determine if the CIA had abused its authority—without further information. The CIA maintained it could not protect its legitimate intelligence operations or its employees if further disclosures were made to the committee. Many of the journalists were contract employees of the Agency, [CFR member]   Bush said at one point, and the CIA was no less obligated to them than to any other agents.

Finally, a highly unusual agreement was hammered out: Bader and Miller would be permitted to examine “sanitized” versions of the full files of twenty‑five journalists selected from the summaries; but the names of the journalists and the news organizations which employed them would be blanked out, as would the identities of other CIA employees mentioned in the files. [CFR member]  Church and  [CFR member] Tower would be permitted to examine the unsanitized versions of five of the twenty‑five files—to attest that the CIA was not hiding anything except the names. The whole deal was contingent on an agreement that neither Bader, Miner, [CFR member]  Tower nor  [CFR member] Church would reveal the contents of the files to other members of the committee or staff.

Bader began reviewing the 400‑some summaries again. His object was to select twenty‑five that, on the basis of the sketchy information they contained, seemed to represent a cross section. Dates of CIA activity, general descriptions of news organizations, types of journalists and undercover operations all figured in his calculations.

From the twenty‑five files he got back, according to Senate sources and CIA officials, an unavoidable conclusion emerged: that to a degree never widely suspected, the CIA in the 1950s, ‘60s and even early ‘70s had concentrated its relationships with journalists in the most prominent sectors of the American press corps, including four or five of the largest newspapers in the country, the broadcast networks and the two major newsweekly magazines. Despite the omission of names and affiliations from the twenty‑five detailed files each was between three and eleven inches thick), the information was usually sufficient to tentatively identify either the newsman, his affiliation or both—particularly because so many of them were prominent in the profession.

“There is quite an incredible spread of relationships,” Bader reported to the senators. “You don’t need to manipulate Time magazine, for example, because there are Agency people at the management level.”

Ironically, one major news organization that set limits on its dealings with the CIA, according to Agency officials, was the one with perhaps the greatest editorial affinity for the Agency’s long‑range goals and policies: U.S. News and World Report. The late [CFR member]  David Lawrence, the columnist and founding editor of U.S. News, was a close friend of [CFR member]  Allen Dulles. But he repeatedly refused requests by the CIA director to use the magazine for cover purposes, the sources said. At one point, according to a high CIA official, [CFR member]  Lawrence issued orders to his sub‑editors in which he threatened to fire any U.S. News employee who was found to have entered into a formal relationship with the Agency. Former editorial executives at the magazine confirmed that such orders had been issued. CIA sources declined to say, however, if the magazine remained off‑limits to the Agency after [CFR member] Lawrence’s death in 1973 or if [CFR member] Lawrence’s orders had been followed.)

Meanwhile, Bader attempted to get more information from the CIA, particularly about the Agency’s current relationships with journalists. He encountered a stone wall. “[CFR member] Bush has done nothing to date,” Bader told associates. “None of the important operations are affected in even a marginal way.” The CIA also refused the staffs requests for more information on the use of academics. [CFR member] Bush began to urge members of the committee to curtail its inquiries in both areas and conceal its findings in the final report. “He [CFR member Bush]  kept saying, ‘Don’t fuck these guys in the press and on the campuses,’ pleading that they were the only areas of public life with any credibility left,” reported a Senate source. [CFR member] Colby, Elder and Rogovin also implored individual members of the committee to keep secret what the staff had found. “There were a lot of representations that if this stuff got out some of the biggest names in journalism would get smeared,” said another source. Exposure of the CIA’s relationships with journalists and academics, the Agency feared, would close down two of the few avenues of agent recruitment still open. “The danger of exposure is not the other side,” explained one CIA expert in covert operations. “This is not stuff the other side doesn’t know about. The concern of the Agency is that another area of cover will be denied.”

A senator who was the object of the Agency’s lobbying later said: “From the CIA point of view this was the highest, most sensitive covert program of all…. It was a much larger part of the operational system than has been indicated.” He added, “I had a great compulsion to press the point but it was late …. If we had demanded, they would have gone the legal route to fight it.”

Indeed, time was running out for the committee. In the view of many staff members, it had squandered its resources in the search for CIA assassination plots and poison pen letters. It had undertaken the inquiry into journalists almost as an afterthought. The dimensions of the program and the CIA’s sensitivity to providing information on it had caught the staff and the committee by surprise. The CIA oversight committee that would succeed the Church panel would have the inclination and the time to inquire into the subject methodically; if, as seemed likely, the CIA refused to cooperate further, the mandate of the successor committee would put it in a more advantageous position to wage a protracted fight …. Or so the reasoning went as [CFR member] Church and the few other senators even vaguely familiar with Bader’s findings reached a decision not to pursue the matter further. No journalists would be interviewed about their dealings with the Agency—either by the staff or by the senators, in secret or in open session. The specter, first raised by CIA officials, of a witch hunt in the press corps haunted some members of the staff and the committee. “We weren’t about to bring up guys to the committee and then have everybody say they’ve been traitors to the ideals of their profession,” said a senator.

Bader, according to associates, was satisfied with the decision and believed that the successor committee would pick up the inquiry where he had left it. He was opposed to making public the names of individual journalists. He had been concerned all along that he had entered a “gray area” in which there were no moral absolutes. Had the CIA “manipulated” the press in the classic sense of the term? Probably not, he concluded; the major news organizations and their executives had willingly lent their resources to the Agency; foreign correspondents had regarded work for the CIA as a national service and a way of getting better stories and climbing to the top of their profession. Had the CIA abused its authority? It had dealt with the press almost exactly as it had dealt with other institutions from which it sought cover — the diplomatic service, academia, corporations. There was nothing in the CIA’s charter which declared any of these institutions off‑limits to America’s intelligence service. And, in the case of the press, the Agency had exercised more care in its dealings than with many other institutions; it had gone to considerable lengths to restrict its role to information‑gathering and cover.10

Bader was also said to be concerned that his knowledge was so heavily based on information furnished by the CIA; he hadn’t gotten the other side of the story from those journalists who had associated with the Agency. He could be seeing only “the lantern show,” he told associates. Still, Bader was reasonably sure that he had seen pretty much the full panoply of what was in the files. If the CIA had wanted to deceive him it would have never given away so much, he reasoned. “It was smart of the Agency to cooperate to the extent of showing the material to Bader,” observed a committee source. “That way, if one fine day a file popped up, the Agency would be covered. They could say they had already informed the Congress.”

The dependence on CIA files posed another problem. The CIA’s perception of a relationship with a journalist might be quite different than that of the journalist: a CIA official might think he had exercised control over a journalist; the journalist might think he had simply had a few drinks with a spook. It was possible that CIA case officers had written self‑serving memos for the files about their dealings with journalists, that the CIA was just as subject to common bureaucratic “cover‑your‑ass” paperwork as any other agency of government.

A CIA official who attempted to persuade members of the Senate committee that the Agency’s use of journalists had been innocuous maintained that the files were indeed filled with “puffing” by case officers. “You can’t establish what is puff and what isn’t,” he claimed. Many reporters, he added, “were recruited for finite [specific] undertakings and would be appalled to find that they were listed [in Agency files] as CIA operatives.” This same official estimated that the files contained descriptions of about half a dozen reporters and correspondents who would be considered “famous”—that is, their names would be recognized by most Americans. “The files show that the CIA goes to the press for and just as often that the press comes to the CIA,” he observed. “…There is a tacit agreement in many of these cases that there is going to be a quid pro quo”—i.e., that the reporter is going to get good stories from the Agency and that the CIA will pick up some valuable services from the reporter.

Whatever the interpretation, the findings of the Senate committees inquiry into the use of journalists were deliberately buried—from the full membership of the committee, from the Senate and from the public. “There was a difference of opinion on how to treat the subject,” explained one source. “Some [senators] thought these were abuses which should be exorcized and there were those who said, ‘We don’t know if this is bad or not.’”

Bader’s findings on the subject were never discussed with the full committee, even in executive session. That might have led to leaks—especially in view of the explosive nature of the facts. Since the beginning of the Church committee’s investigation, leaks had been the panel’s biggest collective fear, a real threat to its mission. At the slightest sign of a leak the CIA might cut off the flow of sensitive information as it did, several times in other areas), claiming that the committee could not be trusted with secrets. “It was as if we were on trial—not the CIA,” said a member of the committee staff. To describe in the committee’s final report the true dimensions of the Agency’s use of journalists would cause a furor in the press and on the Senate floor. And it would result in heavy pressure on the CIA to end its use of journalists altogether. “We just weren’t ready to take that step,” said a senator. A similar decision was made to conceal the results of the staff’s inquiry into the use of academics. Bader, who supervised both areas of inquiry, concurred in the decisions and drafted those sections of the committee’s final report. Pages 191 to 201 were entitled “Covert Relationships with the United States Media.” “It hardly reflects what we found,” stated [CFR member] Senator Gary Hart. “There was a prolonged and elaborate negotiation [with the CIA] over what would be said.”

Obscuring the facts was relatively simple. No mention was made of the 400 summaries or what they showed. Instead the report noted blandly that some fifty recent contacts with journalists had been studied by the committee staff—thus conveying the impression that the Agency’s dealings with the press had been limited to those instances. The Agency files, the report noted, contained little evidence that the editorial content of American news reports had been affected by the CIA’s dealings with journalists. [CFR member] Colby’s misleading public statements about the use of journalists were repeated without serious contradiction or elaboration. The role of cooperating news executives was given short shrift. The fact that the Agency had concentrated its relationships in the most prominent sectors of the press went unmentioned. That the CIA continued to regard the press as up for grabs was not even suggested.

Former ‘Washington Post’ reporter CARL BERNSTEIN is now working on a book about the witch hunts of the Cold War.

Footnotes:

1 [CFR member]  John McCone, director of the Agency from 1961 to 1965, said in a recent interview that he knew about “great deal of debriefing and exchanging help” but nothing about any arrangements for cover the CIA might have made with media organizations. “I wouldn’t necessarily have known about it,” he said. “Helms would have handled anything like that. It would be unusual for him to come to me and say, ‘We’re going to use journalists for cover.’ He had a job to do. There was no policy during my period that would say, ‘Don’t go near that water,’ nor was there one saying, ‘Go to it!'” During the Church committee bearings, [CFR member]  McCone testified that his subordinates failed to tell him about domestic surveillance activities or that they were working on plans to assassinate Fidel Castro. [CFR member]  Richard Helms was deputy director of the Agency at the time; he became director in 1966.

2 A stringer is a reporter who works for one or several news organizations on a retainer or on a piecework basis.

3 From the CIA point of view, access to newsfilm outtakes and photo libraries is a matter of extreme importance. The Agency’s photo archive is probably the greatest on earth; its graphic sources include satellites, photoreconnaissance, planes, miniature cameras … and the American press. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Agency obtained carte‑blanche borrowing privileges in the photo libraries of literally dozens of American newspapers, magazines and television, outlets. For obvious reasons, the CIA also assigned high priority to the recruitment of photojournalists, particularly foreign‑based members of network camera crews.

4 On April 3rd, 1961, Koop left the Washington bureau to become head of CBS, Inc.’s Government Relations Department — a position he held until his retirement on March 31st, 1972.  Koop, who worked as a deputy in the Censorship Office in World War II, continued to deal with the CIA in his new position, according to CBS sources.

5 Hayes, who left the Washington Post Company in 1965 to become U.S. Ambassador to Switzerland, is now chairman of the board of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty — both of which severed their ties with the CIA in 1971.  Hayes said he cleared his participation in the China project with the late Frederick S. Beebe, then chairman of the board of the Washington Post Company.  Katharine Graham, the Post’s publisher, was unaware of the nature of the assignment, he said.  Participants in the project signed secrecy agreements.

6 [CFR member] Philip Geyelin, editor of the Post editorial page, worked for the Agency before joining the Post.

7 Louis Buisch, presidentof the publishing company of the Hornell, New York, Evening Tribune, told the Courier‑Journal in 1976 that he remembered little about the hiring of Robert Campbell. “He wasn’t there very long, and he didn’t make much of an impression,” said Buisch, who has since retired from active management of the newspaper.

8 Probably the most thoughtful article on the subject of the press and the CIA was written by Stuart H. Loory and appeared in the September‑October 1974 issue of Columbia Journalism Review.

9 Wes Gallagher, general manager of the Associated Press from 1962 to 1976, takes vigorous exception to the notion that the Associated Press might have aided the Agency. “We’ve always stayed clear on the CIA; I would have fired anybody who worked for them. We don’t even let our people debrief.” At the time of the first disclosures that reporters had worked for the CIA, Gallagher went to [CFR member]  Colby. “We tried to find out names. All he would say was that no full‑time staff member of the Associated Press was employed by the Agency. We talked to [CFR member]  Bush. He said the same thing.” If any Agency personnel were placed in Associated Press bureaus, said Gallagher, it was done without consulting the management of the wire service. But Agency officials insist that they were able to make cover arrangements through someone in the upper management levels of Associated Press, whom they refuse to identify.

10 Many journalists and some CIA officials dispute the Agency’s claim that it has been scrupulous in respecting the editorial integrity of American publications and broadcast outlets.

1 Comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Council on Foreign Relations Membership Chart

Council on Foreign Relations Membership Chart
By William P. Litynski

Prominent Active Members of the Council on Foreign Relations in 2012 (as of June 27, 2013)
Bankers:
Name CFR Membership (Year) Occupation
Robert B. Zoellick 1991-present President of The World Bank (2007-2012)
John P. Lipsky 1995-present First Deputy Managing Director of International Monetary Fund (2006-2011)
Stanley Fischer 1994-present Governor of the Bank of Israel [central bank of Israel] (2005-2013)
Janet L. Yellen 1976-1981, 2006-present Vice Chairman of the Federal Reserve (2010-present)
Daniel K. Tarullo 2000-present Member of the Federal Reserve Board (2009-present)
Richard W. Fisher 1976-present President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas (2005-present)
Dennis P. Lockhart 2008-present President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (2007-present)
William C. Dudley 2011-present President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2009-present)
James “Jamie” Dimon 2000-present Chairman and CEO of JP Morgan Chase (2007-present)
Lloyd C. Blankfein 2009-present Chairman and CEO of Goldman Sachs (2006-present)
Richard D. Parsons 1990-present Chairman of the board of Citigroup (2009-present)
Bruce Wasserstein 1983-2009 Chairman and CEO of Lazard Freres (2001-2009)
Walter E. Massey 1997-present Chairman of the board of Bank of America (2009-2010)
Alexander T. Ercklentz 1988-present Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1978-present)
Kenneth Chenault 1989-present Chairman and CEO of American Express Co. (2001-present)
George Soros 1988-present Chairman of Soros Fund Management, LLC (1996-present)
Henry R. Kravis 1992-present Senior Partner of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. (1987-present)
Stephen A. Schwarzman 1992-present Chairman and CEO of The Blackstone Group (1985-present)
James A. Johnson 1994-present Vice Chairman of Perseus LLP (2001-present); CEO of Fannie Mae (1991-1998)
Louis V. Gerstner Jr. 1982-present Chairman of the Carlyle Group (2003-2008)

Lawyers:
Michael Stevens Helfer 2010-present General Counsel of Citigroup (2003-present)
Louise M. Parent 2000-present General Counsel of American Express Co. (1993-present)
Sheila C. Cheston 2002-present General Counsel of Northrop Grumman Corporation (2010-present)
Peter J. Beshar 1996-present General Counsel of Marsh & McLennan Companies (2004-present)
Kenneth A. Cutshaw 1996-present General Counsel of Church’s Chicken (2006-present)
Mark C. Treanor 2002-present General Counsel of Wachovia Corporation (1998-present)
Richard A. Drucker 1999-present Partner of Davis, Polk & Wardwell [law firm in New York City] (1988-present)
Andres V. Gil 1989-1993, 2006-present Partner of Davis, Polk & Wardwell [New York City] (1990-present)
James H. Carter 1998-present Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell [New York City] (1977-present)
Mel M. Immergut 1999-present Partner of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy [New York City] (1980-present)
Richard I. Beattie 1985-present Partner of Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett [New York City] (1975-1977, 1980-present)
David W. Rivkin 2005-present Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton [New York City] (1988-present)
Toby S. Myerson 1993-present Partner of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison (1983-1989, 1990-present)
Charlene Barshefsky 1999-present Partner of Wilmer, Cutler, Pickering, Hale & Dorr (2001-present)
Jamie Gorelick 1997-present Partner of Wilmer, Cutler, Pickering, Hale & Dorr (2003-present)
Vernon E. Jordan Jr. 1978-present Senior Counsel of Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld (2000-present)

Organizations:
Jessica Tuchman Mathews 1978-1980, 1983-pres. President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1997-present)
Judith Rodin 2006-present President of The Rockefeller Foundation (2005-present)
Luis A. Ubinas 2011-present President of Ford Foundation (2008-present)
Ronald S. Lauder 1998-present President of World Jewish Congress (2007-present)
Abraham H. Foxman 2006-present National Director of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) (1987-present)
Carla A. Hills 1993-present Co-Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations (2007-present)
Richard N. Haass 1980-1985, 1994-pres. President of the Council on Foreign Relations (2003-present)
Joseph S. Nye Jr. 1970-present North American Chairman of the Trilateral Commission (2008-present)
Vartan Gregorian 1984-present President of Carnegie Corporation of New York (1997-present)
Strobe Talbott 1975-present President of The Brookings Institution (2002-present)
Walter S. Isaacson 1979-1984, 1987-pres. President of Aspen Institute (2003-present)
Herbert I. London 2000-present President of Hudson Institute (1997-2011)
James A. Thomson 1988-present President of RAND Corporation (1989-2011)
John J. Hamre 2001-present President of Center for Strategic International Studies (CSIS) (2000-present)
Martin S. Feldstein 1980-present President of National Bureau of Economic Research (1977-1982, 1984-2008)
Grover G. Norquist 1999-present President of Americans for Tax Reform (1985-present)
Robert I. Rotberg 1975-present President of World Peace Foundation (1993-present)
Rev. Jesse L. Jackson Sr. 1990-present President of Rainbow/PUSH Coalition (1996-present)
Jeffrey L. Sturchio 2010-present President and CEO of Global Health Council (2009-present)
Jonathan T.M. Reckford 2009-present CEO of Habitat for Humanity (2005-present)
Marie-Josee Kravis 2005-present Senior Fellow of the Hudson Institute (1994-present)
Rick Warren 2006-present Senior Pastor of Saddleback Church in Lake Forest, California (1980-present)

Corporate Executives:
Robert J. Stevens 2004-present Chairman and CEO of Lockheed Martin (2005-present)
(Adm.) Jay L. Johnson 1997-present Chairman and CEO of General Dynamics Corp. (2010-present)
David J. O’Reilly 2008-present Chairman and CEO of ChevronTexaco (2000-2009)
Frederick W. Smith 2006-present Chairman and CEO of FedEx Corp. (1975-present)
Muhtar Kent 2010-present Chairman of the board and CEO of The Coca-Cola Company (2009-present)
Randall L. Stephenson 2010-present Chairman, CEO, and President of AT&T (2007-present)
Robert D. Haas 1983-present Chairman of Levi Strauss & Co. (1989-2008)
Leonard A. Lauder 1988-present Chairman of Estee Lauder Companies (1999-present)
Farooq Kathwari 1998-present Chairman, President, and CEO of Ethan Allen Interiors Inc. (1988-present)
Penny S. Pritzker 1994-1998, 2004-present Founder and President of Classic Residence by Hyatt (1987-2013)
James S. Tisch 2004-present President and CEO of Loews Corp. [Newport cigarettes] (1999-present)
Craig J. Mundie 2002-present Chief Research and Strategy Officer for Microsoft Corp. (2006-present)
Sheryl K. Sandberg 2009-present Chief Operating Officer of Facebook, Inc. (2008-present)

Corporate Media:
Rupert Murdoch 1994-present Chairman and CEO of News Corp. (Fox News) (1991-present)
Eric Schmidt 2008-present Chairman and CEO of Google Inc. (2001-present)
Howard Stringer 2001-present Chairman and CEO of Sony Corporation (2005-present)
Jeffrey L. Bewkes 1996-present Chairman and CEO of Time Warner, Inc. (2009-present)
Edgar Bronfman Jr. 2007-present Chairman and CEO of Warner Music Group Corp. (2004-present)
Gordon Crovitz 1987-1992, 2008-present Publisher of The Wall Street Journal (2006-present)
Mortimer B. Zuckerman 1988-present Editor-in-Chief of U.S. News and World Report (1984-present)
John W. Huey Jr. 2003-present Editor-in-Chief of Time magazine (2006-present)
Fareed Zakaria 2002-present Editor of Newsweek International (2000-present)
Fred Hiatt 1997-present Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post (2000-present)
Andrew M. Rosenthal 2007-present Editorial Page Editor of The New York Times (2007-present)
Thomas L. Friedman 1985-present Foreign Affairs Columnist of The New York Times (1995-present)
Diane Sawyer 1981-present Anchor of ABC World News Tonight (2010-present)
Brian D. Williams 2003-present Anchor of NBC Nightly News (2004-present)
Katie Couric 2004-present Anchor of CBS Evening News (2006-2011)
Andrea Mitchell 2004-present Chief Foreign Affairs Correspondent for NBC (1994-present)
Bob L. Schieffer 2010-present Moderator of Face The Nation (1991-present)
Barbara Walters 1978-present Co-host of The View on ABC (1997-present)
George Stephanopoulos 1991-1996, 2010-present Anchor of Good Morning America on ABC (2010-present)
Charles Krauthammer 1990-present Syndicated Columnist for The Washington Post (1984-present)
Robert W. Kagan 1985-1990, 1996-present Columnist for The Washington Post
Jim Lehrer 1980-present Anchor of The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer on PBS (1995-present)
Morton Kondrake 1988-present Fox News analyst
Kitty Pilgrim 2000-present CNN journalist
Paula A. Zahn 2002-present CNN journalist
Lesley R. Stahl 2002-present CBS News 60 Minutes correspondent (1991-present)

College Presidents, Deans, and Professors:
Richard C. Levin 2012-present President of Yale University (1993-present)
Christina H. Paxson 2012-present President of Brown University (2012-present)
Lee C. Bollinger 2003-present President of Columbia University (2002-present)
David J. Skorton 2006-present President of Cornell University (2006-present)
John J. DeGioia 2003-present President of Georgetown University (2001-present)
Donna E. Shalala 1982-present President of University of Miami [Florida] (2001-present)
David L. Boren 1989-present President of University of Oklahoma (1994-present)
John J. DeGioia 2003-present President of Georgetown University (2001-present)
Leo Rafael Reif 2012-present President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2012-present)
Jane Dammen McAuliffe 2009-present President of Bryn Mawr College (2008-present)
Dennis H. Holtschneider 2009-present President of DePaul University (2004-present)
John Edward Sexton 2003-present President of New York University (2002-present)
Richard W. Lariviere 2006-present President of University of Oregon (2009-2011)
Michael M. Crow 2005-present President of Arizona State University (2002-present)
David W. Leebron 1996-present President of Rice University (2004-present)
Erskine B. Bowles 1999-present President of University of North Carolina (2005-2010)
Stephen W. Bosworth 1988-present Dean, Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (2001-2013)
Jessica P. Einhorn 1973-present Dean, Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins Univ. (2002-2012)
John H. Coatsworth 2000-present Dean, School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University (2007-present)
Carol J. Lancaster 1986-present Dean, Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown Univ. (2009-present)
R. Glenn Hubbard 2007-present Dean of Columbia Business School (2004-present)
Kurt L. Schmoke 1992-present Dean of Howard University Law School (2003-present); Mayor of Baltimore (1987-1999)
Henry Louis Gates Jr. 1990-present W.E.B. Du Bois Professor of the Humanities at Harvard University
Drew S. Days III 1997-present Professor of Law at Yale Law School (1991-present)

Government Officials:
Name CFR Membership Occupation
John Forbes Kerry 1992-present U.S. Secretary of State (2013-present); U.S. Senator (D-Mass., 1985-2013)
Chuck Hagel 1999-present U.S. Secretary of Defense (2013-present); U.S. Senator (R-Nebraska, 1997-2009)
Jacob J. Lew 2006-present Secretary of the Treasury (2013-present)
Penny S. Pritzker 1994-1998, 2004-pres. Secretary of Commerce (2013-present)
Janet A. Napolitano 2006-present Secretary of Homeland Security (2009-present); Governor of Arizona (2003-2009)
(Gen.) Eric K. Shinseki 2000-present Secretary of Veterans Affairs (2009-present)
Ernest J. Moniz 2001-present Secretary of Energy (2013-present)
William J. Burns 1994-present Deputy Secretary of State (2011-present)
Neal S. Wolin 1993-present Deputy Secretary of the Treasury (2009-present)
Jane Holl Lute 2000-present Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security (2009-2013)
Daniel B. Poneman 1986-present Deputy Secretary of Energy (2009-present)
Jeh Charles Johnson 2001-present General Counsel of the U.S. Department of Defense (2009-2012)
Stephen W. Preston 2002-present General Counsel of the Central Intelligence Agency (2009-present)
Anne-Marie Slaughter 1987-1992, 1994-pres. State Department Director of Policy Planning Staff (2009-2011)
Mary Jo White 2003-present Chairman of U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (2013-present)
Alan D. Bersin 1999-present Commissioner of Customs and Border Protection (2010-2011)
Margaret Ann Hamburg 1986-1991, 1993-pres. Commissioner of Food and Drug Administration (2009-present)
Karen Gordon Mills 1995-present Administrator of U.S. Small Business Administration (2009-present)
Aaron S. Williams 1994-present Director of Peace Corps (2009-2012)
Thomas E. Donilon 1996-present National Security Advisor (2010-2013)
David C. Gompert 1977-present Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence (2009-present)
Mona Sutphen 1998-present White House Deputy Chief of Staff for Policy (2009-2011)
Miriam Sapiro 1991-1996, 2000-pres. Deputy U.S. Trade Representative (2009-present)
Raymond E. Mabus 1996-present Secretary of the Navy (2009-present)
Susan E. Rice 1992-1997, 1999-pres. National Security Advisor (2013-pres.); U.S. Rep. to the United Nations (2009-13)
Ivo H. Daalder 1999-present U.S. Representative to NATO (2009-present)
(Lt. Gen.) Karl W. Eikenberry 1998-present U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (2009-2011)
Carlos E. Pascual 2001-present U.S. Ambassador to Mexico (2009-2011)
James B. Cunningham 2001-present U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (2012-pres.); U.S. Amb. to Israel (2008-2011)
Cameron R. Hume 1999-present U.S. Ambassador to Indonesia (2007-2010)
Eric G. John 2010-present U.S. Ambassador to Thailand (2008-2010)
Tatiana C. Gfoeller 1996-present U.S. Ambassador to Kyrgyzstan (2008-2011)
Lee A. Feinstein 1994-present U.S. Ambassador to Poland (2009-2012)
Jeffrey L. Bleich 2005-present U.S. Ambassador to Australia (2009-present)
Mari Carmen Aponte 1995-present U.S. Ambassador to El Salvador (2010-present)
Raul H. Yzaguierre 1995-present U.S. Ambassador to Dominican Republic (2010-present)
Ryan C. Crocker 2010-present U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (2011-2012)
Mark F. Brzezinski 1997-2001, 2003-pres. U.S. Ambassador to Sweden (2011-present)
Michael McFaul 2001-present U.S. Ambassador to Russia (2012-present)
Gina Abercrombie-Winstanley 1998-present U.S. Ambassador to Malta (2012-present)
Adm. Patrick M. Walsh 2009-present Commander of U.S. Pacific Fleet (2009-2012)
Lt. Gen. Michelle D. Johnson 2007-present Superintendent of U.S. Air Force Academy (2013-present)
Sen. John D. Rockefeller IV 1978-present U.S. Senator (1985-present)
Sen. Olympia J. Snowe 1991-present U.S. Senator (1995-2013)
Sen. Joseph Lieberman 1991-present U.S. Senator (1989-2013)
Sen. John S. McCain III 1997-present U.S. Senator (1987-present)
Sen. Jack Reed 2001-present U.S. Senator (1997-present)
Sen. Dianne Feinstein 2003-present U.S. Senator (1992-present)
Sen. Mark Warner 2005-present U.S. Senator (2009-present)
Thomas E. Petri 1989-present U.S. Congressman (1979-present)
Jim McDermott 1995-present U.S. Congressman (1989-present)
James H. S. Cooper 1995-present U.S. Congressman (1983-1995, 2003-present)
David Dreier 2002-present U.S. Congressman (1981-2013)
Charles W. Boustany Jr. 2007-present U.S. Congressman (2005-present)
Nita M. Lowey 2010-present U.S. Congressman (1989-present)
Ruth Bader Ginsburg 1973-present Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1993-present)
Stephen G. Breyer 1983-present Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1994-present)
Haley Barbour 2010-present Governor of Mississippi (2004-2012)
Michael R. Bloomberg 1999-present Mayor of New York City (2002-present)
Thurbert E. Baker 2001-present Attorney General of Georgia (1997-2011)
Daniel S. Sullivan 2009-present Attorney General of Alaska (2009-2010)

Former Government Officials (Executive Branch):
Name CFR Membership Occupation
James E. “Jimmy” Carter 1983-present President of the United States (1977-1981)
William J. “Bill” Clinton 1989-present President of the United States (1993-2001)
Walter F. Mondale 1973-present Vice President of the United States (1977-1981)
Richard B. “Dick” Cheney 1982-present Vice President of the U.S. (2001-2009); Secretary of Defense (1989-1993)
George P. Shultz 1974-present Secretary of State (1982-1989); Secretary of the Treasury (1972-1974)
James A. Baker III 1998-present Secretary of State (1989-1992); Secretary of the Treasury (1985-1988)
Madeleine K. Albright 1976-present Secretary of State (1997-2001); U.S. Rep. to the United Nations (1993-1997)
(Gen.) Colin L. Powell 1986-present Secretary of State (2001-2005); National Security Advisor (1987-1989)
Condoleezza Rice 1984-present Secretary of State (2005-2009); National Security Advisor (2001-2005)
James R. Schlesinger 1986-present Secretary of Defense (1973-1975); Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1973)
Harold Brown 1969-present Secretary of Defense (1977-1981)
Frank C. Carlucci 1976-present Secretary of Defense (1987-1989); National Security Advisor (1986-1987)
William J. Perry 1999-present Secretary of Defense (1994-1997)
William S. Cohen 1981-present Secretary of Defense (1997-2001); U.S. Senator (R-Maine, 1979-1997)
Robert M. Gates 1983-present Secretary of Defense (2006-2011); Director of Starbucks Coffee Co. (2012-pres.)
(Adm.) Stansfield Turner 1973-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1977-1981)
William H. Webster 1987-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1987-1991)
R. James Woolsey 1975-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1993-1995)
John M. Deutch 1976-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1995-1996)
George J. Tenet 1998-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1997-2004)
(Gen.) Michael V. Hayden 2003-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (2006-2009)
Zbigniew Brzezinski 1961-present National Security Advisor (1977-1981)
Richard V. Allen 1999-present National Security Advisor (1981-1982)
Robert C. McFarlane 1983-present National Security Advisor (1983-1985)
Brent Scowcroft 1974-present National Security Advisor (1975-1977, 1989-1993)
Samuel R. “Sandy” Berger 1985-present National Security Advisor (1997-2001)
Stephen J. Hadley 1976-1981, 1993-present National Security Advisor (2005-2009)
W. Michael Blumenthal 1963-present Secretary of the Treasury (1977-1979)
Nicholas F. Brady 1983-present Secretary of the Treasury (1988-1993)
Robert E. Rubin 1994-present Secretary of the Treasury (1995-1999)
Lawrence H. Summers 1990-present Secretary of the Treasury (1999-2001)
Henry M. Paulson Jr. 2001-present Secretary of the Treasury (2006-2009)
Timothy F. Geithner 1996-present Secretary of the Treasury (2009-2013)
Robert A. Mosbacher 1995-present Secretary of Commerce (1989-1992)
Barbara Hackman Franklin 1992-present Secretary of Commerce (1992-1993)
Mickey Kantor 1999-present Secretary of Commerce (1996-1997)
Donald F. McHenry 1970-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1979-1981)
Thomas R. Pickering 1975-present U.S. Rep. to United Nations (1989-1992); U.S. Ambassador to Israel (1985-1988)
Edward J. Perkins 1988-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1992-1993)
William B. “Bill” Richardson 1985-present U.S. Rep. to United Nations (1997-1998); Secretary of Energy (1998-2001)
John D. Negroponte 1981-present U.S. Rep. to United Nations (2001-2004); U.S. Ambassador to Iraq (2004-2005)
John R. Bolton 2000-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (2005-2006)
Zalmay Khalilzad 1986-present U.S. Rep. to United Nations (2007-2009); U.S. Ambassador to Iraq (2005-2007)
Winston Lord 1973-present U.S. Ambassador to Communist China (1985-1989)
J. Stapleton Roy 2004-present U.S. Ambassador to Communist China (1991-1995)
(Sen.) James R. Sasser 2001-present U.S. Ambassador to Communist China (1995-1999)
(Adm.) Joseph W. Prueher 2003-present U.S. Ambassador to Communist China (1999-2001)
Clark T. Randt Jr. 2003-present U.S. Ambassador to Communist China (2001-2009)
Edward P. Djerejian 1991-present U.S. Ambassador to Israel (1993-1994); U.S. Ambassador to Syria (1988-1991)
Martin S. Indyk 2002-present U.S. Ambassador to Israel (1995-1997, 2000-2001)
Daniel C. Kurtzer 1989-2002, 2006-pres. U.S. Ambassador to Israel (July 18, 2001-July 17, 2005)
Dick Thornburgh 1988-present U.S. Attorney General (1988-1991)
William T. Coleman Jr. 1972-present U.S. Secretary of Transportation (1975-1977)
Federico F. Pena 2001-present U.S. Secretary of Transportation (1993-1997); Secretary of Energy (1997-1998)
Tommy G. Thompson 2008-present Secretary of Health and Human Services (2001-2005)
Donna E. Shalala 1982-present Secretary of Health and Human Services (1993-2001)
Elaine L. Chao 1983-1988, 1990-present Secretary of Labor (2001-2009)
Charles O. Rossotti 1989-present Commissioner of Internal Revenue Service (1997-2002)
Doris M. Meissner 1990-present Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization Service (1993-2000)
Kenneth Prewitt 1980-present Director of the Census Bureau (1998-2001)
Henrietta H. Fore 1998-present Director of the U.S. Mint (2001-2005)
Arthur Levitt Jr. 2004-present Chairman of U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (1993-2001)
Togo West 1984, 1995-present Secretary of the Army (1993-1997)
Louis E. Caldera 2002-present Secretary of the Army (1998-2001)
John F. Lehman Jr. 1991-present Secretary of the Navy (1981-1987)
James G. Roche 1992-present Secretary of the Air Force (2001-2005)

Retired Military Officers (Executive Branch):
Name CFR Membership Occupation
Gen. John W. Vessey Jr. 1982-present Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1982-1985)
Gen. Colin L. Powell 1986-present Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1989-1993)
Gen. John M. Shalikashvili 1995-present Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1993-1997);
Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1992-1993)
Gen. Richard B. Myers, USAF 2002-present Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (2001-2005)
Gen. George A. Joulwan 2008-present Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1993-1997)
Gen. Wesley K. Clark 1975-1979, 1983-pres. Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1997-2000)
Gen. Bantz J. Craddock 2009-present Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (2007-2009)
Adm. James G. Stavridis 1984-1989, 2005-pres. Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (2009-2013)
Gen. Joseph P. Hoar, USMC 1994-present Commander, U.S. Central Command (1991-1994)
Gen. John P. Abizaid 1985-1990, 2004-pres. Commander, U.S. Central Command (2003-2007)
Gen. David H. Petraeus 1986-1991, 1998-pres. Commander, U.S. Central Command (2008-2010); CIA Director (2011-2012)
Gen. Fred F. Woerner 1991-present Commander, U.S. Southern Command (1987-1989)
Gen. Barry McCaffrey 1994-present Commander, U.S. Southern Command (1994-1996)
Gen. James T. Hill, Army 1997-present Commander, U.S. Southern Command (2002-2004)
Gen. Edward C. Meyer 1979-present Army Chief of Staff (1979-1983)
Gen. Carl E. Vuono 1988-present Army Chief of Staff (1987-1991)
Gen. Gordon R. Sullivan 1992-present Army Chief of Staff (1991-1995)
Gen. Dennis J. Reimer 1996-present Army Chief of Staff (1995-1999)
Gen. Eric K. Shinseki 2000-present Army Chief of Staff (1999-2003)
Gen. Larry D. Welch 1988-present Air Force Chief of Staff (1986-1990)
Gen. Merrill A. McPeak 1989-present Air Force Chief of Staff (1990-1994)
Gen. Ronald R. Fogleman 1986-present Air Force Chief of Staff (1994-1997)
Gen. John P. Jumper 1995-present Air Force Chief of Staff (2001-2005)
Gen. T. Michael Moseley 2001-present Air Force Chief of Staff (2005-2008)
Gen. Norton A. Schwartz 1986-1991, 2002-pres. Air Force Chief of Staff (2008-2012)
Adm. Thomas B. Hayward 1984-present Chief of Naval Operations (1978-1982)
Adm. Jay L. Johnson 1997-present Chief of Naval Operations (1996-2000)
Gen. Paul X. Kelley 1983-present Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps (1983-1987)
Gen. Charles C. Krulak 1996-present Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps (1995-1999)
Adm. Robert E. Kramek 1996-present Commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard (1994-1998)
Adm. Thad W. Allen 2007-present Commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard (2006-2010)
Lt. Gen. Daniel W. Christman 1990-present Superintendent of U.S. Military Academy (1996-2001)
Lt. Gen. William J. Lennox Jr. 2001-present Superintendent of U.S. Military Academy (2001-2006)
Adm. Charles R. Larson 1992-present Superintendent of U.S. Naval Academy (1983-1986, 1994-1998)
Vice Adm. Jeffrey L. Fowler 2003-present Superintendent of U.S. Naval Academy (2007-2010)
Lt. Gen. Bradley C. Hosmer 1974-present Superintendent of U.S. Air Force Academy (1991-1994)
Gen. Ralph E. Eberhart 1995-present Commander, North American Aerospace Defense Command [NORAD] (2000-04)
Adm. Timothy J. Keating 2009-present Commander, North American Aerospace Defense Command (2004-2007)
Gen. Victor E. Renuart Jr. 2009-present Commander, North American Aerospace Defense Command (2007-2010)
Gen. Thomas S. Moorman Jr. 1994-present Air Force Vice Chief of Staff (1994-1997)
Gen. Robert H. Foglesong 2001-present Commander, U.S. Air Forces in Europe (2003-2006)
Lt. Gen. Charles W. Carson Jr. 1973-present Commander, 12th Air Force and Tactical Air Command (1974-1975)
Lt. Gen. Michael A. Hamel 2003-present Commander, 14th Air Force and Air Force Space Command (2002-2005)
Lt. Gen. John R. Baker 1996-present Vice Commander, Air Mobility Command (2002-2005)
Maj. Gen. Perry M. Smith, USAF 1975-present Commandant, National War College (1983-1986)
Lt. Gen. Karl W. Eikenberry 1998-present Commander, Combined Forces Command-Afghanistan (2005-2007)
Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal 2001-present Commander, U.S. Forces Afghanistan (2009-2010)
Gen. Montgomery C. Meigs 2005-present Commander, U.S. Army Europe (1998-2002)
Gen. Burwell B. Bell III 1996-present Commander, U.S. Army Europe (2002-2005)
Maj. Gen. William L. Nash 2003-present Commanding General, U.S. Army 1st Armored Division (1995-1997)
Maj. Gen. David M. Mize 1995-present Commanding General, Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (2001-2003)
Brig. Gen. Stephen A. Cheney 1996-present Commanding General, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island (1999-2001)
Maj. Gen. Christopher Cortez 2004-present Commanding General, Marine Corps Recruiting Command (2003-2004)
Adm. S. Robert Foley Jr. 1982-present Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Pacific Fleet (1982-1985)
Adm. Harry D. Train II 1982-present Commander, U.S. Sixth Fleet (1976-1978)
Adm. William A. Owens 1992-present Commander, U.S. Sixth Fleet (1990-1992)
Adm. Joseph W. Prueher 2003-present Commander, U.S. Sixth Fleet (1993-1995)
Adm. Donald L. Pilling 1992-2008 Commander, U.S. Sixth Fleet (1995-1996)
Adm. Charles S. Abbot 1996-present Commander, U.S. Sixth Fleet (1996-1998)
Gen. James P. McCarthy 1991-present Deputy Commander, U.S. European Command (1989-1992)
Gen. Charles G. Boyd, USAF 1991-present Deputy Commander, U.S. European Command (1992-1995)
Gen. Michael V. Hayden, USAF 2003-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (2006-2009)
Gen. John A. Gordon, USAF 1996-present Deputy Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1997-2000)
Gen. William E. Ward 2010-present Commander, U.S. Africa Command (2007-2011)
Lt. Gen. Frank G. Klotz, USAF 1999-present Commander of Air Force Global Strike Command (2009-2011)
Vice Adm. Ann E. Rondeau 1996-present President of National Defense University (2009-2012)

Retired Bankers:
Name CFR Membership (Year) Occupation
David Rockefeller 1942-present Chairman and CEO of Chase Manhattan Bank (1969-1981)
Nicholas F. Brady 1983-present Chairman and CEO of Dillon, Read & Co. (1982-1988)
John P. Birkelund 1968-present Chairman and CEO of Dillon, Read & Co. (1988-1993)
Peter G. Peterson 1971-present Chairman and CEO of Lehman Brothers [Kuhn Loeb & Co.] (1973-1984)
John C. Whitehead 1978-present Co-Chairman of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1976-1984)
Henry M. Paulson Jr. 2001-present Chairman and CEO of Goldman Sachs (1999-2006)
William B. Harrison Jr. 2000-present Chairman and CEO of JP Morgan Chase (2001-2006)
Sanford I. Weill 2006-present Chairman (1998-2006) and CEO (1998-2003) of Citigroup
Charles O. Prince III 2000-present Chairman (2006-2007) and CEO (2004-2007) of Citigroup
E. Stanley O’Neal 2004-present Chairman and CEO of Merrill Lynch & Co. (2003-2007)
Robert E. Rubin 1994-present Partner (1971-1992) and Co-Chairman (1990-1992) of Goldman, Sachs & Co.;
Member of the board of directors, Citigroup (1999-present)
Stephen Friedman 1984-present Partner (1973-1992) and Chairman (1990-1994) of Goldman Sachs & Co.
Robert J. Hurst 1992-present Partner of Goldman Sachs & Co. (1980-2000)
John L. Thornton 1986-1991, 1998-present President of Goldman Sachs & Co. (1999-2003)
Maurice R. Greenberg 1977-present Chairman and CEO of American International Group (1989-2005)
James D. Robinson III 1973-present Chairman and CEO of American Express Co. (1977-1993)
James D. Wolfensohn 1981-present President of The World Bank (1995-2005)
Paul D. Wolfowitz 1974-1979, 1981-present President of The World Bank (2005-2007)
Paul A. Volcker 1970-present Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1979-1987)
Alan Greenspan 1978-present Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1987-2006)
William J. McDonough 1975-present President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1993-2003)
Michael H. Moskow 1996-present President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (1994-2007)
Franklin D. Raines 1989-present Chairman and CEO of Fannie Mae (1999-2004)
Frank C. Carlucci 1976-present Chairman of The Carlyle Group (1993-2003)

Retired Corporate Executives:
Lee R. Raymond 1988-present Chairman and CEO of ExxonMobil (1999-2006)
Alfred C. DeCrane Jr. 1988-present Chairman of the board of Texaco (1987-1996)
C.J. Silas 1988-present Chairman and CEO of Phillips Petroleum Co. (1985-1994)
Lucio A. Noto 1994-present Chairman and CEO of Mobil Oil Corp. (1994-1999)
Kenneth T. Derr 1997-2009 Chairman and CEO of Chevron (1989-1999)
Philip M. Condit 2002-present Chairman and CEO of Boeing Co. (1996-2003)
Norman R. Augustine 1994-present Chairman and CEO of Lockheed-Martin (1995-1997)
Bernard L. Schwartz 2003-present Chairman and CEO of Loral Space & Communications (1996-2006)
Richard B. “Dick” Cheney 1982-present Chairman and CEO of Halliburton Co. (1993-2000)
Paul A. Allaire 1989-present Chairman and CEO of Xerox Corp. (1991-2001)
Anne M. Mulcahy 2002-present Chairman and CEO of Xerox Corp. (2002-2010)
C. Michael Armstrong 1982-present Chairman and CEO of AT&T (1998-2002); Chairman of Comcast (2003-2004)
Henry B. Schacht 1971-present Chairman and CEO of Lucent Technologies (1995-1997, 2000-2002)
Donald M. Kendall 1988-present Chairman and CEO of PepsiCo, Inc. (1971-1986)
M. Douglas Ivester 1999-present Chairman and CEO of The Coca-Cola Company (1997-2000)
James E. Burke 1984-present Chairman and CEO of Johnson & Johnson (1976-1989)
Charles A. Heimbold Jr. 1995-present Chairman and CEO of Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. (1995-2001)
James P. Kelly 1989-present Chairman and CEO of United Parcel Service (1997-2001)
Frank Popoff 1990-present Chairman (1992-2000) and CEO (1987-1996) of Dow Chemical Co.
Charles F. Barber 1957-2010 Chairman of American Smelting and Refining Co. (1971-1982)
James R. Houghton 1975-present Chairman of the board and CEO of Corning Glass Works (1983-1989);
Chairman of the board and CEO of Corning, Inc. (1989-1996, 2002-2005)
William H. “Bill” Donaldson 1974-present Chairman of New York Stock Exchange (1991-1995)

Former Lawyers:
Ko-Yung Tung 1987-present Vice President and General Counsel of The World Bank (1999-2003)
David R. Andrews 1992-present General Counsel of PepsiCo. (2002-2005)
George W. Coombe, Jr. 1989-present General Counsel of Bank of America (1975-1990)
Florence A. Davis 2003-present General Counsel of American International Group (1995-1999)
James V. Derrick, Jr. 2000-present General Counsel of Enron Corp. (1991-2002)
Kenneth C. Frazier 2001-present General Counsel of Merck & Co. (1999-2006)
Benjamin W. Heineman Jr. 1990-present General Counsel of General Electric Co. (1987-2004)
Robert J. Katz 2004-present General Counsel of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1988-2000)
Ernest T. Patrikis 1993-present General Counsel of American International Group (AIG) (1999-2006)
George Vradenburg III 2004-present General Counsel of Columbia Broadcasting System (1980-1991)
Robert B. von Mehren 1954-present Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton [law firm] (1957-1993)
Roswell B. Perkins 1956-present Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton [law firm] (1957-1996)
Stephen J. Friedman 1986-present Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton [law firm] (1970-1977, 1981-1986, 1993-2004)

Former Organization Executives:
Thomas L. Hughes 1967-present President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1971-1991)
Morton I. Abramowitz 1975-present President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1991-1997)
Richard W. Lyman 1980-present President of The Rockefeller Foundation (1980-1988)
Peter C. Goldmark Jr. 1979-present President of The Rockefeller Foundation (1988-1997)
Franklin A. Thomas 1978-present President of Ford Foundation (1979-1996)
Susan V. Berresford 1989-present President of Ford Foundation (1996-2008)
Bruce K. MacLaury 1968-present President of The Brookings Institution (1977-1995)
Michael H. Armacost 1977-present President of The Brookings Institution (1995-2002)
Ralph E. Gomory 1987-present President of Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (1989-2007)
Jonathan F. Fanton 1990-present President of John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation (1999-2009);
Chairman of the board of Human Rights Watch (1998-2003)
Edgar M. Bronfman Sr. 1976-present President of World Jewish Congress (1981-2007)
Norman Dorsen 1997-present President of American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) (1976-1991)
Nadine Strossen 1994-present President of American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) (1991-2008)
Raul H. Yzaguierre 1995-present President of National Council of La Raza (1974-2004)
Leslie H. Gelb 1973-present President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1993-2003)
Clifton R. Wharton Jr. 1967-present Chairman and CEO of TIAA-CREF (1987-1993)
John J. Sweeney 1998-present President of AFL-CIO (1995-2009)

Former Publishers and Journalists:
W. Thomas Johnson 1973-present Publisher of Los Angeles Times (1980-1989)
David A. Laventhol 1980-present Publisher of Los Angeles Times (1989-1993)
John W. Madigan 2002-present Publisher of Chicago Tribune (1990-1994)
Cathleen P. Black 2003-present Publisher of USA Today (1984-1991)
Alberto Ibarguen 2001-present Publisher of The Miami Herald (1998-2004)
Karen Elliott House 1978-present Publisher of The Wall Street Journal (2002-2005)
Peter R. Kann 1985-present Chairman of Dow Jones & Co. (1991-2007)
Arnaud de Borchgrave 1975-present Editor-in-Chief of The Washington Times (1985-1991)
Jason D. McManus 1988-present Editor-in-Chief of Time magazine (1987-1995)
Norman Pearlstine 1984-present Editor-in-Chief of Time magazine (1995-2005)
Dan Rather 1980-present Anchor of CBS Evening News (1981-2005)
Tom Brokaw 1988-present Anchor of NBC Nightly News (1982-2004)
David L. Westin 2003-present President of ABC News (1998-2010)
Alan Spoon 2005-present President of The Washington Post Co. (1993-2000)
Patricia E. Mitchell 2003-present President of Public Broadcasting Service [PBS] (2000-2006)
Luis G. Nogales 2000-present Chairman and CEO of United Press International (UPI) (1983-1986);
President of Univision (1987-1988)
Barry Diller 2008-present Chairman of Paramount Pictures (1974-84); Chmn. and CEO, 20th Century Fox (1984-92)

Former College Administrators:
Benno C. Schmidt Jr. 1986-present President of Yale University (1986-1992)
Neil L. Rudenstine 1988-present President of Harvard University (1991-2001)
Lawrence H. Summers 1990-present President of Harvard University (2001-2006)
Michael I. Sovern 1977-present President of Columbia University (1980-1993)
George E. Rupp 1997-present President of Columbia University (1993-2002)
Vartan Gregorian 1984-present President of Brown University (1989-1997)
Steven Muller 1966-2012 President of Johns Hopkins University (1972-1990)
Howard W. Johnson 1966-2009 President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1966-1971)
Richard W. Lyman 1980-present President of Stanford University (1970-1980)
Gerhard Casper 1985-present President of Stanford University (1992-2000)
Hanna Holborn Gray 1983-present President of University of Chicago (1978-1993)
Henry S. Bienen 1974-present President of Northwestern University (1995-2009)
Theodore M. Hesburgh 1966-present President of University of Notre Dame (1952-1987)
Stephen J. Trachtenberg 1990-present President of George Washington University (1988-2007)
Nannerl O. Keohane 1982-present President of Duke University (1993-2004)
John Brademas 1973-present President of New York University (1981-1991); U.S. Congressman (1959-1981)
L. Jay Oliva 1992-present President of New York University (1991-2002)
M. Peter McPherson 1987-present President of Michigan State University (1993-2004)
Steven B. Sample 1978-present President of University of Southern California (1991-2010)
Edward T. Foote II 1982-present President of University of Miami [Florida] (1981-2001)
Joseph S. Nye Jr. 1970-present Dean, John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard Univ. (1995-2004)
Lisa Anderson 1985-present Dean, School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia Univ. (1997-2007)
Robert L. Gallucci 1993-present Dean, School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University (1996-2009)
Jeffrey E. Garten 1976-1981, 1984-present Dean of Yale School of Management (1995-2005)
Anthony T. Kronman 1998-present Dean of Yale Law School (1994-2004)
David W. Leebron 1996-present Dean of Columbia Law School (1996-2004)
Laura D’Andrea Tyson 1987-present Dean of London Business School of Economics (2002-2006)

Former Politicians:
Howard H. Baker Jr. 1974-present U.S. Senate Majority Leader (1981-1985); U.S. Senator (R-Tennessee, 1967-1985)
George J. Mitchell 1990-present U.S. Senate Majority Leader (1989-1995); U.S. Senator (D-Maine, 1980-1995)
Thomas A. “Tom” Daschle 2006-present U.S. Senate Majority Leader (2001-2003); U.S. Senator (D-South Dakota, 1987-2005)
William H. “Bill” Frist 2002-present U.S. Senate Majority Leader (2003-2007); U.S. Senator (R-Tennessee, 1995-2007)
Thomas S. Foley 1984-present Speaker of the U.S. House of Rep. (1989-1995); U.S. Congressman (1965-1995)
Newton L. “Newt” Gingrich 1990-present Speaker of the U.S. House of Rep. (1995-1999); U.S. Congressman (1979-1999)
Harris L. Wofford 1969-present U.S. Senator (D-Pennsylvania, 1991-1995)
Bob Graham 1981-present U.S. Senator (D-Florida, 1987-2005); Governor of Florida (1979-1987)
Warren B. Rudman 1984-2012 U.S. Senator (R-New Hampshire, 1981-1993)
Rudy Boschwitz 1985-present U.S. Senator (R-Minnesota, 1978-1991)
Christopher J. Dodd 1985-present U.S. Senator (D-Connecticut, 1981-2011)
Larry Pressler 1986-present U.S. Senator (R-South Dakota, 1979-1997)
Charles S. Robb 1987-present U.S. Senator (D-Virginia, 1989-2001)
Timothy E. Wirth 1987-present U.S. Senator (D-Colorado, 1987-1993)
David L. Boren 1989-present U.S. Senator (D-Oklahoma,1979-1994)
Robert G. Torricelli 1994-present U.S. Senator (D-New Jersey, 1997-2003); U.S. Congressman (1983-1997)
Gary Hart 1995-present U.S. Senator (D-Colorado, 1975-1987)
Bill Bradley 1997-present U.S. Senator (D-New Jersey, 1979-1997)
Alfonse “Al” D’Amato 1998-present U.S. Senator (D-New York, 1981-1999)
Sam Nunn 1998-present U.S. Senator (D-Georgia, 1972-1997)
Nancy Kassebaum Baker 1999-present U.S. Senator (R-Kansas, 1978-1997)
John W. Warner 1999-present U.S. Senator (R-Virginia, 1979-2009)
J. Robert “Bob” Kerrey 2000-present U.S. Senator (D-Nebraska, 1989-2001)
Wyche Fowler Jr. 2000-present U.S. Senator (D-Georgia, 1987-1993); U.S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia (1996-2001)
James R. Sasser 2001-present U.S. Senator (D-Tennessee, 1977-1995)
Fred D. Thompson 2002-present U.S. Senator (R-Tennessee, 1994-2003)
Evan Bayh 2004-present U.S. Senator (D-Indiana, 1999-2011)
Ogden R. Reid 1956-present U.S. Congressman (D-New York, 1963-1975); U.S. Ambassador to Israel (1959-1961)
Peter H.B. Frelinghuysen 1965-2010 U.S. Congressman (R-New Jersey, 1953-1975)
Amory Houghton Jr. 1970-present U.S. Congressman (R-New York, 1987-2005)
Stephen J. Solarz 1978-present U.S. Congressman (D-New York, 1975-1993)
Geraldine Ferraro 1986-2010 U.S. Congressman (D-New York, 1979-1985)
Dave K. McCurdy 1988-present U.S. Congressman (D-Oklahoma, 1981-1995)
Howard Wolpe 1988-present U.S. Congressman (D-Michigan, 1979-1993)
Richard A. “Dick” Gephardt 1990-present U.S. Congressman (D-Missouri, 1977-2005)
John M. Spratt Jr. 1990-present U.S. Congressman (D-South Carolina, 1983-2011)
Jim Leach 1994-present U.S. Congressman (R-Iowa, 1977-2007)
Douglas K. Bereuter 1995-present U.S. Congressman (R-Nebraska, 1979-2004)
Lee H. Hamilton 1995-present U.S. Congressman (D-Indiana, 1965-1999); Vice Chairman of 9/11 Commission
Jane Harman 1995-present U.S. Congressman (D-California, 1993-1999, 2001-2011)
Stephen L. Neal 1995-present U.S. Congressman (D-North Carolina, 1975-1995)
John Edward Porter 1995-present U.S. Congressman (R-Illinois, 1980-2001)
Vin Weber 1995-present U.S. Congressman (R-Minnesota, 1981-1993)
James T. “Jim” Kolbe 1996-present U.S. Congressman (R-Arizona, 1985-2007)
Katherine Harris 2001-present U.S. Congressman (R-Florida, 2003-2007)
Harold E. Ford Jr. 2008-present U.S. Congressman (D-Tennessee, 1997-2007)
Gerald L. Baliles 1993-present Governor of Virginia (1986-1990)
James S. Gilmore III 2001-present Governor of Virginia (1998-2002)
Bruce Babbitt 1981-present Governor of Arizona (1978-1987); Secretary of the Interior (1993-2001)
William B. “Bill” Richardson 1985-present Governor of New Mexico (2003-2011)
Thomas H. Kean 1991-present Governor of New Jersey (1982-1990); Chairman of 9/11 Commission
Christine Todd Whitman 1995-present Governor of New Jersey (1994-2001); Adm., Environmental Protection Agency (2001-03)
Kathleen Kennedy Townsend 2001-present Lieutenant Governor of Maryland (1995-2003)
J. Kenneth Blackwell 1994-present Ohio Secretary of State (1999-2007)
David N. Dinkins 1995-present Mayor of New York City (1990-1993)
Maurice A. Ferre 1981-present Mayor of Miami (1973-1985)
Andrew J. Young 1977-present Mayor of Atlanta (1982-1990); U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1977-1979)
William H. White 2000-present Mayor of Houston (2004-2010)

Miscellaneous:
Daniel Ellsberg 1969-present Pentagon Paper leaker
Brig. Gen. Peter M. Dawkins 1971-present Retired U.S. Army Brigadier General; Heisman Trophy winner
David J. Stern 1998-present Commissioner of National Basketball Association (NBA) (1984-present)
Mark A. Emmert 2008-present President of National Collegiate Athletic Association [NCAA] (2010-present)
Michael Douglas 2005-present Hollywood actor
Angelina Jolie 2007-present Hollywood actress
George Clooney 2010-present Hollywood actor

Council on Foreign Relations: Wall Street Bankers and Financiers

Prominent Bankers of New York City [Jewish banking firms]:
*Walter E. Sachs – Member of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1910-1959); Limited Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1959-1980)
*Paul J. Sachs – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1904-1914)
John C. Whitehead – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1955-1984); Co-Chairman of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1976-1984)
*Charles E. Saltzman – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1956-1973)
*John L. Weinberg – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1956-1990); Senior Chairman of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1990-2001)
*Arthur G. Altschul – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1959-1977)
*Henry H. Fowler – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1969-1981)
Robert E. Rubin – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1971-1992); Co-Chairman of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1990-1992)
Stephen Friedman – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1973-1992); Chairman of Goldman Sachs & Co. (1990-1994)
Peter M. Sacerdote – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1973-1990)
Kenneth D. Brody – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1978-1991)
Robert J. Hurst – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1980-2000); Vice Chairman of Goldman Sachs & Co. (1999-2000)
Eugene V. Fife – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1980-1995)
Frank P. Brosens – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1988-1994)
John L. Thornton – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1988-1995); President of Goldman Sachs & Co. (1999-2003)
Henry M. Paulson Jr. – Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1982-1988); President of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1994-1998); Chairman and CEO of The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. (1999-2006)
Lloyd C. Blankfein – Chairman and CEO of Goldman Sachs (2006-present); Partner of Goldman Sachs (1988-present)
Robert D. Hormats – Vice Chairman of Goldman Sachs International (1987-2009); Managing Director of Goldman Sachs (1998-2009)

*George Blumenthal – Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. (1893-1904); Senior Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. (1904-1925)
*Frank Altschul – Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. (1916-1945); former Chairman of General American Investors Co.
Felix G. Rohatyn – General Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. (1960-1997)
Frederick L. Deming – General Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. (1969-1971)
*Robert F. Ellsworth – General Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. (1971-1974)
Robert Price – General Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. (1972-1982)
Frank G. Zarb – General Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. (1977-1988)
Franklin D. Raines – Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. (1985-1991)
W. Michael Blumenthal – Limited Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. (1990-1995)
Robert F. Agostinelli – Senior Managing Director of Lazard Freres & Co. (1987-1996)
Vernon E. Jordan, Jr. – Senior Managing Director of Lazard Freres (2000-present)
Bruce Wasserstein – Chairman and CEO of Lazard Freres (2001-2009)
Kenneth M. Jacobs – Chairman and CEO of Lazard Freres (2009-present)

*Paul M. Warburg – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1902-1914)
*Felix Warburg – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1896-1937)
*Otto H. Kahn – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1897-1934)
*Mortimer L. Schiff – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1900-1931)
*Frederick M. Warburg – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1931-1973)
*John M. Schiff – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1931-1977)
*Benjamin J. Buttenwieser – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1932-1977)
*Elisha Walker – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1933-1950)
*J. Richardson Dilworth – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1951-1958)
*Nathaniel Samuels – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1960-1966, 1972-1977)
*Mark C. Feer – Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1969-1977)

*Herbert H. Lehman – Partner of Lehman Brothers (1908-1914, 1919-1928)
*Robert Lehman – Partner of Lehman Brothers (1925-1969)
*George W. Ball – Senior Partner of Lehman Brothers (1969-1982)
Roman Martinez IV – Managing Director of Lehman Brothers (1978-?)
*Richard C. Holbrooke – Managing Director of Lehman Brothers (1985-1993)
*Philip Caldwell – Senior Managing Director of Lehman Brothers (1985-1998)
Peter G. Peterson – Chairman and CEO of Lehman Brothers (1973-1977) and Lehman Brothers Kuhn Loeb & Co. (1977-1984)
*Richard S. Fuld Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Lehman Brothers (1994-2008)
Harvey M. Krueger – Vice Chairman of Lehman Brothers

Nathan Gantcher – former President and co-CEO of Oppenheimer & Co.
Stephen Robert – former Chairman and CEO of Oppenheimer & Co.
Lionel I. Pincus – Founder, Chairman and CEO of Warburg Pincus LLC [formerly E.M. Warburg, Pincus & Co., Inc.] (1970-present)
*Medley G.B. Whelpley – Partner of Guggenheim Brothers [in New York City] (1931-1944)
Jewelle W. Bickford – Senior Managing Director and Global Partner of Rothschild, Inc.

Prominent Bankers of New York City [Anglo-American banking firms]:
*Thomas W. Lamont – Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1911-1948); Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1943-1948)
*Russell C. Leffingwell – Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1923-1950); Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1948-1950)
*Dwight W. Morrow – Member of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1914-1927)
*Junius S. Morgan – Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1919-1940); Vice President of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1940-1941)
*Henry S. Morgan – Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1928-1935)
*Harold Stanley – Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1928-1935)
*Thomas S. Lamont – Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1929-1940)
*Henry P. Davison Jr. – Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1929-1940)
*S. Parker Gilbert – Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1931-1938)
*George Whitney – Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1920-1955); Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1950-1955)
*Henry C. Alexander – Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1955-1959); Chairman of Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. of New York (1959-1965)
*Thomas S. Gates Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. of New York (1965-1970)
*John M. Meyer Jr. – Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co. [Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. of New York] (1970-1971)
*Ellmore C. Patterson – Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co. [Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. of New York] (1971-1977)
*Walter H. Page – Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co. [Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. of New York] (1978-1979); Vice Chairman of the board of Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. (1968-1971); President of Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. (1971-c.1978)
*Lewis T. Preston – Chairman and CEO of J.P. Morgan & Co. [Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. of New York] (1980-1989)
*Dennis Weatherstone – Chairman and CEO of J.P. Morgan & Co. [Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. of New York] (1990-1995)
*Robert V. Lindsay – President of Morgan Guaranty Trust Co. [later J.P. Morgan & Co.] (1980-1986)
Roberto G. Mendoza – Vice Chairman of JP Morgan & Co. (1990-2000)

*Albert H. Wiggin – Chairman of Chase National Bank (1918-1930); President of Chase National Bank (1911-1917, 1921-1926)
*Charles S. McCain – Chairman of Chase National Bank (1930-1934); President of Chase National Bank (1929-1930)
*Winthrop W. Aldrich – Chairman of Chase National Bank (1934-1953); President of Chase National Bank (1930-1934)
*H. Donald Campbell – President of Chase National Bank (1934-1946)
*Eugene R. Black – Vice President of Chase National Bank (1937-1947)
*F. Abbot Goodhue – President of Bank of Manhattan [later Chase Manhattan Bank] (1931-1948)
*John J. McCloy – Chairman of the board of Chase Manhattan Bank (1955-1961); Chairman of Chase National Bank (1953-1955)
*George Champion – Chairman of the board of Chase Manhattan Bank (1961-1969); President of Chase Manhattan Bank (1957-1961)
David Rockefeller – Chairman and CEO of Chase Manhattan Bank (1969-1981); President of Chase Manhattan Bank (1961-1969)
*Willard C. Butcher – Chairman and CEO of Chase Manhattan Bank (1981-1990); President of Chase Manhattan Bank (1972-1981)
*Thomas G. Labrecque – Chairman and CEO of Chase Manhattan Corp. (1991-1995); President of Chase Manhattan Bank (1981-1990)
Walter V. Shipley – Chairman and CEO of Chase Manhattan Corp. (1996-1999)
William B. Harrison Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Chase Manhattan Corp. (2000); Chairman and CEO of JP Morgan Chase (2001-2006)
Jamie Dimon – Chairman and CEO of JP Morgan Chase (2007-present)
*Herbert P. Patterson – President of Chase Manhattan Bank (1969-1972)
Arthur F. Ryan – President of Chase Manhattan Corp. (1990-1994)
Robert R. Douglass – Vice Chairman of Chase Manhattan Bank (1985-1993)

*Charles Edwin Mitchell – Chairman of the board (1929-1933) and President (1921-1929) of National City Bank of New York
*James H. Perkins – Chairman of the board of National City Bank of New York (1933-1940)
*Gordon S. Rentschler – Chairman of the board (1940-1948) and President (1929-1940) of National City Bank of New York
*William G. Brady Jr. – Chairman of the board (1948-1952) and President (1940-1948) of National City Bank of New York
*Howard C. Sheperd – Chairman and CEO (1952-1959) and President (1948-1952) of National City Bank of New York
*George S. Moore – Chairman (1967-1970) and President (1959-1967) of First National City Bank of New York [later Citibank]
*Walter B. Wriston – Chairman of Citibank (1970-1984), President (1967-1970), and Executive Vice President (1960-1967) of Citibank
*William I. Spencer – President of Citibank (1970-1982)
*John S. Reed – Chairman and CEO of Citibank (1984-1998)
Sanford I. Weill – Chairman (1998-2006) and CEO (1998-2003) of Citigroup
Charles O. Prince III – Chairman (2006-2007) and CEO (2004-2007) of Citigroup
Robert E. Rubin – Chairman of the board of Citigroup (2007)
Richard D. Parsons – Chairman of the board of Citigroup (2009-present)
Stanley Fischer – Vice Chairman of Citigroup (2001-2005)
Michael T. Masin – former Vice Chairman of Citigroup
*Hans H. Angermueller – former Vice Chairman of Citibank

*Harold Stanley – President of Morgan Stanley & Co. (1935-1941); Partner of Morgan Stanley & Co. (1941-1955)
*Samuel B. Payne – Partner of Morgan Stanley & Co. (1947-1972); President of Morgan Stanley & Co. (1970-1972)
*Robert H.B. Baldwin – Partner of Morgan Stanley & Co. (1958-1965, 1967-1975); President of Morgan Stanley & Co. (1973-1982)
*Henry S. Morgan – former Partner of Morgan Stanley & Co.; Treasurer of Morgan Stanley & Co. (1935-1941)
*Perry E. Hall – Founding Partner of Morgan Stanley & Co.; Vice President of Morgan Stanley & Co. (1935-1951)
Richard A. Debs – President of Morgan Stanley International (1976-1987); Managing Director of Morgan, Stanley & Co. (1976-1987)
Frederick B. Whittemore – Partner (1967-present) and Managing Director (1970-present) of Morgan Stanley & Co
David W. Heleniak – Vice Chairman of Morgan Stanley & Co. (2005-2009)
William H. Wright II – Managing Director of Morgan Stanley & Co.
Thomas R. Nides – Chief Operating Officer of Morgan Stanley (2005-2010)

*Gerald F. Beal – former Chairman of the board of J. Henry Schroder Banking Corp.
*John I. Howell – former Chairman of the board of J. Henry Schroder Banking Corp.
*Alva O. Way – Chairman of J. Henry Schroder Bank & Trust Co. (1986-c.1990); President of American Express Co. (1981-1983)
*John L. Simpson – Executive Vice President of J. Henry Schroeder Banking Corp. (1925-1951)
*Prentiss N. Gray – former President of J. Henry Schroder Banking Corp.

*E. Roland Harriman – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1978)
*W. Averell Harriman – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1946)
*Robert A. Lovett – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1940, 1946-1947, 1949-1950, 1953-1986)
*Knight Woolley – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1982)
*Ray Morris – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1956)
*Ellery S. James – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1932)
*Thomas McCance – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1945-1979)
*Robert L. Ireland III – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1960-c.1994)
Frank W. Hoch – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1960-c.1994)
*Robert V. Roosa – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1965-1993)
Alexander T. Ercklentz – Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1978-present)
*John Henry Hammond – former Partner of Brown Brothers
*Charles J. Rhoads – former Partner of Brown Brothers

*Charles S. McCain – Senior Partner of Dillon, Read & Co. (1939-1951)
*Clarence Dillon – Chairman of Dillon, Read & Co. (1920-?)
*C. Douglas Dillon – Chairman of the board of Dillon, Read & Co. (1946-1953)
Nicholas F. Brady – Chairman and CEO of Dillon, Read & Co. (1982-1988)
John P. Birkelund – Chairman and CEO of Dillon, Read & Co. (1988-1993); Chairman of SBC Warburg Dillon Read Inc. (1994-1997)
John H.F. Haskell Jr. – former Managing Director of Dillon, Read & Co.
*Paul H. Nitze – former Vice President of Dillon, Read & Co.

*Frank K. Houston – President of Chemical Bank (1935-1947)
*Harold H. Helm – Chairman of the board of Chemical Bank (1955-1966)
*Donald C. Platten – Chairman of the board of Chemical Bank (1974-1983)
Walter V. Shipley – Chairman (1983-1991, 1994-1996), President (1982-1983, 1992-1993), and CEO (1994-1996) of Chemical Bank
*John F. McGillicuddy – Chairman of the board of Manufacturers Hanover Trust Co. (1979-1991); Chairman and CEO of Chemical Banking Corporation (1992-1993)
*Gabriel Hauge – Chairman of the board (1971-1979) and President (1963-1971) of Manufacturers Hanover Trust Co.
Thomas S. Johnson – former President of Chemical Bank

John H. Gutfreund – Partner of Salomon Brothers, Inc. (1963-1991); Chairman of the board and CEO of Salomon Brothers, Inc. (1981-1991)
Peter M. Gottsegen – former General Partner of Salomon Brothers, Inc.
Frank G. Zarb – Chairman and CEO of Smith, Barney, Harris, Upham & Co., Inc. (1988-1993)
Jamie Dimon – Chairman and co-CEO of Salomon Smith Barney (1998-2000); Chairman and CEO of Bank One Corp. (2000-2004)

*Howard L. Clark – Chairman and CEO of American Express Company (1968-1977)
James D. Robinson III – Chairman and CEO of American Express Company (1977-1993)
Kenneth Chenault – Chairman and CEO of American Express Company (2001-present)
Alfred F. Kelly Jr. – President of American Express Company (2007-2010)
Jonathan S. Linen – Vice Chairman of American Express Company (1993-2005)
Richard K. Goeltz – former Vice Chairman of American Express Co.

*J.C. Traphagen – Chairman of the board of Bank of New York (1948-1957)
*John Henry Cabot – former Chairman and CEO of Bank of New York
*Alfred Brittain III – Chairman of Bankers Trust Co. (1975-1987)
*Charles S. Sanford Jr. – Chairman of Bankers Trust Co. (1987-1996)
*Frank N. Newman – Chairman, President, and CEO of Bankers Trust Co. (1996-1999); Vice chairman of Bank of America (1986-1993)
*William Morgan Kingsley – President (1927-1938) and Chairman of the board (1938-1942) of U.S. Trust Co. of New York
*Hoyt Ammidon – Chairman of U.S. Trust Co. (1962-1974); Vice Chairman of Port Authority of New York (1970-1972)
*Tom Killefer – Chairman and President of U.S. Trust Company of New York (1976-1982)
*Pierre Jay – Chairman of the board of Fiduciary Trust Company [New York City] (1930-1945)
Jay Hartley Newman – Managing Director of Morgan Stanley & Co. (1990-1993); Managing Director of Dillon Read & Co. (1988-1990)
Denis A. Bovin – former Vice Chairman of Bear Stearns & Co., Inc. (1992-?)
*James P. “Jimmy” Warburg – former Vice Chairman of the board of Bank of Manhattan (1932-1935)
*James M. Nicely – Vice President of Guaranty Trust Co. [New York City] (1929-1948); Vice President of First National City Bank [New York City] (1948-1959)

Other Prominent Bankers of Chicago, Boston, and other cities:
*Richard P. Cooley – Chairman and CEO of Wells Fargo Bank (1979-1982); President and CEO of Wells Fargo Bank (1966-1979)
*Rudolph A. Peterson – President and CEO of Bank of America (1963-1969)
Walter E. Massey – Chairman of the board of Bank of America (2009-2010)
Donald B. Marron – Chairman and CEO of PaineWebber Inc. [now part of UBS] (1980-2000)
*Newcomb Carlton – Chairman of Western Union Telephone & Telegraph Co. (1933-1943)
Alan M. Silberstein – President and CEO of Western Union Financial Services Inc. (2000-2001)
Jonathan Plutzik – former Chairman of Credit Suisse First Boston
John M. Hennessy – former Chairman of Credit Suisse First Boston Inc.; President and CEO of Credit Suisse First Boston Inc. (1989-?)
*Nelson Dean Jay – Partner of Morgan & Cie [located in Paris, France] (1920-1945); Chairman of Morgan & Cie, Inc. (1945-1955)
Henry R. Kravis – Senior Partner of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. (1987-present)
George Soros – Chairman of Soros Fund Management, LLC (1996-present)
Louis V. Gerstner Jr. – Chairman of The Carlyle Group (2003-2008)
Frank C. Carlucci – Chairman of The Carlyle Group (1993-2003)

Charles Gates Dawes – Chairman of the board of City National Bank & Trust Co. [bank in Chicago] (October 6, 1932-April 23, 1951); Chairman of the board of Central Trust Co. of Illinois [bank in Chicago] (1921-1925); President of Central Trust Co. of Illinois (1902-1921); President of Reconstruction Finance Corp. (1932)
A. Robert Abboud – Chairman and CEO of First National Bank of Chicago (1975-1980)
Joe Allbritton – Senior Chairman of Riggs Bank (2001-2004)
*Arthur G. Altschul – Chairman of General American Investors Co. (1961-1995)
*Roger E. Anderson – Chairman and CEO of Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Co. (1973-1984)
Gregory Bedrosian – CEO of Redwood Capital Group
Nicholas B. Binkley – former Vice Chairman of BankAmerica Corporation
*Robert G. Fuller – Vice President of First National City Bank (1955-1958)
Michael D. Granoff – President and CEO of Pomona Capital
Frederick V. Malek – Chairman of Thayer Capital Partners (1992-present)
Donald B. Marron – Chairman and CEO of Lightyear Capital
*Raymond D. Nasher – Chairman of the board of Comerica Bank-Texas
*Roland Pierotti – Executive Vice President of Bank of America (1964-1970)
*Herbert V. Prochnow – President of The First National Bank of Chicago (1962-1967)
*Charles H. Sabin – Chairman of the board of Guaranty Trust Co. (1921-1933)
*Alvin V. Shoemaker – Chairman of the board of First Boston Corp. (1981-c.1988)
Paul G. Stern – Chairman of Claris Capital
*Jesse W. Tapp – Chairman of the board of Bank of America N.T. & S.A. (1955-1965)
Thomas C. Theobald – Chairman and CEO of Continental Bank Corp. (1987-1994); Vice Chairman of Citibank/Citicorp (1982-1987)
*George H. Walker – Senior Partner of G.H. Walker & Co. (1899-1953); former President of W.A. Harriman & Co.
*David M. Kennedy – Chairman and CEO of Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Company [Chicago] (1959-1969)
John L. Loeb Sr. – Partner (1931-1955) and Senior Partner (1955-1977) of Loeb, Rhoades & Co. [New York City brokerage firm]

Heads of International Banks and Insurance Companies (2012)
The Carlyle Group
David M. Rubenstein – Founder and Co-CEO
Louis V. Gerstner Jr. – Chairman (2003-2008)
Frank C. Carlucci – Chairman (1993-2003)
Charles Rossotti – Senior Advisor
Arthur Levitt Jr. – Senior Advisor
Thomas F. “Mack” McLarty III – Senior Advisor
*Richard G. Darman – Senior Advisor and Managing Director
Jonathan E. Colby – Managing Director
(Lt. Col.) Francis A. Finelli – Managing Director
Edward J. Mathias – Managing Director
*Nigel W. Jones – Principal
James A. Baker III – shareholder
*George H. W. Bush – shareholder

Goldman Sachs
Abby Joseph Cohen – Managing Director
Tracy R. Wolstencroft – Managing Director
*E. Gerald Corrigan – Managing Director
Eugene V. Fife – Senior Director
Robert J. Katz – Senior Director
John L. Thornton – Senior Director
John C. Whitehead – Senior Director
Chester A. Crocker – International Advisor
Thomas S. Foley – International Advisor
Donald P. Gregg – International Advisor
American Express
Kenneth Chenault – Chairman and CEO
Louise M. Parent – Executive Vice President and General Counsel
Thomas Schick – Executive Vice President for Corporate Affairs and Communications

American International Group
Frank G. Wisner – Vice Chairman for External Affairs
Win J. Neuger – Executive Vice President & Chief Investment Officer
Edward T. Cloonan – Vice President for International and Corporate Affairs

Bear Stearns & Co., Inc.
Denis A. Bovin – former Vice Chairman (1992-?)
E. John Rosenwald Jr. – Vice Chairman
David Braunschvig – senior managing director
David R. Malpass – senior managing director and Chief Economist

The Blackstone Group
Stephen A. Schwarzman (S&B 1969) – Chairman, CEO, and co-Founder
Peter G. Peterson – Senior Chairman and co-Founder
J. Tomilson Hill – Vice Chairman
Raffiq A. Nathoo – Senior Managing Director
Michael Dal Bello – Principal

Perseus LLC
James A. Johnson – Vice Chairman (2001-present)
*Richard C. Holbrooke – Vice Chairman (2001-2009)

JP Morgan Chase
Jamie Dimon – Chairman and CEO
John P. Lipsky – former Chief Economist

Directors of Major Banks and Insurance Companies (2007)
JPMorgan Chase
Jamie Dimon, CEO
Lee R. Raymond
Ellen V. Futter

Citigroup
C. Michael Armstrong
*Kenneth T. Derr
John M. Deutch
Anne M. Mulcahy
Richard D. Parsons
Judith Rodin
Robert E. Rubin
Franklin A. Thomas

Goldman Sachs
Stephen Friedman
James A. Johnson
Ruth J. Simmons

Lehman Brothers
*Richard S. Fuld Jr., CEO
*John F. Akers
Henry Kaufman
John D. Macomber Morgan Stanley & Co.
Erskine Bowles
Laura D’Andrea Tyson

American Express
Kenneth I. Chenault, CEO
Charlene Barshefsky
Vernon E. Jordan Jr.
Frank P. Popoff

Bear Stearns
Henry S. Bienen
*Frederic V. Salerno

Charles Schwab
George P. Shultz, Emeritus
David B. Yoffie

The Bank of New York
Richard J. Kogan
John A. Luke Jr.

Bank of America
Monica C. Lozano
Walter E. Massey
Patricia E. Mitchell New York Stock Exchange [NYSE Euronext]
Marshall N. Carter, Deputy Chairman
Shirley Ann Jackson
James S. McDonald
Alice M. Rivlin

Fannie Mae (FNMA)
Kenneth M. Duberstein
Frederic V. Malek
Donald B. Marron

Aetna Inc. (Insurance)
Betsy Cohen
Barbara Hackman Franklin
Jeffrey E. Garten
Ellen M. Hancock

New York Life Insurance
Seymour Sternberg, CEO
Conrad K. Harper
(Adm.) Joseph W. Prueher American International Group
M. Bernard Aidinoff
William S. Cohen
Martin S. Feldstein
Ellen V. Futter
Carla A. Hills
*Richard C. Holbrooke
Morris W. Offit
Frank G. Zarb

MetLife
James R. Houghton
R. Glenn Hubbard
Helene L. Kaplan
(Gen.) John M. Keane
Sylvia M. Mathews
*Hugh B. Price
David Satcher

Merrill Lynch
*Aulana L. Peters
(Adm.) Joseph W. Prueher
Charles O. Rossotti

Marsh & McLennan, Inc.
Adele Simmons

Miscellaneous
CFR Presidents of Chase National Bank
Albert H. Wiggin (1911-1917, 1921-1926)
Charles S. McCain (1929-1930)
Winthrop W. Aldrich (1930-1934)
H. Donald Campbell (1934-1946)

CFR Vice Chairmen of Chase Manhattan Bank
*John B. M. Place 1969-1971
*William S. Ogden 1980-1983
Robert R. Douglass 1985-1993
Arthur F. Ryan 1985-1990
Anthony P. Terracciano 1985

CFR Directors of Citibank (incomplete)
James H. Post 1898-1938
Philip A. S. Franklin 1916-1939
Gordon S. Rentschler 1923-1929
Sosthenes Behn 1925-1956
Cleveland E. Dodge 1926-1960
James H. Perkins 1929-1940
Gerard Swope 1929-1952
Amory Houghton 1937-1957, 1961-1968
W. Randolph Burgess 1938-1952
J. Peter Grace, Jr. 1946-?
Boykin C. Wright 1950-1954
R. Gwin Follis 1952-1967
Alexander C. Nagle 1955-1963
Percy Chubb II 1955-1971
Leo D. Welch 1956-1968
Joseph A. Grazier 1957-1970
John R. Kimberly 1960-1971
Michael L. Haider 1963-1970
Robert S. Oelman 1963-1977
C. Sterling Bunnell 1964-1966
Frederick M. Eaton 1966-1974
Amory Houghton Jr. 1968-?
Franklin A. Thomas 1970-? CFR Directors of Chase National Bank and Chase Manhattan Bank (incomplete)
Newcomb Carlton 1917-1948
Andrew W. Robertson 1929-1957
Winthrop W. Aldrich 1930-1953
H. Donald Campbell 1934-1955
Arthur W. Page 1934-1955
Joseph A. Martino 1952-1970
John J. McCloy 1953-1966
Elliott V. Bell 1950-1967
Frank F. Russell 1940-1967
George Champion 1956-1971
Frederick R. Kappel 1956-1972
David Rockefeller 1956-1981
Eugene Holman 1958-1962
(Gen.) Lucius D. Clay 1958-1963
J. Richardson Dilworth 1958-1981
Eugene R. Black 1963-1970
Roger M. Blough 1964-1969
C. Douglas Dillon 1966-1971
J. K. Jamieson 1965-1976
Ralph Lazarus 1966-1984
John T. Connor 1967-1979
James A. Perkins 1967-1975
John B. M. Place 1969-1971
Herbert P. Patterson 1969-1972
Robert O. Anderson 1969-1974
Patricia Roberts Harris 1971-1977
James H. Binger 1972-1980
Willard C. Butcher 1972-?
Theodore M. Hesburgh 1972-1981
Charles F. Barber 1972-1982
Robert R. Douglass 1974, 1985-?
Richard M. Furlaud 1974-1981
Edmund T. Pratt Jr. 1974-?
James L. Ferguson 1975-?
S. Bruce Smart Jr. 1976-1985
William T. Coleman Jr. 1977-?
David T. McLaughlin 1980-?
Thomas G. Labrecque 1980-?
(Gen.) Alexander M. Haig Jr. 1980-1981
William S. Ogden 1980-1983
Richard W. Lyman 1981-?
Phillip Caldwell 1982-1985
David T. Kearns 1982-?
Henry B. Schacht 1982-?
Joan Ganz Cooney 1983-?
Arthur F. Ryan 1985-?
Anthony P. Terracciano 1985-?

Notes:
Lehman Brothers acquired Kuhn, Loeb & Co. in 1977. National City Bank became known as Citibank and later Citigroup.
Chase National Bank merged with Manhattan Bank of New York in 1955 and became known as Chase Manhattan Bank.
Chase Manhattan merged with J.P. Morgan & Co. in 2000 and became known as JP Morgan Chase.
Chemical Bank merged with Chase Manhattan Corp. in March 1996.
Manufacturers Hanover Trust Co. merged with Chemical Bank in 1991.

Insurance Company Executives:
*Donald T. Regan – Chairman and CEO of Merrill Lynch & Co. (1973-1981)
*William A. Schreyer – Chairman and CEO of Merrill Lynch & Co. (1984-1993)
E. Stanley “Stan” O’Neal – Chairman and CEO of Merrill Lynch & Co. (2003-2007)

*Alfred L. Aiken – Chairman of the board of New York Life Insurance Co. (1940-1942)
*George L. Harrison – Chairman of New York Life Insurance Co. (1948-1954); President of New York Life Insurance Co. (1941-1948)
*Devereux C. Josephs – Chairman of New York Life Insurance Co. (1954-1959); President of New York Life Insurance Co. (1948-1954)
Seymour “Sy” Sternberg – Chairman and CEO of New York Life Insurance Co. (1997-2008)

*Lewis W. Douglas – Chairman of Mutual Life Insurance Co. of New York [MONY] (1950-1959); President of Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York (1940-1947)
Maurice R. Greenberg – Chairman and CEO of American International Group (1989-2005)
Arthur F. Ryan – Chairman and CEO of Prudential Financial [formerly Prudential Insurance Co.] (1994-2008)
*Richard R. Shinn – Chairman (1980-1983) and CEO (1973-1983) of Metropolitan Life Insurance Co.
*Robert H. “Bob” Benmosche – Chairman and CEO of MetLife Inc. (Metropolitan Life) (1998-2006); President and CEO of American International Group (2009-present)
*Byron K. Elliott – Chairman of John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Co. (1963-1969)
*Edmund Fitzgerald – Chairman of Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co. (1958-1960)
*James T. Lynn – Chairman and CEO of Aetna Life & Casualty Co. (1984-1992)
William H. Donaldson – Chairman and CEO of Aetna Insurance Co. (2000-2001)
R. Kendall Nottingham – Chairman and CEO of American Life Insurance Co. (1989-present)
*Frazar B. Wilde – Chairman of the board of Connecticut General Life Insurance Co. (1961-c.1966)
*Alva O. Way – President of Travelers Insurance Co. (1983-1985)
*Davidson Sommers – Chairman of the board of The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States (1971-1972)
*John M. Regan, Jr. – Chairman of the board of Marsh & McLennan Cos. (1976-1986)
Jeffrey W. Greenberg – Chairman of the board of Marsh & McLennan Cos. (2000-2004)
*William S. Youngman – President of C.V. Starr & Co., Inc. (1949-1968)

Stock Exchange Executives:
William McChesney Martin Jr. – President of New York Stock Exchange (1938-1941)
John J. Phelan Jr. – Chairman of the board of New York Stock Exchange (1984-1990)
William H. Donaldson – Chairman of the board of New York Stock Exchange (1991-1995)
John S. Reed – Chairman of the board of New York Stock Exchange (2003-2005)
Marshall N. Carter – Chairman of the board of New York Stock Exchange (2005-2007); Deputy Chairman of NYSE Euronext [formerly New York Stock Exchange] (2007-present)
Frank G. Zarb – Chairman and CEO of Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc. (1997-2001)
Ralph S. Saul – President of American Stock Exchange (1966-1971)
Richard F. Syron – Chairman of American Stock Exchange (1994-1999)
William J. Brodsky – Chairman and CEO of Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) (1997-present)

Note: *= former Council on Foreign Relations member; does not appear on 2012 Council on Foreign Relations membership roster.

Federal Reserve System

Board of Governors
*Paul Warburg (1914-1918)
*Albert Strauss (1918-1920)
*Eugene Meyer (1930-1933)
*Ralph W. Morrison (1936)
*Thomas McCabe (1948-1951)
*William McC. Martin Jr. (1951-1970)
Andrew F. Brimmer (1966-1974)
*Arthur F. Burns (1970-1978)
*Robert C. Holland (1973-1976)
*Henry C. Wallich (1974-1986)
*G. William Miller (1978-1979)
*Nancy H. Teeters (1978-1984)
*Emmett J. Rice (1979-1986)
Paul A. Volcker (1979-1987)
Alan Greenspan (1987-2006)
Alan S. Blinder (1994-1996)
Alice M. Rivlin (1996-1999)
Roger W. Ferguson (1997-2006)
Daniel K. Tarullo (2009-present)
Janet L. Yellen (1994-1997, 2010-present)
Jerome H. Powell (2012-present) Chairman of the Federal Reserve
*Eugene Meyer (1930-1933)
*Thomas B. McCabe (1948-1951)
*William McC. Martin Jr. (1951-1970)
*Arthur F. Burns (1970-1978)
*G. William Miller (1978-1979)
Paul A. Volcker (1979-1987)
Alan Greenspan (1987-2006)

Vice Chairman of the Federal Reserve
*Paul Warburg (1916-1918)
*Albert Strauss (1918-1920)
*Edmund Platt (1920-1930)
*Frederick H. Schultz (1979-1982)
Alan S. Blinder (1994-1996)
Alice M. Rivlin (1996-1999)
Roger W. Ferguson (1999-2006)
Donald L. Kohn (2006-2010)
Janet L. Yellen (2010-present)

Federal Reserve Bank of New York
William C. Dudley – President
Christine M. Cumming – First Vice President
Terrence J. Checki – Executive Vice President
Jamie Dimon – Director (Class A)
James S. Tisch – Director (Class B)
Lee C. Bollinger – Director (Class C)

Note: The Chairman of the Federal Reserve is also the Chairman of the Federal Open Market Committee; the President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York is the Vice Chairman of the Federal Open Market Committee.

Note: The position of President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York was called “Governor of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York” from 1914 to 1936.

Federal Reserve Bank of Boston:
*Alfred L. Aiken – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1914-1917)
*Ralph E. Flanders – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1944-1946)
*Laurence F. Whittemore – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1946-1948)
Richard F. Syron – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1989-1994)

*Albert M. Creighton – Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1942-1950)
*Robert C. Sprague – Chairman (1956-1960) and Deputy Chairman (1955) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
*Nils Y. Wessell – Chairman (1961-1962) and Deputy Chairman (1959-1960) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
*Erwin D. Canham – Chairman (1963-1967) and Deputy Chairman (1961-1962) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
*Howard W. Johnson – Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1968-1969)
Louis W. Cabot – Chairman (1975-1978) and Deputy Chairman (1971-1975) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Richard N. Cooper – Chairman (1990-1992) and Deputy Chairman (1988-1989) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

*Donald K. David – Deputy Chairman (1947) and Class C Director (1946-1947) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
*James R. Killian Jr. – Deputy Chairman (1956) and Class C Director (1954-1956) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
*Charles W. Cole – Deputy Chairman (1967-1968) and Class C Director (1966-1968) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston
Warren B. Rudman – Deputy Chairman (1993-1994) and Class C Director (1993-1994) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston

*Laurence F. Whittemore – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1944-1945)
*Karl T. Compton – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1951-1953)
*Milton P. Higgins – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1956-1962)
Matina S. Horner – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1983-1988)
Marshall N. Carter – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1996-1998)
Robert R. Glauber – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1996-2001)
Orit Gadiesh – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (2000-2002)
Robert K. Kraft – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (2003-2010)

Other Federal Reserve Bank Executives and Directors:
*Archibald Kains – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (1914-1917)
*Charles J. Rhoads – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (1914-1918)
*Frederick L. Deming – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis (1957-1965)
Bruce K. MacLaury – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis (1971-1977)
*E. Gerald Corrigan – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis (1980-1984)
Karen N. Horn – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland (1982-1987)
*Robert P. Forrestal – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (1983-1996)
Michael H. Moskow – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (1994-2007)
Janet L. Yellen – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (2004-2010)
Richard W. Fisher – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas (2005-present)
Dennis P. Lockhart – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta (2007-present)

*Thomas B. McCabe – Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (1939-1948); Deputy Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (1938); Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (1937-1948)
*John S. Coleman – Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (1953-1955); Deputy Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (1950-1952); Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (1950-1955)
*Brayton Wilbur Sr. – Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (1947-1953)
*Atherton Bean – Chairman (1961-1965) and Deputy Chairman (1960) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis
*Robert O. Anderson – Chairman (1961-1965) and Class C Director (1960-1965) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
Steven Muller – Chairman (1981-1983) and Deputy Chairman (1979-1980) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond
(Adm.) Bobby R. Inman – Chairman (1987-1990) and Deputy Chairman (1985-1986) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas
*Robert F. Erburu – Chairman (1988-1991) and Deputy Chairman (1987, 1992) of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
*A. William Reynolds – Chairman (1993-1996) and Deputy Chairman (1991-1992) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland
David K.Y. Tang – Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (2006-2008)

*Paul G. Hoffman – Deputy Chairman (1947-1948) and Class C Director (1942-1949) of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
Patricia M. Patterson – Deputy Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas (2001-2005)
Anthony R. Chase – Deputy Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas (2006-2010)

*Alba B. Johnson – Class B (1914-1926) and Class C (1927-1934) Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
*Vance C. McCormick – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (1914-1915)
*Charles J. Rhoads – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (1917)
*Francis Biddle – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (1938)
*Howard C. Petersen – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (1966-1968)

*David M. Kennedy – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (1961-1963)
*Sidney A. Swensrud – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland (1953-1955)
*R. Stanley Laing – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland (1970-1972)
*Henry Cisneros – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas (1991)

*Arthur R. Upgren – Vice President of Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis (1942-1945)
William Curt Hunter – Senior Vice President of Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (1995-2003)

Federal Reserve Bank of New York

President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
*Benjamin Strong (1914-1928)
*George L. Harrison (1928-1940)
*Allan Sproul (1941-1956)
*Alfred Hayes (1956-1975)
Paul A. Volcker (1975-1979)
*Anthony M. Solomon (1980-1984)
*E. Gerald Corrigan (1985-1993)
William J. McDonough (1993-2003)
Jamie B. Stewart (2003) [acting]
Timothy F. Geithner (2003-2009)
William C. Dudley (2009-present)

Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
*Pierre Jay (1914-1926)
*Gates McGarrah (1927-1930)
*Owen D. Young (1938-1940)
*Beardsley Ruml (1941-1946)
*Jay E. Crane (1953-1956)
*John E. Bierwirth (1957-1959)
*Philip D. Reed (1960-1965)
*Everett N. Case (1966-1968)
*Albert Lindsay Nickerson (1969-1971)
*Roswell L. Gilpatric (1972-1975)
*Robert Huntington Knight (1978-1982)
John Brademas (1983-1987)
*John R. Opel (1987-1988)
*Cyrus R. Vance (1989-1991)
Ellen V. Futter (1992-1993)
Maurice R. Greenberg (1994-1995)
John C. Whitehead (1996-1999)
Peter G. Peterson (2000-2003)
John E. Sexton (2004-2006)
Jerry I. Speyer (2007)
Stephen Friedman (2008)
Lee C. Bollinger (2011-present) Deputy Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
*George F. Peabody (1916-1921)
*Owen D. Young (1927-1937)
*Beardsley Ruml (1938-1940)
*Edmund E. Day (1940-1943)
*William I. Myers (1943-1954)
*Forrest F. Hill (1955-1960)
*Everett N. Case (1965)
*James M. Hester (1969-1970)
*Roswell L. Gilpatric (1971)
*Robert Huntington Knight (1976-1977)
Clifton R. Wharton Jr. (1984-1986)
Ellen V. Futter (1989-1991)
Maurice R. Greenberg (1992-1993)
David A. Hamburg (1994-1995)
John C. Whitehead (1995)
*Thomas W. Jones (1996-1998)
Peter G. Peterson (November 1998-1999)
Charles A. Heimbold Jr. (2000-2001)
*Gerald M. Levin (November 2001-2002)
John E. Sexton (2003)
Jerry I. Speyer (2004-2006)
Lee C. Bollinger (2010)

Directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York:
*William B. Thompson – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1914-1919)
*George F. Peabody – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1914-1921)
*Pierre Jay – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1914-1926)
*James S. Alexander – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1919-1922)
*Charles A. Stone – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1919-1922)
*Clarence M. Woolley – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1921-1936)
*Gates W. McGarrah – Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (Class A: 1923-1925, Class C: 1927-1931)
*Owen D. Young – Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (Class B: 1923-1925, Class C: 1926-1940)
*Samuel W. Reyburn – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1925-1933)
*William H. Woodin – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (April 1, 1927-March 3, 1933)
*Charles E. Mitchell – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1928-1931)
*Albert H. Wiggin – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1932-1933)
*George W. Davison – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1933-1937)
*Thomas J. Watson – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1933-1940)
*Beardsley Ruml – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1937-1946)
*Edmund E. Day – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1938-1942)
*Donaldson Brown – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1941-1946)
*Leon Fraser – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1941-1943)
*William I. Myers – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1943-1954)
*Charles E. Adams – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1945-1948)
*Winthrop W. Aldrich – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1947-1949)
*Marion B. Folsom – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1949-1952)
*Jay E. Crane – Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (Class B: 1949-1952; Class C: 1953-1956)
*John C. Traphagen – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1950-1952)
*Robert P. Patterson – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1950-1952)
*Philip Young – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1952)
*John E. Bierwirth – Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (Class B: 1953-1956; Class C: 1957-1959)
*Forrest F. Hill – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1955-1960)
*Howard C. Sheperd – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1956-1958)
*Henry C. Alexander – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1959-1961)
*Philip D. Reed – Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (Class B: 1959; Class C: 1960-1965)
*Albert Lindsay Nickerson – Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (Class B, 1961-1966; Class C, 1969-1971)
*Everett N. Case – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1961-1968)
*George Champion – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1962-1964)
*James M. Hester – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1965-1970)
*Arthur K. Watson – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1965-1970)
*Roswell L. Gilpatric – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1969-1975)
*William D. Eberle – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1971)
*Alan Pifer – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1972-1976)
*Maurice F. Granville – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1972-1979)
David Rockefeller – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (January 1, 1973-December 31, 1976)
*William S. Sneath – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1973-1980)
*Robert Huntington Knight – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1976-1982)
*Ellmore C. Patterson – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1977-1979)
*Gordon T. Wallis – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1980-1982)
*John R. Opel – Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (Class B: 1981-1986, Class C: 1987-1988)
*Alfred Brittain III – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1983-1985)
John Brademas – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1983-1988)
Clifton R. Wharton Jr. – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1984-1986)
*John F. Welch Jr. – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1985-1990)
*Lewis T. Preston – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1986-1988)
*John F. McGillicuddy – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1988-1991)
Ellen V. Futter – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1988-1993)
*Cyrus R. Vance – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1989-1993)
Maurice R. Greenberg – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1989-1995)
*Thomas G. Labreecque – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1992-1994)
Robert G. Wilmers – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1993-1998)
*Sandra Feldman – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1994-1996)
J. Carter Bacot – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1995-1997)
*Eugene R. McGrath – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1995-2000)
John C. Whitehead – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (September 1995-1999)
*Thomas W. Jones – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1996-1998)
Peter G. Peterson – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1996-2004)
Ann M. Fudge – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (October 1996-2002)
Walter V. Shipley – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1998-2000)
*Richard L. Carrion – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1999)
Charles A. Heimbold Jr. – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (July 1999-2001)
Sanford I. Weill – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2001-2006)
Jerry I. Speyer – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2001-2007)
*Gerald M. Levin – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (November 2001-2003)
Jill M. Considine – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2002-2007)
*Richard S. Fuld Jr. – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2002-2008)
Marta Tienda – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2003-2005)
John E. Sexton – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2003-2006)
James “Jamie” Dimon – Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2007-present)
Lee C. Bollinger – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2007-present)
Stephen Friedman – Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2008-2009)
James S. Tisch – Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2009-2012)

Other Executives of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York:
*George L. Harrison – Deputy Governor of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1920-1928)
*W. Randolph Burgess – Deputy Governor (1930-1936) and Vice President (1936-1938) of Federal Reserve Bank of New York
*L. Werner Knoke – Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (c.1939-1954)
*Robert G. Rouse – Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (c.1939-c.1956)
*John H. Williams – Vice President of Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1936-1947)

*Allan Sproul – First Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1936-1940)
Richard A. Debs – First Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1973-1976)
Ernest T. Patrikis – First Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1995-1998); Executive Vice President and General Counsel of Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1988-1995)
Jamie B. Stewart Jr. – First Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1999-2004)
Christine M. Cumming – First Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2004-present)

Sam Y. Cross – Executive Vice President of Federal Reserve Bank of New York (c.1983-1991)
Peter R. Fisher – Executive Vice President of Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1994-2001)
Terrence J. Checki – Executive Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2001-present)

Alan R. Holmes – Senior Vice President of Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1969-1972)
Roger M. Kubarych – Senior Vice President of Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1972-1985)
J. Andrew Spindler – Senior Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1989-1993)
Darryll E. Hendricks – former Senior Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Peter Bakstansky – Senior Vice President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (?-2005)
Charles A. Coombs – Senior Vice President in charge of foreign function at Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1959-1975)
Scott E. Pardee – Senior Vice President for Foreign Exchange at Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1979-1981)
Robert V. Roosa – Vice President for Research Department at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1956-1960)
Dorothy Sobol – former Vice President for Research Department at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York

Note: Class A Directors are elected by member banks to represent member banks, Class B Directors are elected by member banks to represent the public, and Class C Directors are appointed by Board of Governors to represent the public.

The World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and other banks

*Eugene Meyer – President of the World Bank (1946)
*John J. McCloy – President of the World Bank (1947-1949)
*Eugene R. Black – President of the World Bank (1949-1962)
*Robert S. McNamara – President of the World Bank (1968-1981)
*Barber B. Conable – President of the World Bank (1986-1991)
*Lewis T. Preston – President of the World Bank (1991-1995)
James D. Wolfensohn – President of the World Bank (1995-2005)
Paul D. Wolfowitz – President of the World Bank (2005-2007)
Robert B. Zoellick – President of the World Bank (2007-2012)

*Andrew N. Overby – Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (1949-1952)
*Frank A. Southard Jr. – Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (1962-1974)
William B. Dale – Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (1974-1984)
Richard D. Erb – Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (1984-1994)
Stanley Fischer – First Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (1994-2001)
Anne O. Krueger – First Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (2001-2006)
John P. Lipsky – First Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (2006-2011)

*Warren Lee Pierson – President of Export-Import Bank (1936-1945)
*Wayne Chatfield Taylor – President of Export-Import Bank (1945-1946)
*William McChesney Martin Jr. – President of Export-Import Bank (1946-1949)
*Harold F. Linder – Chairman and President of Export-Import Bank of the United States (1961-1968)
*William J. Casey – Chairman and President of Export-Import Bank of the United States (1975)
Stephen M. DuBrul Jr. – Chairman and President of Export-Import Bank of the United States (1976-1979)
William H. Draper III – Chairman and President of Export-Import Bank of the United States (1981-1986)
John A. Bohn Jr. – Chairman and President of Export-Import Bank of the United States (1986-1989)
*John D. Macomber – Chairman and President of Export-Import Bank of the United States (1989-1992)
Kenneth D. Brody – Chairman and President of Export-Import Bank of the United States (1993-1996)
Martin Andrew Kamarck – Chairman and President of Export-Import Bank of the United States (1996-1997)
James A. Harmon – Chairman and President of Export-Import Bank of the United States (1997-2001)
*Philip Merrill – Chairman and President of Export-Import Bank of the United States (2002-2005)
*James H. Lambright – Chairman and President of Export-Import Bank of the United States (2005-2009)
Fred P. Hochberg – Chairman and President of Export-Import Bank of the United States (2009-present)

Stanley Fischer – Governor of the Bank of Israel [Israel’s central bank] (2005-2013)
Arminio Fraga Neto – Governor of the Central Bank of Brazil (1999-2003)
*Davidson Sommers – Vice President and General Counsel of The World Bank (1949-1959)
*Robert L. Garner – Vice President of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development [The World Bank] (1947-1956); Director of Hewlett-Packard Co. (1962-1969)
Ko-Yung Tung – Vice President and General Counsel of The World Bank (1999-2003)
Joseph E. Stiglitz – Chief Economist of The World Bank (1995-2000)
Carole L. Brookins – former Executive Director of The World Bank
Teresa C. Barger – director of corporate governance for The World Bank
Nancy P. Jacklin – Director of International Monetary Fund (IMF)
*G. A. Costanzo – Deputy Director of Western Hemisphere Department of IMF (1955-1961)
*Gates McGarrah – Chairman and President of the Bank for International Settlements (1930-1933)
*Leon Fraser – Chairman and President of the Bank for International Settlements (1933-1935); Vice President of the Bank for International Settlements (1930-1933); General Counsel of the Dawes Plan and Paris Representative of Agent General, reparation payments (1924-1927)
*Thomas H. McKittrick – President of the Bank for International Settlements (1940-1946)

James A. Johnson – Chairman and CEO of Federal National Mortgage Association [Fannie Mae] (1991-1998)
Franklin D. Raines – Chairman and CEO of Federal National Mortgage Association [Fannie Mae] (1999-2004)
Jamie S. Gorelick – Vice Chairman of Federal National Mortgage Association [Fannie Mae] (1997-2003)
Thomas E. Donilon – Senior Vice President and General Counsel of Federal National Mortgage Association [Fannie Mae] (1999-2005)
Daniel H. Mudd – President and CEO of Federal National Mortgage Association [Fannie Mae] (2005-present)

Richard F. Syron – Chairman and CEO of Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation [Freddie Mac] (2003-2008)
Ricki T. Helfer – Chairman and CEO of Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation [FDIC] (1994-1997)

Council on Foreign Relations: Corporate Executives

Chairmen and CEOs of Major Corporations (2012)
Kathleen A. Corbet – President of Standard & Poors (2004-present)
Kenneth C. Frazier – Chairman and CEO of Merck & Co., Inc. (2011-present)
Robert D. Haas – Chairman (1989-2008) and CEO (1984-1999) of Levi Strauss & Co.
John B. Hess – Chairman and CEO of Amerada-Hess Corp. (1995-present)
(Adm.) Jay L. Johnson – Chairman and CEO of General Dynamics Corp. (2010-present)
Farooq Kathwari – Chairman, President, and CEO of Ethan Allen Interiors Inc. (1988-present)
Muhtar Kent – Chairman of the board and CEO of The Coca-Cola Company (2009-present)
Leonard A. Lauder – Chairman (1999-present) and CEO (1982-1999) of Estee Lauder Companies
William P. Lauder – President and CEO of Estee Lauder Companies (2004-present)
John A. Luke Jr. – Chairman and CEO of MeadWestvaco Corporation (2002-present)
James W. Owens – Chairman and CEO of Caterpillar, Inc. (2004-present)
Penny S. Pritzker – Founder and President of Classic Residence by Hyatt (1987-2013)
Thomas J. Pritzker – Chairman of Hyatt Hotels Corp. (1980-2002); Chairman of Global Hyatt Corp. (2005-present)
Edward J. Rapp – Group President of Caterpillar Inc. (2007-present)
James E. Rogers – Chairman, President, and CEO of Duke Energy (2007-present); Chairman and CEO of Cinergy (1994-2006)
Virginia M. Rometty – President and CEO of IBM (2012-present)
Eric Schmidt – Chairman and CEO of Google Inc. (2001-present)
*Ivan G. Seidenberg – Chairman and CEO of Verizon Communications, Inc. (2005-present)
Deven Sharma – President of Standard & Poor’s (2007-present)
Frederick W. Smith – Chairman and CEO of Federal Express [FedEx Corp.] (1975-present)
Randall L. Stephenson – Chairman, CEO, and President of AT&T (2007-present)
Robert J. Stevens – Chairman and CEO of Lockheed Martin (2005-present)
Howard Stringer – Chairman and CEO of Sony Corporation (2005-present)
Andrew H. Tisch – Co-Chairman of the board of Loews Corp. (2006-present); President of Bulova Corp. (1979-1990)
James S. Tisch – President and CEO of Loews Corp. (1999-present)
Edward H. Vick – Chairman and CEO of Young & Rubicam New York (1997-present)

Chairmen and CEOs of other corporations (2012)
Lynn Forester de Rothschild – Founder and CEO of ELR Holdings LLC
Carla A. Hills – Chairman and CEO of Hills & Company International Consultants (1993-present)
Judith A. “Jami” Miscik – President and Vice Chairman of Kissinger Associates (2009-present)
Thomas C. Berry – Founder and CEO of Zephyr Management LP
Alan S. Blinder – Chairman, Sabers Partner LLC
Nicholas F. Brady – Chairman, Darby Overseas Investment, Inc.
John S. Chen – Chairman, CEO, and President of Sybase, Inc.
Robert L. Dilenschneider – Founder of the Dilenschneider Group
Kenneth M. Duberstein – The Duberstein Group
Esther Dyson – Chairman, Edventure Holdings
Richard N. Foster – CEO of Caxton Health Holdings LLC
Paul J. Fribourg – Chairman and CEO of ContiGroup Companies, Inc.
Glen S. Fukushima – President and CEO of Airbus Japan
David L. Goldwyn – President of Goldwyn International Strategies, Inc.
Evan G. Greenberg – President and CEO of ACE Limited
David Hale – Chairman, Hale Advisors LLC
Scott M. Hand – Chairman and CEO, Inco Limited
Mansoor Ijaz – Chairman, Cresent Investment Management LLC
Ira A. Lipman – Founder, Chairman, and CEO, Guardsmark LLC
Vincent A. Mai – Chairman and CEO, AEA Investors LLC
Alonzo L. McDonald – Chairman & CEO, Avenir Group, Inc.
Philip A. Odeen – Chairman, Reynolds and Reynolds Company
Donald B. Quartel Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Freightdesk Technologies
Marshall Rose – Chairman, The Georgetown Group
Paul M. Sacks – President, Multinational Strategies, Inc.
Paula Stern – Chairman, The Stern Group, Inc.
Lydia W. Thomas – President and CEO, Mitretek Systems, Inc.
Paul E. Tierney Jr. – Chairman of Technoserve, Inc.
George J. Vojta – Founder and Chairman of eStandardsForum, Inc.
Marshall Wais Jr. – President and CEO, Marwais Steel Company
Frank Weil – Chairman, Abacus & Associates, Inc.
Margaret S. Wilson – Chairman and CEO, Scarbroughs
Joseph R. Wright Jr. – CEO, PanAmSat Corporation

Business Accountants:
*George O. May – Senior Partner of Price, Waterhouse & Co. public accountants [New York City] (1911-1961)
*Percival F. Brundage – Partner of Price, Waterhouse & Co. public accountants [New York City] (1930-1954)
*Theodore L. Wilkinson – Partner of Price Waterhouse & Co. public accountants [New York City] (1954-c.1975)

Note: * = former Council on Foreign Relations member; name does not appear on 2012 Council on Foreign Relations membership roster.

General Counsels of Major Corporations
David R. Andrews – General Counsel of PepsiCo. (2002-2005)
*Amos L. Beaty – General Counsel of Texaco (1913-1920)
Peter J. Beshar – Senior Vice President, General Counsel, and Corporate Secretary of Marsh & McLennan Companies (2004-present)
*Roger M. Blough – General Counsel of United States Steel Corp. (1953-1955)
*Walter Lindsey Brown – Vice President and General Counsel of Western Electric Co. (1941-1964)
William J. Butler – General Counsel of FAO Schwartz (1961-1985)
Sheila C. Cheston – Corporate Vice President and General Counsel of Northrop Grumman Corporation (2010-present)
George W. Coombe, Jr. – Executive Vice President and General Counsel of Bank of America (1975-1990)
Kenneth A. Cutshaw – Executive Vice President and General Counsel of Church’s Chicken (2006-present)
Florence A. Davis – Vice President and General Counsel of American International Group (1995-1999)
James V. Derrick, Jr. – General Counsel of Enron Corp. (1991-2002)
Robert R. Douglass – Executive Vice President and General Counsel of Chase Manhattan Bank (1976-1983)
*Byron K. Elliott – Vice President and General Counsel of John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Co. (1937-1947)
Kenneth C. Frazier – Senior Vice President and General Counsel of Merck & Co. (1999-2006)
*Henry J. Friendly – Vice President and General Counsel of Pan American World Airways (1946-1959)
Joseph T. Gorman – Vice President and General Counsel of TRW, Inc. (1976-1980)
Benjamin W. Heineman Jr. – Senior Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary of General Electric Co. (1987-2004)
Michael Stevens Helfer – General Counsel of Citigroup (2003-present)
*Walker D. Hines – General Counsel of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Co. (1906-1918)
Lawrence A. Jacobs – Senior Executive Vice President and Group General Counsel of News Corporation
Robert J. Katz – General Counsel of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1988-2000)
*Nicholas deB. Katzenbach – Senior Vice President and General Counsel of International Business Machines (IBM) (1969-1985)
*Nicholas Kelley – Vice President and General Counsel of Chrysler Corp. (1937-1957)
*Tom Killefer – General Counsel of Chrysler Corp. (1966-1975)
C. Douglas Kranwinkle – Executive Vice President and General Counsel of Univision (2000-present)
Bertil P. Lundqvist – General Counsel and Executive Vice President of C.V. Starr & Co.
Louise M. Parent – Executive Vice President and General Counsel of American Express Co. (1993-present)
Ernest T. Patrikis – Senior Vice President and General Counsel of American International Group (AIG) (1999-2006); Executive Vice President and General Counsel of Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1988-1995)
*John B. Prizer – General Counsel of Pennsylvania Railroad (1952-1968)
*Edwin J. Putzell, Jr. – Vice President and General Counsel of Monsanto Co. (1963-1977)
*George W. Ray, Jr. – General Counsel of ARAMCO (1947-1961)
*Herman J. Schmidt – General Counsel of Socony-Mobil Oil Co., Inc. (1956-1959)
Deirdre Stanley – Executive Vice President and General Counsel of Thomson Reuters (2002-present)
Brooks Thomas – General Counsel of Harper & Row, Publishing, Inc. (1968-1973)
Mark C. Treanor – General Counsel of Wachovia Corporation (1998-present)
*Lawrence P. Tu – Senior Vice President and General Counsel of Dell, Inc.; former Executive Vice President and General Counsel at NBC Universal and NBC
George Vradenburg III – General Counsel of Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) (1980-1991)
*Caspar W. Weinberger – Vice President and General Counsel of Bechtel Corp. (1975-1980)
*Guy Wellman – General Counsel of Standard Oil Company of New Jersey [Exxon] (1935-1941)
Wendell L. Willkie II – Senior Vice President, General Counsel, and Secretary of MeadWestvaco (2002-present)

Other Senior Executives (2011)
Sheryl K. Sandberg – Chief Operating Officer of Facebook, Inc. (2008-present)
Elliot J. Schrage – Vice President of Global Communications, Marketing and Public Policy at Facebook, Inc.; former Vice President for Global Communications and Public Affairs at Google, Inc.
Donald A. Baer – Senior Executive Vice President for Strategy and Development at Discovery Communications, Inc.
Stephen E. Biegun – Vice President for International Governmental Affairs at Ford Motors Co.
Nestor T. Carbonell – Vice President for International Public Affairs at PepsiCo.
(Lt. Gen.) Paul G. Cerjan – Vice President for Worldwide Military Affairs at Kellogg-Brown & Root (KBR)
Alexander B. Cummings Jr. – President and Chief Operating Officer of the Africa Group at Coca-Cola
Linda M. Distlerath – Vice President of Global Health Policy for Merck & Co., Inc.
Anne M. Finucane – Global Strategy and Marketing Officer at Bank of America
Joseph M. Ha – Vice President for International Business and Government Relations at Nike, Inc.
John E. Jacob – Executive Vice President of Global Communications at Anheuser-Busch
L. Oakley Johnson – Senior Vice President of AIG
Sandra J. Kristoff – Senior Vice President of New York Life Insurance Company
Craig J. Mundie – Chief Research and Strategy Officer for Microsoft Corp. (2006-present)
Pamela S. Passman – Vice President for Global Corporate Affairs and Deputy General Counsel of Microsoft
Thomas R. Pickering – former Senior Vice President for International Relations at Boeing
Ruth Porat – Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of Morgan Stanley (2010-present)
Virginia M. Rometty – Senior Vice President and Group Executive for Sales, Marketing and Strategy at IBM
Peter L. Scher – Executive Vice President and Head of Corporate Responsibility for JPMorgan Chase (2008-present)
Kimberly Till – Vice President for Worldwide Media & Entertainment Group at Microsoft
Robert H. Trimble Jr. – Senior Vice President for Corporate Business Development at Lockheed Martin
Clyde C. Tuggle – President of the Russia, Ukraine & Belarus Division at Coca-Cola
*Walter L. Lingle Jr. – Executive Vice President of Procter & Gamble Co. (1954-1969)
*Charles A. Meyer – Vice President for Corporate Planning at Sears Roebuck & Co. (1973-1978)
*William J. Miller – Vice President for Public Relations at Federated Department Stores, Inc. (1964-1971)
*Herbert Schmertz – Vice President for Public Affairs at Mobil Oil Corp. (1974-1988)

Former Heads of Corporations
Oil Executives:
*Eugene Holman – Chairman of the board of Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey (1954-1960)
*Leo D. Welch – Chairman of the board of Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey (1960-1963)
*Monroe Jackson (M.J.) Rathbone – Chairman and CEO of Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey (1963-1965); President of Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey (1954-1963)
*Michael L. Haider – Chairman and CEO of Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey [later Exxon] (1965-1969)
*J. K. Jamieson – Chairman and CEO of Exxon (1969-1975)
*Clifton C. Garvin Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Exxon (1975-1986)
*Lawrence G. Rawl – Chairman and CEO of Exxon (1986-1993)
Lee Raymond – Chairman and CEO of Exxon (1993-1999); Chairman and CEO of ExxonMobil (1999-2006)

*John A. Brown – President of Socony-Vacuum Oil Co., Inc. (later Mobil Oil Corp.) (1929-1944)
*Philo W. Parker – Chairman of the board of Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. (later Mobil Oil Corp.) (1946-1951)
*Lloyd William (L.W.) Elliott – President of Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. (1946-1951)
*Horry F. Prioleau – President and CEO of Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. (later Mobil Oil Corp.) (1953-1961)
*B. Brewster Jennings – Chairman of Socony-Mobil Oil Co. (later Mobil Oil Corp.) (1955-1958)
*Albert Lindsay Nickerson – Chairman and CEO of Socony-Mobil Oil Co. (later Mobil Oil Corp.) (1963-1969)
*Rawleigh Warner Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Mobil Oil Corp. (1969-1986)
*Allen E. Murray – Chairman and CEO of Mobil Oil Corp. (1986-1994)
Lucio A. Noto – Chairman and CEO of Mobil Oil Corp. (1994-1999); Vice Chairman of ExxonMobil (1999-2001)
*Clarence E. Meyer – Vice President of Standard-Vacuum Oil Co. (later Mobil Oil Corp.) (1946-1965)
Richard F. Tucker – President of Mobil Oil Corp. (1986-c.1992)
*Herman J. Schmidt – Vice Chairman of Mobil Oil Corp (1974-1978)

*Ralph Gwin Follis – Chairman of the board of Standard Oil Co. of California [Socal, later Chevron] (1950-1966)
George M. Keller – Chairman and CEO of Chevron (1981-1988)
*Kenneth T. Derr – Chairman and CEO of Chevron (1989-1999)
*Amos L. Beaty – Chairman of the board of Texaco (1926-1927); President of Texaco (1920-1926)
*Charles B. Ames – Chairman of the board of Texaco (1933-1935)
*W.S.S. Rodgers – Chairman of the board of Texaco (1944-1953)
*Maurice F. Granville – Chairman and CEO of Texaco (1972-c. 1980)
Alfred C. DeCrane Jr. – Chairman (1987-1996) and CEO (1993-1996) of Texaco
David J. O’Reilly – Chairman and CEO of Chevron Corp. (2000-2009) (formerly ChevronTexaco)

J. Dennis Bonney – Vice Chairman of the Board of Chevron Corporation (1987-1995); Member, Board of Directors of Chevron Corporation (1986-1995)
Richard Matzke – former Vice Chairman of ChevronTexaco
*William K. Whiteford – Chairman of the board and CEO of Gulf Oil Corp. (1960-1965) (acquired by Chevron)
*Sidney A. Swensrud – Chairman of the board of Gulf Oil Corp. (1953-1957); President of Gulf Oil Corporation (1947-1953)
*Fred L. Hartley – Chairman (1974-1989) and CEO (1964-1973, 1985-1988) of Union Oil Co. of California (Unocal)
*Richard J. Stegemeier – Chairman and CEO of Unocal (1988-1994) (acquired by Chevron-Texaco)
*William F. Bramstedt – former Chairman of California-Texas Oil Corp. (Caltex) (now part of Chevron-Texaco)

C.J. Silas – Chairman of the board and CEO of Phillips Petroleum Co. (1985-1994) (now called Conoco Phillips)
*John F. Bookout – President and CEO of Shell Oil Co. (1976-1988) (now part of Royal Dutch Shell)
Frank H. Richardson – President and CEO of Shell Oil Co. (1988-1993) (now part of Royal Dutch Shell)
*Robert O. Anderson – Chairman and CEO of Atlantic Richfield Co. (ARCO) (1964-1985) (acquired by British Petroleum (BP))
*Lodwrick M. Cook – Chairman and CEO of Atlantic Richfield Co. (ARCO) (1986-1995) (acquired by British Petroleum (BP))
*Thornton F. Bradshaw – President of Atlantic Richfield Co. (1964-1980) (acquired by British Petroleum (BP))
*Fred A. Davies – Chairman of the board and CEO of Arabian American Oil Co. (ARAMCO) (1952-c.1958)
*Thomas C. Barger – Chairman (1968-1969) and CEO (1961-1969) of ARAMCO
*Armand Hammer – Chairman and CEO of Occidental Petroleum Corp. (1957-1990)
*Emile Edmund (E.E.) Soubry – Chairman of the board of Anglo American Oil Co. (1940); Executive Vice President of Standard Oil Co of New Jersey (1958-1961)
*James C. Donnell, II – Chairman of Marathon Oil Co. (1972-1975); President of Marathon Oil Co. (1948-1972)

*Emilio G. Collado – Executive Vice President (1966-1975), Vice President (1962-1966), Treasurer (1954-1960), and Assistant Tresurer (1949-1954) of Exxon Corp.; executive director of The World Bank (1946-1947)
*Jack F. Bennett – Senior Vice President of Exxon Corp. (1975-1989)

Armaments Executives:
Philip M. Condit – Chairman and CEO of Boeing Co. (1996-2003)
Norman Augustine – Chairman and CEO of Lockheed-Martin (1995-1997)
*Vance Coffman – Chairman and CEO of Lockheed-Martin (1998-2005)
Ruben F. Mettler – Chairman and CEO of TRW, Inc. (1977-1988); President of TRW Inc. (1969-1977)
Joseph T. Gorman – Chairman and CEO of TRW, Inc. (1988-2001) [Note: TRW acquired by Northrop Grumman in 2002.]
Philip A. Odeen – Chairman of TRW, Inc. (2001-2002)
Thomas V. Jones – Chairman of the board (1963-c.1990) and CEO (1960-1989) of Northrop Corp. (now part of Northrop Grumman)
*John C. Bierwirth – Chairman and CEO of Grumman Corporation (1976-1988) (now part of Northrop Grumman)
*John Jay Hopkins – Chairman of the board of General Dynamics Corp. (1952-1957)
*Frank Pace Jr. – Chairman of the board of General Dynamics Corp. (1958-1962)
*Roger Lewis – Chairman of the board of General Dynamics Corp. (1962-1970)
(Adm.) Jay L. Johnson – Chairman and CEO of General Dynamics Corp. (2010-present)
*J. Irwin Miller – Chairman of the board of Cummins Engine Co. (1951-1977)
Henry B. Schacht – Chairman of the board and CEO of Cummins Engine Co. (1977-1995)
*Allen E. Puckett – Chairman and CEO of Hughes Aircraft Company (1978-1987)
*Malcolm R. Currie – Chairman and CEO of Hughes Aircraft Company (1988-1992)
C. Michael Armstrong – Chairman and CEO of Hughes Electronics Corp. (1993-1997)
*Stephen D. Bechtel (Sr.) – former Chairman of the board of Bechtel Corporation
Richard B. “Dick” Cheney – Chairman and CEO of Halliburton Co. (1993-2000)
*James H. Binger – Chairman of the board and CEO of Honeywell, Inc. (1965-1978)
*Edson W. Spencer – Chairman of the board and CEO of Honeywell, Inc. (1978-1987)
*John T. Connor – Chairman and CEO of Allied Chemical Corp. (1969-1979)
Bernard L. Schwartz – Chairman and CEO of Loral Space & Communications (1996-2006); Chairman and CEO of Loral Corp. (1972-1996)
*Donald W. Douglas, Jr. – President of Douglas Aircraft Co. (1957-1967)
*William S. Sneath – Chairman and CEO of Union Carbide Corp. (1977-c.1984)
*Kenneth Rush – President of Union Carbide Corp. (1966-1969); Executive Vice President of Union Carbide Corp. (1961-1966)

Office Supplies and Telecommunications:
*Thomas J. Watson Sr. – Chairman (1949-1956) and President (1914-1949) of International Business Machines Corp. (IBM)
*Thomas J. Watson Jr. – Chairman and CEO of International Business Machines Corp. (IBM) (1961-1971); President of IBM (1952-1961)
*Frank T. Cary – Chairman and CEO of International Business Machines Corp. (IBM) (1972-1979)
*John R. Opel – Chairman and CEO of International Business Machines Corp. (IBM) (1983-1986)
*John F. Akers – Chairman and CEO of International Business Machines Corp. (IBM) (1986-1993)
Louis V. Gerstner Jr. – Chairman and CEO of International Business Machines Corp. (IBM) (1993-2002)
Samuel J. Palmisano – Chairman, President, and CEO of International Business Machines Corp. (IBM) (2003-2012)
*Sol M. Linowitz – Chairman and CEO of Xerox Corp. (1958-1966)
*C. Peter McColough – Chairman and CEO of Xerox Corp. (1971-1982)
*David T. Kearns – Chairman and CEO of Xerox Corp. (1985-1991)
Paul A. Allaire – Chairman and CEO of Xerox Corp. (1991-2001)
Anne M. Mulcahy – Chairman (2002-2010) and CEO (2002-2009) of Xerox Corp.
*Patrick E. Haggerty – Chairman of the board of Texas Instruments (1966-1976)
*Mark Shepherd Jr. – Chairman (1976-1988) and CEO (1969-1984) of Texas Instruments
*Stanley C. Allyn – Chairman of National Cash Register Co. (NCR) (1957-1961); President of NCR (1940-?)
*Robert Schantz Oelman – Chairman of National Cash Register Co. (NCR) (1962-1974)
*R. Stanley Laing – President of National Cash Register Co. (NCR) (1964-1972)
*Walter H. Wheeler Jr. – Chairman of the board (1960-1969) and President (1938-1960) of Pitney-Bowes, Inc.
*Harry B. Thayer – Chairman of the board (1925-1928) and President (1919-1925) of American Telephone and Telegraph Co. [AT&T]
*Walter S. Gifford – President of American Telephone and Telegraph Co. [AT&T] (1925-1948)
*Arthur W. Page – Vice President of American Telephone and Telegraph Co. [AT&T] (1927-1947)
*Frederick R. Kappel – Chairman of AT&T (1961-1967)
*Robert E. Allen – Chairman and CEO of AT&T (1988-1998)
C. Michael Armstrong – Chairman and CEO of AT&T (1998-2002); Chairman of Comcast (2003-2004)
Randall L. Stephenson – Chairman, CEO, and President of AT&T (2007-present)
*Harold S. Geneen – President (1959-1973, CEO (1959-1977), and Chairman (1964-1979) of International Telephone and Telegraph Corp.
*Rand V. Araskog – Chairman and CEO of ITT Corporation (1980-1998)
*John L. Clendenin – Chairman, President, and CEO of BellSouth Corporation (1984-1996)
Henry B. Schacht – Chairman and CEO of Lucent Technologies (1995-1997, 2000-2002)
Michael T. Masin – former Vice Chairman of Verizon Communications
(Adm.) William A. Owens – Vice Chairman (2005-?) and CEO (2004-2005) of Nortel Networks
*Neal Dow Becker – President of Hammond Typewriter Corporation (1913-1924)
W. Michael Blumenthal – Chairman and CEO of Unisys (1986-1990); Chairman of the board of Burroughs Corporation (1981-1986); Chairman of the board (1972-1977) and President (1967-1977) of Bendix International

Food and Medicine:
*H.J. Heinz II – Chairman of the board of H.J. Heinz Company (1959-1987)
*Roberto C. Goizueta – Chairman and CEO of The Coca-Cola Company (1981-1997)
M. Douglas Ivester – Chairman and CEO of The Coca-Cola Company (1997-2000)
Muhtar Kent – Chairman and CEO of The Coca-Cola Company (2009-present)
Donald M. Kendall – Chairman and CEO of PepsiCo, Inc. (1971-1986)
*Robert D. Stuart Jr. – former Chairman of the board of Quaker Oats Co.
*Bradley W. Palmer – Chairman of the executive committee, United Fruit Company [Boston]
*Thomas D. Cabot – former President of United Fruit Company
*T. Jefferson Coolidge – former Chairman of the board of United Fruit Company
Cyrus F. Freidheim Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Chiquita Brands International, Inc. (2002-2004)
*Roy E. Tomlinson – former Chairman and President of Nabisco
*J. Paul Sticht – President (1973-1979) and Chairman of the board (1979-1985) of R.J. Reynolds; Chairman of RJR Nabisco (1987-1989)
Louis V. Gerstner Jr. – Chairman and CEO of RJR Nabisco Inc. (1989-1993)
James L. Ferguson – former Chairman and CEO of General Foods Corporation (1974-?)
*Eugene J. Sullivan – Chairman and CEO of Borden, Inc. (1979-1986)
*John J. Horan – Chairman and CEO of Merck & Co. (1976-1985)
*Edmund T. Pratt Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Pfizer, Inc. (1972-1990)
*Robert Wood Johnson – Chairman of the board of Johnson & Johnson (1938-?); President of Johnson & Johnson (1932-1938)
James E. Burke – Chairman and CEO of Johnson & Johnson (1976-1989)
*William C. Procter – Chairman of the board of Procter & Gamble Co. (1930-1948)
*Neil H. McElroy – Chairman of the board of Procter & Gamble Co. (1959-1972)
*Edwin L. Artzt – Chairman and CEO of Procter & Gamble Co. (1995-1999)
Richard M. Furlaud – Chairman and CEO of Squibb Corporation (1974-1989) (later Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.)
*Richard L. Gelb – Chairman and CEO of Bristol Myers Co. (1976-1995) (later Bristol-Myers Squibb Co.)
Charles A. Heimbold Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. (1995-2001)
*Lucius R. Eastman – Chairman of the board (1938-1943) and and President (1906-1938) of The Hills Brothers Co. [coffee]
Edgar Miles Bronfman Sr. – Chairman of The Seagram Co. Ltd. [liquor company] (1975-1994)
*Joseph P. Spang Jr. – President of The Gillette Co. [razors] (1938-1956)
*Carl J. Gilbert – Chairman of the board of The Gillette Co. [razors] (1958-1968)
George W. Perkins Jr. – Executive Vice President and Treasurer of Merck & Co. (1927-1948)

Retail and Services:
*Julius Rosenwald – Chairman of Sears, Roebuck & Co. (1925-1932); President of Sears, Roebuck & Co. (1910-1925)
*Lessing J. Rosenwald – Chairman of Sears, Roebuck & Co. (1932-1939)
*Jesse Isidor Straus – President of R.H. Macy & Co. [Macy’s department store] (1919-1933)
*Beardsley Ruml – Chairman of the board of R.H. Macy & Co. (1945-1949)
*Jack I. Straus – Chairman and CEO of R.H. Macy & Co. (1956-1968); President of R.H. Macy & Co. (1940-1956)
*Ralph Lazarus – Chairman of the board and CEO of Federated Department Stores (now called Macy’s Inc.) (1967-1982)
*J. Paul Sticht – Executive Vice Pres. (1960-1965), Vice Chairman (1965-1967), and President (1967-1972) of Federated Department Stores
*Silas H. Strawn – Chairman of the board of Montgomery Ward & Co. (c.1922-1931)
*Edward S. Donnell – Chairman of the board (1974-c.1982) and CEO (1981-c.1982) of Montgomery Ward & Co.
*Peter E. Haas Sr. – Chairman of Levi Strauss & Co. (1981-1989)
James P. Kelly – Chairman and CEO of United Parcel Service (1997-2001)
Frederick V. Malek – President of Marriott Hotels and Resorts (1981-1988)
Adam M. Aron – former Chairman and CEO of Vail Resorts
*Walker L. Cisler – Chairman of the board of Detroit Edison Co. (1964-1975); President of Detroit Edison Co. (1951-1964)
*Charles F. Luce – Chairman and CEO of Consolidated Edison Co. of New York (1967-1982)
*John S. Coleman – President of Burroughs Corporation (1946-1958)
*Ray R. Eppert – President of Burroughs Corp. (1958-1966); Chairman and CEO of Burroughs Corp. (1966-1967)
Rebecca P. Mark-Jusbasche – former Vice Chairman of Enron
*Preston Robert Tisch – former Chairman of the board of Loews Corp.
Ray J. Groves – Chairman and CEO of Ernst & Young (1991-1994)
*Chester J. LaRoche – former Chairman of the board of Young & Rubicam, Inc.
*Sigurd S. Larmon – Chairman of the board of Young & Rubicam, Inc. (1944-1962)
Edward N. Ney – Chairman and CEO of Young & Rubicam, Inc. (1972-1985)
Ann M. Fudge – Chairman and CEO of Young & Rubicam, Inc. (2003-2005)
*Paul C. Sheeline – Chairman (1972-1987) and CEO (1971-1985) of Intercontinental Hotels Corp.
Michael P. Schulhof – President and CEO of Sony Corporation of America, Inc. (1993-1995)
*William C. McClellan – President of Potomac Electric Power Co. (1933-1939); President of Union Electric Company of Missouri (1939-1941)
*Charles S. McCain – President of United Light & Power Co. [Chicago] (1934-1939)
John E. Bryson – Chairman and CEO of Edison International (1990-2008)

Transportation:
*Philip Caldwell – Chairman and CEO of Ford Motor Co. (1980-1985)
*Alfred P. Sloan Jr. – Chairman of the board of General Motors Corp. (1937-1956); President of General Motors Corp. (1923-1937)
*Albert Bradley – Chairman of the board of General Motors Corp. (1956-1958)
*Frederic G. Donner – Chairman of the board of General Motors Corp. (1958-1967)
*James M. Roche – Chairman of the board of General Motors Corp. (1967-1972); President of General Motors Corp. (1965-1967)
*Harvey S. Firestone Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. (1948-1963)
*Charles J. Pilliod Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. (1974-1983)
*John L. Collyer – Chairman of the board of The B.F. Goodrich Company (1950-1960)
*Robert S. McNamara – President of Ford Motors Co. (1960)
*Donaldson Brown – Vice Chairman of General Motors Corp. (1937-1946)
*Daniel Willard – President of Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co. (1910-1941); Chairman of the board, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Co. (1941-1942)
*Patrick E. Crowley – President of New York Central Lines [railroad] (1924-1932)
*Walker D. Hines – Chairman of the board of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Co. (1916-1918)
*W. Averell Harriman – Chairman of the board of Union Pacific Railroad Co. (1932-1946)
*E. Roland Harriman – Chairman of the board of Union Pacific Railroad Co. (1946-1969)
*Drew Lewis – Chairman of the board of Union Pacific Corp. (1987-1997)
*Warren Lee Pierson – former Chairman of the board of Trans-World Airways
*Charles C. Tillinghast Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Trans World Airlines (1969-1976)
*Juan Terry Trippe – Chairman and CEO of Pan American World Airways, Inc. (1964-1968)
*Najeeb Halaby – Chairman and CEO of Pan American World Airways, Inc. (1969-1972)
*Floyd D. Hall – former Chairman of the board of Eastern Air Lines Inc. (1967-?)
*Robert L. Cummings – former President of New York Airways
*Edwin A. Locke Jr. – Pres. of Union Tank Car Co. [Chicago] (1955-63); Pres. and CEO of Modern Homes Construction Co. [Ga.] (1963-67)
*William C. McClellan – Chairman (1940-1943) and President (1935-1940) of Washington Railway & Electric Company

Manufacturing:
*Charles A. Coffin – Chairman of the board of General Electric Co. (1913-1922)
*Owen D. Young – Chairman of the board of General Electric Co. (1922-1939, 1942-1944)
*Philip D. Reed – Chairman of the board of General Electric Co. (1940-1942, 1945-1958)
*Fred J. Borch – Chairman and CEO of General Electric Co. (1967-1972)
*Reginald H. Jones – Chairman and CEO of General Electric Co. (1972-1981)
*John F. Welch Jr. – Chairman and CEO of General Electric Co. (1981-2001)
*Gerard Swope – President of General Electric Co. (1922-1940, 1942-1945)
*Guy E. Tripp – Chairman of the board of Westinghouse Electric Corp. (1912-1927)
*Paul D. Cravath – Chairman of the board of Westinghouse Electric Corp. (1927-1929)
*Andrew W. Robertson – Chairman of the board of Westinghouse Electric Corp. (1929-1955)
*George H. Bucher – President (1938-1946) and Vice Chairman (1946-1951) of Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. [Electric Corp.]
*Harry B. Thayer – President (1908-1919) and Chairman of the board (1919-1921) of Western Electric Co.
*Cola G. Parker – Chairman of the board of Kimberly-Clark Corporation (1953-1955)
*John R. Kimberly – Chairman of the board of Kimberly-Clark Corporation (1967-1970)
*Donald S. Leslie – Chairman of Hammermill Paper Co. (1963-1969)
*Thomas B. McCabe – Chairman of the board of Scott Paper Company (1962-1968); President of Scott Paper Co. (1927-1962)

Agriculture:
*William Butterworth – Chairman of the board of Deere & Co. (1930-1936); President of Deere & Co. (1907-1928)
*William A. Hewitt – Chairman and CEO of Deere & Co. (1964-1982); President of Deere & Co. (1955-1964)
*Robert A. Hanson – Chairman and CEO of Deere & Co. (1982-1989)
*Hans W. Becherer – Chairman and CEO of Deere & Co. (1989-2000)
Robert W. Lane – Chairman and CEO of Deere & Co. (2000-2010)
*Dwayne O. Andreas – Chairman of Archer-Daniels-Midland Co. (1979-1997)
*Louis B. Neumiller – Chairman of the board of Caterpillar Tractor Co. (1954-1962)
*William Blackie – Chairman of the board of Caterpillar Tractor Co. (1966-1972)
*Lee L. Morgan – Chairman of the board of Caterpillar Tractor Co. (1977-c.1984)
*Laird Bell – Chairman of the board of Weyerhaeuser Timber Co. (1947-1955)

Sports:
David J. Stern – Commissioner of National Basketball Association (NBA) (1984-present)
Paul Tagliabue – Commissioner of National Football League (NFL) (1989-2006)
*A. Bartlett Giamatti – Commissioner of Major League Baseball (MLB) (1989)
Robert K. Kraft – Owner of New England Patriots (NFL)
Robert Wood Johnson IV – Owner of New York Jets (NFL)
Christina Weiss Lurie – Co-Owner of Philadelphia Eagles (NFL)
*Preston Robert Tisch – former Chairman and Co-Owner of New York Giants
*Raymond D. Nasher – former Co-Owner of Texas Rangers baseball team (MLB)
Mark A. Emmert – President of National Collegiate Athletic Association [NCAA] (2010-present)

Other Industries:
*James A. Farrell – President of United States Steel Corporation (1911-1932)
*Myron C. Taylor – Chairman of the board of United States Steel Corporation (1932-1938)
*Edward R. Stettinius, Jr. – Chairman of the board of United States Steel Corporation (1938-1940)
*Irving S. Olds – Chairman of the board of United States Steel Corporation (1940-1952)
*Benjamin F. Fairless – Chairman of United States Steel Corp. (1952-1953); President and CEO of United States Steel Corp. (1938-1952)
*Roger M. Blough – Chairman and CEO of United States Steel Corporation (1955-1969)
*Eugene G. Grace – Chairman (1945-1960) and President (1916-1945) of Bethlehem Steel Corp.
*Arthur B. Homer – Chairman (1960-1964) and President (1945-1960) of Bethlehem Steel Corp.
Richard F. Schubert – President (1979-1980) and Vice Chairman (1980-1982) of Bethlehem Steel
*Harleston R. Wood – Chairman of Alan Wood Steel Co. (1962-1982)
*Alanson B. Houghton – Chairman of the board of Corning Glass Works (1918-1941); President of Corning Glass Works (1910-1918)
*Amory Houghton – Chairman of the board of Corning Glass Works (1941-1961)
*William C. Decker – Chairman of the board and CEO of Corning Glass Works (1961-1964)
Amory Houghton Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Corning Glass Works (1964-1982)
James R. Houghton – Chairman of the board and CEO of Corning Glass Works (1983-1989); Chairman of the board and CEO of Corning, Inc. (1989-1996, 2002-2005)
*(Gen.) Lauris Norstad – Chairman of Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp. (1967-1972)
*William W. Boeschenstein – Chairman (1981-1990) and CEO (1972-1990) of Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corp.

*Louis S. Cates – Chairman and CEO of Phelps Dodge Corp. (1954-1966)
*Robert G. Page – Chairman and CEO of Phelps Dodge Corp. (1966-1970)
George B. Munroe – Chairman and CEO of Phelps Dodge Corp. (1975-1987)
*G. Robert Durham – Chairman of Phelps Dodge Corp. (1987-1989)
Zoltan Merzsei – Chairman and CEO of Dow Chemical Co. (1978-1979)
Frank Popoff – Chairman (1992-2000) and CEO (1987-1996) of Dow Chemical Co.
*Charles F. Barber – Chairman and CEO of American Smelting and Refining Co. (1971-1982); President of American Smelting and Refining Co. (1969-1971)
Dana G. Mead – former Chairman and CEO of Tenneco, Inc.
*Crawford H. Greenewalt – Chairman of the board (1962-1967) and President (1948-1962) of E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc.
*Lammot du Pont Copeland – President (1962-1967) and Chairman of the board (1967-1971) of E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc.
*Irving S. Shapiro – Chairman and CEO of E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. (1974-1981)
*Francis B. Davis Jr. – Chairman of U.S. Rubber Co. [later Uniroyal] (1929-1949)
*Herbert E. Smth – Chairman of U.S. Rubber Co. [later Uniroyal] (1949-1951)
*Harry E. Humphreys Jr. – Chairman of U.S. Rubber Co. [later Uniroyal] (1951-1965)
*George R. Vila – Chairman and CEO of Uniroyal, Inc. (1965-1975)
*Brooks McCormick – Chairman of International Harvester Company (1977-1979)
*Alexander Legge – President of International Harvester Company (1922-1929, 1931-1933)
*Thomas S. Nichols – Chairman of the board of Olin Mathieson Chemical Corp. [now called Olin Corp.] (1957-1963)
*Nathanael V. Davis – President and CEO of Alcan [aluminum company] (1947-1979)
*W.H. Krome George – Chairman and CEO of ALCOA (Aluminum Company of America) (1975-c.1982)
William A. Haseltine – former Chairman and CEO of Human Genome Sciences, Inc.
*John W. Brooks – Chairman and CEO of Celanese Corporation (1971-1977)
John D. Macomber – Chairman and CEO of Celanese Corporation (1980-1987)
S. Bruce Smart, Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Continental Group, Inc. (formerly Continental Can Co.) (1981-1985)
*Merle R. Rawson – Chairman and CEO of Hoover Co. (1975-1988) [vacuum cleaner company]
*Morehead Patterson – Chairman of American Machine & Foundry Co. (1943-1962)
*Carter L. Burgess – Chairman and CEO of American Machine & Foundry Co. (1962-1968)
*Langbourne M. Williams Jr. – President (1933-1958) and Chairman (1957-1969) of Freeport Minerals Co.; Director of Texaco (1958-1974)
Peter G. Peterson – Chairman of Bell & Howell Co. [Chicago] (1968-1971); President of Bell & Howell Co. (1961-1968)
*Donald N. Frey – Chairman of the board and CEO of Bell & Howell Co. (1971-1988)
*Fred C. Foy – Chairman and CEO of Koppers Co., Inc. [Pittsburgh] (1960-1967)

International Consultants
Kissinger McLarty Associates
*Henry A. Kissinger, Chairman
Alan R. Batkin, Vice Chairman
Thomas “Mack” McLarty III, President
Nelson W. Cunningham, Managing Partner

The Cohen Group
William S. Cohen, Chairman and CEO
*(Gen.) Joseph W. Ralston, Vice-Chairman
(Gen.) Paul J. Kern, Senior Counselor
*(Adm.) James M. Loy, Senior Counselor
Frank Miller, Vice President
*Paul R.S. Gebhard, Vice President The Scowcroft Group
Brent Scowcroft, President
Walter H. Kansteiner III, Principal
Arnold Kanter, Principal
Eric D.K. Melby, Principal
Virginia A. Mulberger, Principal
Kevin G. Nealer, Principal
Daniel B. Poneman, Principal

The Albright Group
Madeleine K. Albright, Principal
Wendy R. Sherman, Principal
Susan L. Shirk, Senior Adviser

Council on Foreign Relations: Corporate Media

Television Journalists (2010)
ABC
*Harry Reasoner – Anchor of ABC Evening News (1970-1978); CBS “60 Minutes” reporter
Barbara Walters – Co-host and chief correspondent of ABC News’ 20/20 (1979-2004); Co-host of The View on ABC (1997-present)
Diane Sawyer – Co-Anchor of Good Morning America (?-2009); Anchor of ABC World News Tonight (2010-present)
George Stephanopoulos – Anchor of Good Morning America on ABC (2010-present); Anchor of This Week on ABC (2002-2009); Chief Washington Correspondent for ABC News (2005-present)

Juju Chang
*Tamala Edwards
Susan Robinson King – former correspondent
*Ted Koppel
Katherine I. O’Hearn – Executive Producer of ABC’s ‘This Week’
Jim Sciutto – ABC News Senior Foreign Correspondent
Lynn Sherr – 20/20
Robert W. “Bob” Woodruff
C. Robert Zelnick – former correspondent

CBS
Dan Rather – Anchor of CBS Evening News (1981-2005)
Katie Couric – Anchor of CBS Evening News (2006-2011)
Bob L. Schieffer – Anchor of CBS Evening News (2005-2006); Chief Washington Correspondent for CBS News (1982-present); Moderator of Face The Nation (1991-present)

David A. Andelman – former correspondent
Lowell A. Bergman – former “60 Minutes” producer
*Edward R. Bradley – “60 Minutes” reporter
Barbara Cochran – former Washington Bureau Chief
*Charles C. Collingwood – Chief Foreign Correspondent for CBS (1966-1975)
*George Crile III – producer/reporter for 60 Minutes and 60 Minutes II
Neeraj Khemlani – producer of “60 Minutes”
Marshall Loeb – columnist for CBSMarketWatch.com and commentator on CBS radio
*Edward R. Murrow – CBS journalist (1935-1961)
Marquita Pool-Eckert – senior producer of CBS Sunday Morning
Marlene Sanders – former producer and correspondent
*Daniel L. Schorr – Washington Correspondent for CBS (1966-1976)
Lesley R. Stahl – CBS News 60 Minutes correspondent (1991-present)
Martha Teichner – CBS News Sunday Morning

NBC
*John Chancellor – Anchor of NBC Nightly News (1970-1981)
Tom Brokaw – Anchor of NBC Nightly News (1982-2004)
Brian Williams – Anchor of NBC Nightly News (2004-present)
Andrea Mitchell – Chief Foreign Affairs Correspondent (1994-present)

Maria S. Bartiromo – anchor of ‘Closing Bell’ on CNBC
Mika Brzezinski – Co-host of ‘Morning Joe’ on MSNBC
*David Brinkley
Katie Couric – former host of ‘NBC Today’
Betsy Fischer – Executive Producer of NBC’s ‘Meet the Press’ (2002-present)
Marvin Kalb – former host of NBC’s ‘Meet The Press’
Michael D. Mosettig – former producer of NBC Nightly News and NBC Today Show
Alan S. Murray – co-host of “Capital Report” on CNBC
Charles J. “Joe” Scarborough – Co-host of ‘Morning Joe’ on MSNBC
Garrick Utley – former host of NBC’s ‘Meet the Press’ CNN
Kathryn “Kitty” Pilgrim
Peter L. Bergen
David B. Ensor
*Sanjay Gupta – medical correspondent
April A. Oliver – fired by CNN for her “Operation Tailwind” investigation
Garrick Utley – CNN journalist until 2002
Judy Woodruff – former CNN correspondent
Paula Zahn – former CNN, FOX, and CBS anchor

FOX
Judith (Judy) Miller – Fox News political analyst; former New York Times reporter
Mansoor Ijaz – terrorism analyst
Morton Kondracke – “Beltway Boys”
*Robert Anthony “Tony” Snow (deceased)
Linda J. Vester

PBS
Jim Lehrer – Anchor of The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer on PBS (1995-present)
Margaret G. Warner – Co-Anchor of The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer on PBS
Deborah Amos – NPR and ABC
Joan Ganz Cooney – producer of Sesame Street
Michael Getler – omsbudman
*Robert L. McNeill – retired
Michael D. Mosettig – former producer of PBS MacNeil/Lehrer Newshour
*Bill D. Moyers – retired
Charlie Rose – Charlie Rose Show
*Daniel L. Schorr – NPR, All Things Considered, former CBS and New York Times journalist
Judy Woodruff – PBS commentator

Note: *= former Council on Foreign Relations member; name does not appear on 2012 Council on Foreign Relations membership roster.

Newspaper and Magazine Journalists
New York Times
Thomas L. Friedman – Beirut Bureau Chief (1982-1984); Jerusalem Bureau Chief (1984-1988); Chief Diplomatic Correspondent (1989-1992); Chief White House Correspondent (1992-1993); International Economics Correspondent (1994); Foreign Affairs Columnist (1995-present)
Elizabeth Becker – agricultural writer
Ethan Bronner – Deputy Foreign Editor
Lynette Clemetson – correspondent
Ann Crittenden – former reporter
Barbara Crossette – former United Nations Bureau Chief
*Max Frankel – Chief Washington Correspondent (1968-1973)
Leslie H. Gelb – Deputy Editorial Page Editor (1986-1990)
Carol Ann Giacomo – Member of the New York Times editorial board (August 2007-present); former diplomatic correspondent for Reuters News Agency
Michael R. Gordon – Chief Military Correspondent
Peter B. Grose
Pranay Gupte – former correspondent
Bernard Gwertzman – foreign affairs
Warren M. Hoge – London Bureau Chief (1996-2003)
Nicholas D. Kristof – Beijing Bureau Chief (1988-1993); Tokyo Bureau Chief (1995-1999); also a columnist
*Paul Krugman – columnist
Joseph Lelyveld – Executive Editor (1994-2001)
Anthony Lewis – former columnist
*Flora Lewis – former columnist
*Walter Lippmann
*Drew Middleton – Military Correspondent (1970-?)
Judith Miller – columnist (questioned in Plame case)
*James B. Reston – Chief Washington Correspondent (1953-1964); Associate Editor (1964-1968); Executive Editor (1968-1969); Vice President of The New York Times Co. (1969-1974)
Carla Anne Robbins – Deputy Editorial Page Editor (2007-2012)
*Abraham Michael (A.M.) Rosenthal –Assistant Managing Editor (1967-1968); Associate Managing Editor (1968-1969); Managing Editor (1969-1977); Executive Editor (1977-1986); Associate Editor (1986-1987); Columnist (1986-1999)
*Harrison E. Salisbury – Assistant Managing Editor (1964-1972); Associate Editor (1972-1974); Op-Ed Page Editor (1970-1973)
David E. Sanger – White House correspondent
Serge Schmemann – editorial page editor of the International Herald Tribune in Paris; deputy foreign editor (1999-2001)
Eric P. Schmitt – journalist
*Harry Schwartz – Member of the Editorial Board of The New York Times (1951-1979)
Elaine Sciolino – senior writer for the Washington bureau
*Robert B. Semple Jr. – Associate Editor of the Editorial Page (1988-present); Op-Ed Page Editor (1982-1988)
Thomas D. Shanker – Pentagon correspondent
Hedrick L. Smith – Moscow Bureau Chief (1971-1974); Washington Bureau Chief (1976-1979)
Seymour Topping – formering managing editor and foreign editor
David C. Unger – Senior Editorial Writer on Foreign Affairs
Craig R. Whitney – writer

Washington Post
*Joseph Kraft – Syndicated Columnist (1963-1986)
Charles Krauthammer – Syndicated Columnist (1984-present)
*Chalmers M. Roberts – Chief Diplomatic Correspondent (1953-1971)
Robert W. Kagan – Columnist
*Nurith Aizenman
Anne E. Applebaum – Columnist
Rajiv Chandrasekaran
Pamela Constable – deputy foreign editor; former Kabul Bureau Chief
Karen J. DeYoung – associate editor
Jackson K. Diehl – Columnist
David R. Ignatius – Foreign Editor (1990-1993)
Robert G. Kaiser
Glenn A. Kessler
Thomas Lippman – former Middle East Bureau Chief
Caryle M. Murphy
Don Oberdorfer – staff writer
Walter H. Pincus
Keith Richburg – Foreign Editor
R. Jeffrey Smith
Marc A. Thiessen – Columnist (2010-present)
*George F. Will – Columnist
Robin Wright – correspondent

Time, Inc.
*John Davenport – assistant managing editor of Fortune magazine (1954-1969)
Joel Dreyfuss – senior editor of Fortune magazine
Charles R. Eisendrath – former correspondent
Dorinda Elliott – former assistant managing editor
Stephen Handelman – columnist
Stanley Karnow – former chief correspondent for Time and Life
*Louis Kraar – former Fortune magazine correspondent
Bernard Krisher – former Time-Asia correspondent
Marguerite Michaels – Midwest Bureau Chief
Jerrold Schecter – former correspondent
Richard Stengel – Managing Editor of Time (2006-present)
Strobe Talbott – Washington Bureau Chief of Time (1984-1989)

Newsweek (part of Washington Post)
Jonathan Alter – senior editor and columnist
Christopher S. Dickey – Paris Bureau Chief
Dorinda Elliott – former correspondent
Nisid Hajari – managing editor of Newsweek International
Michael Hirsh – senior editor
*Joe Klein
Ernest K. Lindley – Chief of Washington Bureau of Newsweek magazine (1937-1961)
Tamara Lipper
Marcus Mabry – senior editor
Jon Meacham – managing editor
Jane Bryant Quinn – contributing editor
Evan Thomas – Washington Bureau Chief
Elizabeth “Lally” Weymouth – columnist
*George F. Will – contributing editor and columnist
Fareed Zakaria – Editor of Newsweek International (2000-present)

Wall Street Journal
Kenneth H. Bacon – former columnist
*Robert L. Bartley – Editor (1979-2003)
*Max Boot – columnist
Marcus Brauchli – global news editor
John C. Bussey – deputy managing editor
L. Gordon Crovitz – Senior Vice President, Publisher of WSJ
Daniel Henninger – deputy editor of the editorial page
Melanie Kirkpatrick – associate editor of the editorial page
Alan S. Murray
Peggy Noonan – columnist
Paul E. Steiger – Managing Editor of Wall Street Journal (1991-2007)

Other Corporate Journalists

Editorial Page Editors
*John B. Oakes – Editorial Page Editor of The New York Times (1961-1977)
*Max Frankel – Editorial Page Editor of The New York Times (1977-1986)
Andrew M. Rosenthal – Editorial Page Editor of The New York Times (2007-present); Deputy Editorial Page Editor of The New York Times (August 2003-December 31, 2006)
*Robert H. Estabrook – Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post (1953-1962)
*Philip L. Geyelin – Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post (1968-1979)
*Meg Greenfield – Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post (1979-1999); Deputy Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post (1970-79)
*Stephen S. Rosenfeld – Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post (1999-2000); Deputy Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post (1982-1999)
Fred Hiatt – Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post (2000-present)
*Robert L. Bartley – Editorial Page Editor of The Wall Street Journal (1972-1978)
*Paul A. Gigot – Editorial Page Editor of The Wall Street Journal
Hugh D.S. Greenway – Editorial Page Editor of The Boston Globe (1994-2000)
Helle Dale – Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Times (1997-2002)
*Lauren K. Soth – former Editorial Page Editor of the Des Moines Register
Susan J. Bennett– former Editorial Page Editor of USA Today
Rena M. Pederson – former Editorial Page Editor of The Dallas Morning News
James M. Klurfeld – Editorial Page Editor of Newsday (1987-2007)
Bruce Nussbaum – Editorial Page Editor of BusinessWeek magazine

Newspapers
Susan J. Bennett – former diplomatic correspondent for Knight-Ridder newspapers; former USA Today editorial writer
*Linda Chavez – syndicated columnist
Lee Cullum – columnist for Dallas Morning News; commentator on PBS
Georgie Anne Geyer – syndicated columnist; author of Guerilla Prince (Fidel Castro); first westerner to interview Saddam Hussein
Pranay Gupte – business columnist for The New York Sun
Edwin O. Guthman – former editor of Los Angeles Times and The Philadelphia Inquirer
*James Landers – columnist for Dallas Morning News
Deroy Murdock – syndicated columnist for Scripps Howard News Service
Andres M. Oppenheimer – columnist for The Miami Herald
*Geoffrey Parsons – Chief Editorial Writer for New York Herald-Tribune (1924-1952)
*August Heckscher – Chief Editorial Writer for New York Herald-Tribune (1952-1956)
*Walter Millis – staff writer for New York Herald Tribune (1924-1954)
Michael C. Parks – former editor of Los Angeles Times; former Vice President of Times Mirror Company
Sheridan Prasso – columnist
Trudy S. Rubin – columnist and editorial board member for The Philadelphia Inquirer
David M. Schribman – syndicated columnist
Barbara Slavin – diplomatic reporter for USA Today
Cynthia A. Tucker – columnist for the Atlanta Journal Constitution

Magazines
Jodie T. Allen – managing editor of U.S. News & World Report
William L. Allen – former Editor-in-Chief of National Geographic
David A. Andelman – Executive Editor of Forbes.com
David Bosco – senior editor of Foreign Policy
*John Davenport – former editor of Barron’s magazine (1949-1954)
*Steven A. Emerson – former CNN reporter; author of American Jihad
James M. Fallows – national correspondent for The Atlantic Monthly
Nathan Gardels – editor of New Perspectives Quarterly and Global Viewpoint
Philip Gourevitch – staff writer for The New Yorker
Nikolas K. Gvosdev – executive director of The National Interest
Hendrik Hertzberg – Managing Director of The New Yorker
Edward Klein – writer for Parade magazine; author of “The Truth About Hillary”
Lucy Komisar – journalist and author of “The New Feminism”
Morton Kondracke – Executive Editor of Roll Call magazine; co-Host of “The Beltway Boys” on Fox News
*Irving Kristol – former Publisher of The National Interest and The Public Interest magazines; “godfather” of neo-conservatism
Lewis H. Lapham – editor of Harper’s magazine
Karl E. Meyer – editor of World Policy Journal
Lucia Mouat – former UN correspondent for Christian Science Monitor
Patrick J. O’Rourke – correspondent for The Atlantic and contributing editor at The Weekly Standard
Ponchitta Pierce – former New York editor of Ebony magazine
David J. Remnick – editor of The New Yorker
Andrew L. Shapiro – contributing editor of The Nation magazine
Stanley K. Sheinbaum – Publisher of New Perspectives Quarterly
Stephen G. Smith – former editor of U.S. News & World Report; Washington Bureau Chief of Houston Chronicle
Vijay Vaithweeswaran – correspondent for The Economist
Jacob M. Weisberg – Editor of Slate magazine
*Leon Wieseltier – Editor of The New Republic

Corporate Executives of the Corporate Media

Prominent Corporate Media Executives
*Arthur Hays Sulzberger – Chairman of the board (1957-1968) and President (1935-1957) of The New York Times Co.
*Arthur Ochs Sulzberger – Chairman and CEO of The New York Times Co. (1963-1997)
*Eugene Meyer – Chairman of the board of The Washington Post Co. (1947-1959)
*Frederick S. Beebe – Chairman of the board of The Washington Post Co. (1961-1973)
*Katharine Graham – Chairman of the board of The Washington Post Co. (1973-1993)
Peter R. Kann – Chairman of Dow Jones & Co. (1991-2007)
M. Peter McPherson – Chairman of Dow Jones & Co. (2007)

Rupert Murdoch – Chairman and CEO of News Corp. (Fox News) (1991-present)
*Gerald M. Levin – Chairman and CEO of Time Warner, Inc. (1993-2002)
Richard D. Parsons – Chairman and CEO of Time Warner, Inc. (2003-2008); President of Time Warner, Inc. (1995-1999)
Jeffrey L. Bewkes – Chairman and CEO of Time Warner, Inc. (2009-present); Chairman and CEO of Home Box Office (HBO) (1995-2002); President of HBO (1991-1995); President of Time Warner, Inc. (2006-2007); Chairman of the Entertainment and Networks group, Time Warner, Inc. (2002-2005)
*William S. Paley – Chairman of the board (1946-1983) and President (1928-1946) of Columbia Broadcasting System [CBS]
*Thomas H. Wyman – Chairman and CEO of CBS (1983-1986)
*Owen D. Young – Chairman of the board of Radio Corporation of America [RCA] (1919-1929)
*James G. Harbord – Chairman of the board of RCA (1930-1946); President of RCA (1923-1930)
*David Sarnoff – Chairman of the board of RCA (1947-1966); President of RCA (1930-1947)
*Robert W. Sarnoff – Chairman of the board and CEO of RCA (1970-1975); Chairman and CEO of NBC (1958-1965)
*Thornton F. Bradshaw – Chairman and CEO of RCA (1981-1986)
*Michael Eisner – Chairman and CEO of The Walt Disney Co. (1984-2004); President of Paramount Pictures Corp. (1976-1984)
(Sen.) George J. Mitchell – Chairman of The Walt Disney Co. (2004-2006)
Barry Diller – Chairman of Paramount Pictures (1974-1984); Chairman and CEO of 20th Century Fox (1984-1992)

Mortimer B. Zuckerman – Chairman and Editor-in-Chief of U.S. News & World Report (1984-present); Chairman of the board of Atlantic Monthly Co. (1980-1999); Chairman and Publisher of New York Daily News (1993-present)
John W. Madigan – Chairman (1996-2004) and CEO (1995-2002) of Tribune Publishing Co.
*Franklin D. Murphy – Chairman and CEO of Times Mirror Co. (1968-1981) [later acquired by Tribune Co. (Chicago)]
*Robert F. Erburu – Chairman of the Board (1986-1995) and CEO (1981-1995) of The Times Mirror Co.
*Whitelaw Reid – Chairman of the board of New York Herald Tribune (1955-1958)
Peter C. Goldmark Jr. – Chairman and CEO of International Herald Tribune (1998-2003)
Arnaud de Borchgrave – President and CEO of United Press International (UPI) (1999-2001)
Luis G. Nogales – Chairman and CEO of United Press International (UPI) (1983-1986); President of Univision (1987-1988)
*Louis D. Boccardi – President and CEO of The Associated Press (AP) (1985-2003)
David G. Bradley – Chairman of Atlantic Media Company
*C. D. Jackson – former Senior Vice President of Time Inc. and Publisher of Life magazine
*Sig Mickelson – President of CBS News (1954-1961); Vice President of Time-Life Broadcast, Inc. (1961-1970)
*Oswald Garrison Villard – President of New York Evening Post (1897-1918); Editor and Owner of New York Nation (1918-1932)

*Philip L. Graham – President of The Washington Post Co. (1961-1963)
Alan Spoon – President of The Washington Post Co. (1993-2000)
*James A. Linen – President of Time Inc. (1960-1969)
*George Backer – President of New York Post (1939-1942)
James F. Hoge Jr. – President of New York Daily News (1985-1991)
*Gardner Cowles – President of Des Moines Register and Tribune (1943-1971); Chairman of the board of Cowles Communications, Inc. (1937-1971)
*John Cowles – President of Minneapolis Star and Tribune Co. (1935-1968); Chairman of Minneapolis Star and Tribune Co. (1968-1973); Chairman of Des Moines Register and Tribune Co. (1945-1970)
*John Cowles, Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Minneapolis Star and Tribune Co. (1973-1983)
*David Kruidenier – Chairman and CEO of Des Moines Register and Tribune (1982-1985); Chairman of Cowles Media Co. (1984-1993); President of Des Moines Register and Tribune (1971-1978)

*Cass Canfield – Chairman of the board (1945-1955) and President (1931-1945) of Harper & Brothers [later Harper & Row]
*John Cowles, Jr. – Chairman of Harper & Row Publishing, Inc. (1968-1979)
*Winthrop Knowlton – Chairman of Harper & Row Publishing, Inc. (1979-1986)
Brooks Thomas – Chairman (1986-1987) and CEO (1977-1987) of Harper & Row Publishing, Inc.
*James H. McGraw – President of McGraw-Hill Co., Inc. (1917-1928)
*Malcolm Muir (Sr.) – President of McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. (1928-1937)
*James H. McGraw Jr. – Chairman of the board of McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. (1935-1950)
*Robert L. Bernstein – Chairman, President, and CEO of Random House, Inc. (1975-1989); CEO of Random House, Inc. (1967-1975)
Alberto Vitale – Chairman and CEO of Random House (1998-1999); President and CEO of Bantam, Doubleday, Dell Publishing Group (1987-1990)
Edgar Bronfman Jr. – Chairman and CEO of Warner Music Group Corp. (2004-present)

Prominent Newspaper Publishers
*Arthur Hays Sulzberger – Publisher of The New York Times (1935-1961)
*Orvil E. Dryfoos – Publisher of The New York Times (1961-1963); President of The New York Times Co. (1957-1963); died May 1963
*Arthur Ochs Sulzberger – Publisher of The New York Times (1963-1992)
*Eugene Meyer – Publisher of The Washington Post (1933-1946)
*Philip L. Graham – Publisher of The Washington Post (1946-1961)
*Katharine Graham – Publisher of The Washington Post (1969-1979)
Peter R. Kann – Publisher of The Wall Street Journal (1989-2002)
Karen Elliott House – Publisher of The Wall Street Journal (2002-2005); Senior Vice President of Dow Jones & Co. (2002-2005)
L. Gordon Crovitz – Publisher of The Wall Street Journal (2006-present)
Rupert Murdoch – Publisher of New York Post (1976-1986)
*John Hay Whitney – Publisher of New York Herald Tribune (1961-1966)
James F. Hoge Jr. – Publisher of New York Daily News (1985-1991); Publisher of Chicago Sun Times (1980-1984)
John W. Madigan – Publisher of Chicago Tribune (1990-1994)
W. Thomas Johnson – Publisher of Los Angeles Times (1980-1989)
David A. Laventhol – Publisher of Los Angeles Times (1989-1993)
Alberto Ibarguen – Publisher of The Miami Herald (1998-2004)
Cathleen P. Black – Publisher of USA Today (1984-1991)
*David Kruidenier – Publisher of Des Moines Register and Tribune (1971-1978)
Jay T. Harris – Publisher and Chairman of San Jose Mercury News (1995-2001)
*Palmer Hoyt – Publisher of The Denver Post (1946-1970)
Lee W. Huebner – former Publisher and CEO of International Herald Tribune

Prominent Magazine and Newspaper Editors-in-Chief
*Henry R. Luce – Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1923-1964) and founder of Time and Life magazines
*Hedley Donovan – Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1964-1979)
*Henry A. Grunwald – Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1979-1987)
Jason D. McManus – Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1987-1995)
Norman Pearlstine – Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1995-2005)
John W. Huey Jr. – Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (2006-present)

*William F. Buckley Jr. – Editor-in-Chief of National Review (1955-1990)
Mortimer B. Zuckerman – Editor-in-Chief of U.S. News & World Report (1984-present)
*Erwin D. Canham – Editor-in-Chief of Christian Science Monitor (1964-1974)
*John Fischer – Editor-in-Chief of Harper’s Magazine (1953-1967)
*Robert J. Manning – Editor-in-Chief of Atlantic Monthly (1966-1980)
*Malcolm Muir (Sr.) – Editor-in-Chief of Newsweek (1937-1961)
*Osborn Elliott – Editor-in-Chief of Newsweek (1975-1976)
Richard M. Smith – Editor-in-Chief of Newsweek (1984-present)
Stephen B. Shepard – Editor-in-Chief of Business Week (1984-2005)
R. Emmett Tyrrell – Editor-in-Chief of The American Spectator (1967-present)
Katrina vanden Heuvel – Editor-in-Chief of The Nation (1995-present)
Moises Naim – Editor-in-chief of Foreign Policy magazine (1996-2010)
Arnaud de Borchgrave – Editor-in-Chief of The Washington Times (1985-1991); Editor-in-Chief of Insight magazine (1985-1991)
James F. Hoge Jr. – Editor-in-Chief of Chicago Sun Times (1976-1980)
Dennis A. Britton – Editor-in-Chief of The Denver Post (1996-1999)
*Paul C. Smith – Editor-in-Chief of San Francisco Chronicle (1937-1953)
*George B. Parker – Editor in Chief of Scripps-Howard Newspapers (1927-1949)
David Schlesinger – Chairman of Thomson Reuters China (2011-present); Editor-in-Chief of Reuters (2007-2011)

Other Media Executives
*Frank Stanton – President of CBS (1946-1971); Vice Chairman of CBS (1971-1973)
Arthur R. Taylor – President of CBS (1972-1976)
Sir Howard Stringer – President of CBS News (1986-1988)
Herbert S. Schlosser – President of NBC (1974-1978); Executive Vice President of RCA (1978-1985)
Jane Cahill Pfeiffer – Chairman of National Broadcasting Co. [NBC] (1978-1980)
*Robert R. Frederick – President of RCA (1982-1986)
David L. Westin – President of ABC News (1998-2010)
*Roone Arledge – Chairman of ABC News (1998-2002); President of ABC News (1977-1998); President of ABC Sports and Monday Night Football (1968-1985)
*Hartford N. Gunn Jr. – President of Public Broadcasting Service [PBS] (1970-1976)
Patricia E. Mitchell – President of Public Broadcasting Service [PBS] (2000-2006)
Vivian Schiller – President and CEO of National Public Radio [NPR] (2009-2011)
Michael S. Ovitz – President of Walt Disney Co. (1995-1997); former Chairman of Creative Artists Agency
John F. Cooke – President of The Disney Channel (1985-1995); National Executive Director of Screen Actors Guild (2001-?)
*Harding F. Bancroft – Vice Chairman of The New York Times Co. (1974-1976); Exec. Vice President of The New York Times Co. (1963-1974)
Richard N. Kaplan – President of MSNBC (2004-2006)
Stephen A. Capus – President of NBC News
Cesar R. Conde – President of Univision Communications Inc.
Patti Domm – CNBC Executive News Editor

Other Television Executives
Time Warner:
Glenn A. Britt – Chairman and CEO of Time Warner Cable (2001-present)
Joseph J. Collins – former Chairman and CEO of Time Warner Cable
Walter S. Isaacson – Chairman and CEO of CNN News Group (2001-2003)
W. Thomas Johnson – Chairman and CEO of Cable News Network [CNN] (1998-2001)
Eason T. Jordan – former Chief News Executive of CNN News
Richard N. Kaplan – President of CNN-U.S. (1997-2000)
C. Shelby Coffey III – former President of CNN Business News; Executive Vice President of Los Angeles Times
Richard D. Parsons – former CEO of American Online [AOL]
James V. Kimsey – founding CEO of America Online [AOL]

Others:
*Chester J. LaRoche – former Vice Chairman of ABC
Thomas S. Murphy – former Chairman and CEO of Capital Cities/ABC
Joe Peyronnin – Executive Vice President of News and Information Programming for Telemundo Network; former President of Fox News; former Vice President of CBS News
George Vradenburg III – former Executive Vice President of Fox; former General Counsel of CBS
Jack Valenti – President and CEO of Motion Picture Association of America (1966-2004)
Daniel R. Glickman – President and CEO of Motion Picture Association of America (2004-present)
Lewis W. Coleman – President of DreamWorks Animation SKG
Joel Z. Hyatt – CEO of IndTV
Gary E. Knell – President and CEO of Sesame Workshop (PBS)
Joan Ganz Cooney – Producer of Sesame Street (on PBS)
*Robert S. Benjamin – Chairman of United Artists Corp. (1952-1974)

Other Magazine, Newspaper, and Media Executives
*Malcolm Muir (Sr.) – Chairman of Newsweek, Inc. (1959-1961); President of Newsweek, Inc. (1937-1959)
*Osborn Elliott – Chairman of the board of Newsweek, Inc. (1972-1976)
*John Cowles, Jr. – Chairman of the board of Harper’s Magazine (1968-1972)
Edward T. Lewis – Chairman and CEO of Essence Communications Partner; Publisher of Essence magazine
Cathleen P. Black – President of Hearst Magazines (1996-present)
Edwin A. Finn Jr. – President and Editor of Barron’s Franchise (and magazine); also Chairman of SmartMoney
*David Lawrence – President and Editor of United States News [newspaper in Washington, D.C.] (1933-1948); Founder and President of The U.S. Daily [Washington, D.C.] (1926-1933); Founder and President of World Report (1946-1948); President and Editor of U.S. News & World Report (1948-1959); Chairman of the board and Editor of U.S. News & World Report (1959-1973)
*Gerard Piel – President and Publisher of Scientific American (1948-1986)
*Ralph D. Paine Jr. – Publisher of Fortune magazine (1953-1967); former Vice President of Time, Inc.
Lyric Hughes Hale – Publisher and CEO of China Online, Inc.
Katrina vanden Heuvel – Publisher of The Nation (2005-present)
Daniel Pipes – Publisher of Middle East Quarterly
Stephen Schlesinger – Publisher of World Policy Journal
*William I. Nichols – former Publisher and Editor-in-Chief of This Week magazine
Bruce L. Paisner – Vice President of The Hearst Corporation; President of Hearst Entertainment

*Amory H. Bradford – Vice President (1957-1963) and General Manager (1960-1963) of The New York Times Co.
*William R. Mathews – former Publisher of Arizona Daily Star (Tucson) (1930-c.1966)
*Hugh B. Patterson Jr. – former Publisher of The Arkansas Gazette
Jose I. Lozano – former Publisher and CEO of La Opinion
Monica C. Lozano – Publisher and CEO of La Opinion (largest Spenish-language newspaper in the U.S.) (2004-present)
David A. Laventhol – Publisher and CEO of Newsday (1978-1986)
Harold M. Evans – former President of Random House Trade Publishing Group; former editor of The Times (London)
Norman Pattiz – Founder and Chairman of Westwood One (radio network)
*(Sen.) William B. Benton – Chairman of the board of Encyclopaedia Brittanica (1943-1967)
*Frank B. Gibney – former Executive Vice President of Encyclopaedia Brittanica
*George P. Brett Jr. – President of The Macmillan Co. (1931-?)

Hollywood actors and actresses – Council on Foreign Relations members
Madeleine K. Albright (part-time)
Warren Beatty
Shirley Temple Black
George Clooney
Michael Douglas
Richard Dreyfuss
Angelina Jolie
Michael Medavoy
Ron Silver
(Sen.) Fred Thompson (part-time)
*Douglas Fairbanks Jr.

Council on Foreign Relations: Corporate Lawyers

Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett [law firm in New York City]
Richard I. Beattie, Partner (1975-1977, 1980-present) and Chairman (1995-present) (New York)
Conrad K. Harper, Of Counsel (New York) (2003-present)
Eleanor M. Fox, Of Counsel (New York) (1976-present)
Shearman & Sterling [law firm in New York City]
Robert Carswell, Of Counsel (New York) (1994-present)
Wayne Dale Collins, Partner (New York) (1987-present)

Davis, Polk & Wardwell [law firm in New York City]
Henry L. King, Senior Counsel (1998-present)
Troland S. Link, Senior Counsel (New York)
Richard A. Drucker, Partner (New York) (1988-present)
Andres V. Gil, Partner (New York) (1990-present)
Cravath, Swaine & Moore [law firm in New York City]
Robert S. Rifkind, Senior Counsel (New York) (2002-present)
Samuel C. Butler, Special Counsel (New York)
*Frederick A.O. Schwarz Jr., Senior Counsel (New York); Partner (1969-1975, 1976-1981, 1987-c.1992)

Debevoise & Plimpton [law firm in New York City]
Barbara Paul Robinson, Of Counsel (New York) (2007-present)
Mary Jo White, Partner (New York) (1983-1990, 2002-2013)
David W. Rivkin, Partner (New York) (1988-present)
Christopher Smeall, Partner (New York) (1988-present)
Sarah A.W. Fitts, Partner (New York)
Jonathan E. Levitsky, Partner (New York) (2007-present) [Marshall Scholar]
Sullivan & Cromwell [law firm in New York City]
M. Bernard Aidinoff, Senior Counsel (New York) (1997-present)
Ricardo A. Mestres Jr., Senior Counsel (New York) (2001-present)
Francis J. Aquila, Partner (New York)
James H. Carter, Partner (New York) (1977-present)
Sergio J. Galvis, Partner (New York)
Edwin D. Williamson, Partner (Washington) (1971-1990, 1993-pres.)
Michael Martin Wiseman, Partner (New York) (1985-present)
*Eric J. Kadel Jr., Partner (New York)
William J. Williams Jr., Of Counsel (New York)

Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison
Alfred D. Youngwood, Of Counsel (New York) (2009-present)
(Sen.) Warren B. Rudman, Senior Counsel (Washington) (2003-pres.)
Theodore C. Sorensen, Senior Counsel (New York) [deceased]
Jerome A. Cohen, Of Counsel (New York) (2001-present)
Toby S. Myerson, Partner (New York) (1983-1989, 1990-present)
Jeh Charles Johnson, Partner (New York) (1994-1998, 2001-2009, 2013-present) Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy [law firm in New York City]
Mel M. Immergut, Partner (New York) (1980-present); Chairman (New York) (1996-present)
William H. Webster, Senior Partner (Washington) (1991-present)
Robert R. Douglass, Of Counsel (New York) (1994-present)

Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen, & Hamilton
*Evan A. Davis, Partner (New York) (1978-1985, 1991-present)
Sydney M. Cone III, Senior Counsel (New York)
Manley O. Hudson Jr., Senior Counsel (London)
Joel Eugene Marans, Senior Counsel (Washington)
Daniel B. Silver, Senior Counsel (Washington)
*Katherine Mooney Carroll, Associate (Washington)
Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld
Vernon E. Jordan Jr., Senior Counsel (Washington) (2000-present)
Paul W. Butler, Partner (Washington)
Sukhan Kim, Partner (Washington)
Daniel L. Spiegel, Partner (Washington) (1983-1993, 1996-present)
(Amb.) Robert Strauss, Partner (Washington)

Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher, & Flom
Kenneth J. Bialkin, Partner (New York) (1988-c.2009); director of Citigroup (1986-2002); former National Chairman of ADL
*Joseph H. Flom, Partner (New York); director of Wrigleys (1977-1994); died in 2011
Dana H. Freyer, Partner (New York) (1994-2009)
Nancy A. Lieberman, Partner (New York) (1987-present)
Robert E. Lighthizer, Partner (New York)
Helene L. Kaplan, Of Counsel (New York) (1990-present); director of ExxonMobil (1999-2004)
Mark N. Kaplan, Of Counsel (New York) (1979-present) Wilmer, Cutler, Pickering, Hale & Dorr
Charlene Barshefsky, Partner (Washington) (2001-present)
Jamie Gorelick, Partner (Washington) (2003-present)
Gary N. Horlick, Partner (Washington) (2002-present)
Stephen W. Preston, Partner (Washington) (1986-1993, 2001-2009)
John A. Burgess, Partner (Boston)
David L. Weller, Counsel (Washington)
*Suzanne A. Spears, Counsel (London)
*Serena B. Wille, Counsel (Washington)

Covington & Burling
Edwin M. Zimmerman, Senior Counsel (Washington) (1994-present)
Peter D. Trooboff, Senior Counsel (Washington) (2007-present)
Stuart E. Eizenstat, Partner (Washington) (2001-present) Sidley Austin [formerly Sidley Austin Brown & Wood]
Newton N. Minow, Senior Counsel (Chicago); Partner (1965-1991)
Alan Charles Raul, Partner (Washington) (1997-present)
James D. Zirin, Partner (New York)

O’Melveny & Myers
Warren M. Christopher, Senior Partner (1997-2011); Partner (1958-1967, 1969-1976, 1981-1993)
William T. Coleman Jr., Senior Partner (Washington) (1977-present)
Michael T. Masin, Senior Partner (New York)
Greyson L. Bryan, Partner (Washington)
Thomas E. Donilon, Partner (Washington) (1992-1993, 2005-2009)
Jose W. Fernandez, Partner (New York)
Theodore Kassinger, Partner (Washington)
Gary N. Horlick (J.D. Yale 1973), Partner (Washington) (1983-2002)
Robert J. White, Partner (1980-2001)
Bruce N. Goldberger, Counsel (New York)
B. Boyd Hight, Retired Partner Mayer, Brown, Rowe & Maw
Robert A. Helman, Partner (Chicago) (1967-present)
Robert M. Hertzberg, Partner (Los Angeles)
Mickey Kantor, Partner (Washington) (1997-present)
Richard S. Williamson, Partner (Chicago)

Others:
John B. Bellinger III – Partner of Arnold & Porter [law firm in Washington, D.C.]
Claire Reade – Partner of Arnold & Porter [law firm in Washington, D.C.] (on leave)
Jeffrey H. Smith – Partner of Arnold & Porter [law firm in Washington, D.C.]
Benjamin J. Cohen – Partner of Cahill Gordon & Reindel (New York)
Bart Friedman – Partner of Cahill Gordon & Reindel (New York) (1980-present)
Jeffrey L. Bleich – Partner of Munger, Tolles & Olson [San Francisco] (1992-2009) (on leave)
Ronald L. Olson – Partner of Munger, Tolles & Olson [Los Angeles]
David L. Aaron – Member of Dorsey & Whitney
Kofi Appenteng – Partner of Thacher Proffitt & Wood (New York City)
James A. Baker III – Senior Partner of Baker Botts (Houston) (1993-present)
Sarah C. Carey – Partner of Squire, Sanders & Dempsey (Washington)
Kenneth A. Cutshaw – Partner of Holland & Knight (Atlanta)
Jose M. de Lasa – Partner of Baker & McKenzie
Richard N. Gardner – Of Counsel of Coudert Brothers (1981-1993); Senior Counsel of Morgan, Lewis, & Bockius [law firm in New York City] (1997-present)
David Ginsburg – Of Counsel of Powell Goldstein (Washington)
David R. Halperin – Partner of Coudert Brothers [Hong Kong] (1983-2006); Partner of Orrick, Herrington & Sutcliffe (2006-present)
Gary Hart – Of Counsel of Coudert Brothers [San Francisco] (1988-2006)
Robert E. Herzstein – Of Counsel of Miller & Chevalier (Washington)
*Leon Jaworski – Senior Partner of Fulbright and Jaworski [law firm in Houston, Texas] (1951-1982)
Barry Metzger – former Senior Partner of Coudert Brothers
Tom McDonald – Partner of Baker & Hostetler (Washington)
Robert L. Nelson Jr. – Partner of Thelen Reid & Priest
Steven B. Pfeiffer – Partner of Fulbright & Jaworski [law firm in Washington, D.C.] (1983-present)
Jeffrey F. Pryce – Of Counsel of Steptoe & Johnson (Washington)
Davis R. Robinson – retired Partner of LeBoeuf, Lamb, Greene, & MacRae (Washington) [now called Dewey & LeBoeuf]
Ko-Yung Tung – Senior Counselor of Morrison & Foerster (New York)
David B. Weinberg – Partner of Wiley, Rein & Fielding
Barton J. Winokur – Partner of Dechert [law firm in Philadelphia] (1972-present); Chairman and CEO of Dechert
Alan William Wolff – Partner of Dewey & LeBoeuf
William D. Zabel – Partner of Schulte, Roth & Zabel (New York City)

Note: Coudert Brothers law firm went out of business in 2006.

Past Prominent Washington, D.C. Lawyers:
*Dean G. Acheson – Member of Covington & Burling (1921-1933, 1934-1941, 1953-1971); U.S. Secretary of State (1949-1953)
*George Rublee (LL.B. Harvard 1895) – Member of Covington, Burling & Rublee (1921-c.1946)
Roberts Bishop Owen – Partner of Covington & Burling (1960-1979, 1981-2009)
Edwin M. Zimmerman – Member of Covington & Burling (1969-1994)
Peter D. Trooboff – Partner of Covington & Burling (1975-2007)
*Lloyd N. Cutler – Partner of Wilmer Cutler Pickering (1962-1979, 1981-1990); Senior Counsel of Wilmer Cutler Pickering (1990-2005)
Vernon E. Jordan Jr. – Partner of Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld (1982-2000)
(Rep.) Thomas S. Foley – Partner of Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld (1995-1997, 2001-2009)
Eli Whitney Debevoise II – Partner of Arnold & Porter (1979-2007)
R. James Woolsey – Partner of Shea & Gardner (1979-1989, 1991-1993, 1995-2002)
Samuel R. “Sandy” Berger – Partner of Hogan & Hartson (1973-1977, 1981-1992)
David Shiverick Smith (J.D. Columbia 1942) – Partner of Baker & McKenzie (1960-1975)
Joseph A. Califano Jr. – Senior Partner of Dewey, Ballantine, Bushby, Palmer & Wood (1983-1992)
Carla A. Hills – Partner of Munger, Tolles, Hills & Rickershauser [law firm in Los Angeles] (1962-1974); Partner of Latham, Watkins & Hills [law firm in Washington, D.C.] (1978-1986); Partner of Weil, Gotshal & Manges [law firm in Washington, D.C.] (1986-1988); U.S. Trade Representative (1989-1993)

Past Prominent New York City Lawyers

*John Foster Dulles (LL.B. George Washington Univ. 1911) – Member of Sullivan & Cromwell (1911-1949); U.S. Sec. of State (1953-1959)
*Eustace Seligman (LL.B. Columbia 1914) – Member of Sullivan & Cromwell (1923-1976)
*Allen W. Dulles (LL.B. George Washington University 1926) – Member (1926-1951, 1962-1969) and Of Counsel (1962-1969) of Sullivan & Cromwell; CIA Director (1953-1961)
*George C. Sharp (LL.B. Columbia 1922) – Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell (1929-1971)
*Arthur H. Dean (J.D. Cornell 1923) – Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell (1929-1976)
*John R. Stevenson (LL.B. Columbia 1949) – Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell (1956-1969, 1975-1987); Chairman of Sullivan & Cromwell (1979-1987)
Vincent A. Rodriguez (LL.B. Yale 1944) – Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell (1956-c.2008)
M. Bernard Aidinoff (LL.B. Harvard 1953) – Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell (1963-1996)
John E. Merow (LL.B. Harvard 1958) – Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell (1965-1996); Chairman of Sullivan & Cromwell (1987-1994)
Ricardo A. Mestres Jr. (LL.B. Harvard 1961) – Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell (1968-2000); Chairman of Sullivan & Cromwell (1995-2000)
William J. Williams Jr. (LL.B. New York University 1961) – Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell (1969-2004)

*John W. Davis (LL.B. Washington and Lee University 1895) – Member of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1921-1955); U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1918-1921)
*Frank L. Polk (LL.B. Columbia 1897) – Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell [Gardiner & Reed] (1914-1943); Under Sec. of State (1919-1920)
*Allen Wardwell (LL.B. Harvard 1898) – Member of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1909-1953)
*George A. Brownell (LL.B. Harvard 1922) – Partner of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1930-1972)
*Frederick August Otto Schwarz (LL.B. Harvard 1927) – Partner of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1935-1974)
*Ralph M. Carson (J.D. University of Michigan 1923) – Partner of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1935-1977)
*Charles M. Spofford (LL.B. Harvard 1928) – Member of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1940-1950, 1952-1973)
*Samuel Hazard Gillespie Jr. (LL.B. Yale 1936) – Member of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1948-present)
*Taggart Whipple (J.D. New York University 1938) – Partner of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1950-1992)
*Peter O.A. Solbert (LL.B. Harvard 1948) – Partner of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1957-1963, 1965-1989)
Henry L. King (LL.B. Yale 1951) – Partner of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1961-1998); Chairman of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1982-1996)

*Eli Whitney Debevoise (LL.B. Harvard 1925) – Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1931-1990)
*Francis T.P. Plimpton (LL.B. Harvard 1925) – Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1933-1961, 1965-1983)
*Oscar M. Ruebhausen (LL.B. Yale 1937) – Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1946-1983)
Stanley R. Resor (LL.B. Yale 1946) – Member and Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1946-1965, 1971-1973, 1979-1987); Secretary of the Army (1965-1971)
Roswell B. Perkins (LL.B. Harvard 1949) – Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1957-1996)
Robert B. von Mehren (LL.B. Harvard 1946) – Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1957-1993)
*Harold H. Healy Jr. (LL.B. Yale 1949) – Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1959-1989)
William B. Matteson (LL.B. Harvard 1953) – Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1961-1998)
Philip S. Winterer (LL.B. Harvard 1956, B.A. Amherst 1953) – Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1966-1993)
Cecil Wray Jr. (LL.B. Yale 1959) – Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1968-1996)
*Louis Begley (LL.B. Harvard 1959) – Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1968-2003)
Stephen J. Friedman (LL.B. Harvard 1962) – Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1970-1977, 1981-1986, 1993-2004); Commissioner of Securities and Exchange Commission (1980-1981)
Bevis Longstreth (LL.B. Harvard 1961) – Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1970-1981, 1984-1997); Commissioner of Securities and Exchange Commission (1981-1984)
Barbara Paul Robinson (J.D. Yale 1965) – Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1976-2006)

*Paul D. Cravath (LL.B. Columbia 1886) – former Member of Cravath, de Gersdorff, Swaine and Wood [later Cravath, Swaine & Moore]
*Maurice T. Moore (LL.B. Columbia 1920) – Member of Cravath, Swaine & Moore (1926-1980)
*Donald C. Swatland (LL.B. Harvard 1921) – Partner of Cravath, Swaine & Moore (1926-1942, 1945-1962)
*Roswell L. Gilpatric (LL.B. Yale 1931) – Partner of Cravath, Swaine & Moore (1931-1951, 1953-1961, 1964-1977); Deputy Secretary of Defense (1961-1964); Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1972-1975)
*Carlyle E. Maw (LL.B. Harvard 1928) – Partner of Cravath, Swaine & Moore (1939-1973)
*Frederick S. Beebe (LL.B. Yale 1938) – Partner of Cravath, Swaine & Moore (1950-1961)
*Richard S. Simmons (LL.B. Yale 1954) – Partner of Cravath, Swaine and Moore (1963-1985); Vice Chairman of Chemical Bank (1985-1990)
Robert S. Rifkind (J.D. Harvard 1961) – Partner of Cravath, Swaine & Moore (1971-2001)
*Robert D. Joffe (J.D. Harvard 1967) – Partner of Cravath, Swaine & Moore (1975-2010)

*Grayson M.P. Murphy Jr. (LL.B. Harvard 1933) – Member of Shearman & Sterling (1946-c.1980)
Fredrick M. Eaton (LL.B. Harvard 1930) – former Partner of Shearman & Sterling
*Robert Huntington Knight (LL.B. University of Virginia 1947) – Partner of Shearman & Sterling (1955-1958, 1962-1985); General Counsel of U.S. Treasury Department (1961-1962); Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1977-1983)
*Michael V. Forrestal (LL.B. Harvard 1953) – Partner of Shearman & Sterling (1960-1989)
*Edward Hallam Tuck (LL.B. Harvard 1953) – Partner of Shearman & Sterling (1962-1986)
Robert Carswell (LL.B. Harvard 1952) – Partner of Shearman & Sterling (1965-1977, 1981-1993); Deputy Sec. of the Treasury (1977-1981)

*Whitney North Seymour (LL.B. Columbia 1923) – Partner of Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett (1929-1931, 1933-1983)
*Cyrus R. Vance (LL.B. Yale 1942) – Partner of Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett (1956-1961, 1967-1977, 1980-1998); Secretary of the Army (1962-1964); U.S. Secretary of State (1977-1980)
Conrad K. Harper (LL.B. Harvard 1965) – Partner of Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett (1974-1993, 1996-2002)
John L. Walker (J.D. Duke University 1977) – Partner of Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett (1984-2008)
John W. Carr (J.D.Harvard 1983) – Partner of Simpson, Thacher & Bartlett (1990-2010)

*Albert G. Milbank (LL.B. New York Law School 1898) – former Member of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy; died on September 7, 1949
*William Eldred Jackson (LL.B. Harvard 1944) – Partner of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy (1954-1999)
*John J. McCloy (LL.B. Harvard 1921) – Member of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy (1963-1989)
Francis D. Logan (LL.B. Harvard 1955) – Partner of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy (1965-1996); Chairman of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy (1992-1996)

*Adrian W. DeWind (LL.B. Harvard 1937) – Member of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison (1948-c.1984)
*Morris B. Abram (J.D. University of Chicago 1940) – Partner of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison (1962-1968, 1970-1989)
Alfred D. Youngwood (LL.B. Harvard 1962) – Partner (1970-2008) and Chairman (1999-2008) of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison
Jerome A. Cohen (J.D. Yale 1955) – Partner of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison (1981-2000)
Matthew Nimetz (LL.B. Harvard 1965) – Partner of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison (1974-1977, 1981-2000)

*F. Kingsbury Curtis (LL.B. Columbia 1886) – Member of Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle (1889-1926)
*Severo Mallet-Prevost – Member of Curtis, Mallet-Prevost & Colt (1897-1948)
*Manuel R. Angulo (LL.B. Harvard 1942) – Partner of Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle (1961-c.1993)
*Keith Highet (B.A. Harvard 1954, LL.B. Harvard 1960) – Partner of Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle (1968-1989)

*George W. Ball (J.D. Northwestern University 1933) – Of Counsel of Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton (1966-1968, 1969-1994); Under Secretary of State (1961-1966); U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1968)
*Fowler Hamilton (B.C.L. Oxford 1934) – Partner of Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton (1946-1961, 1963-1984); Administrator of USAID (1961-1962)

*Henry Waters Taft – Partner of Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft (1899-1945)
*George W. Wickersham (LL.B. University of Pennsylvania 1880) – Member of Strong & Cadwalader (1887-1909); Member of Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft (1914-1936); U.S. Attorney General (1909-1913)

*Bronson Winthrop (LL.B. Columbia 1891) – former Member of Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts
*Allen T. Klots (LL.B. Harvard 1913) – Member of Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts (1921-1965)
*Henry L. Stimson – Counsel of Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts (1891-1906, 1913-1927, 1933-1940, 1945-1950); Secretary of War (1911-1913, 1940-1945); U.S. Secretary of State (1929-1933)

*Paul G. Pennoyer (LL.B. Harvard 1917) – Partner of White & Case (1928-1971)
James B. Hurlock (J.D. Harvard 1959) – Partner of White & Case (1967-2000)

*Henry DeForest Baldwin (LL.B. Columbia 1887) – Member of Lord, Day & Lord (1900-1947)
*Roland L. Redmond (LL.B. Columbia 1917) – Member of Carter, Ledyard & Milburn (1925-1955)
*Thomas K. Finletter (LL.B. University of Pennsylvania 1920) – Partner of Coudert Brothers (1926-1941, 1944-1950, 1953-1961); Secretary of the Air Force (1950-1953); U.S. Representative to NATO (1961-1965)
*Sol M. Linowitz (J.D. Cornell 1938) – Senior Partner of Coudert Brothers (1969-1984); U.S. Ambassador to OAS (1966-1969); Negotiator of the Panama Canal Treaties (1977-1978)
*Bethuel M. Webster (LL.B. Harvard 1925) – Member of Webster & Sheffield (1934-1984)
*Orville H. Schell, Jr. (LL.B. Harvard 1933) – Partner of Hughes, Hubbard & Reed (1942-1987)
John N. Irwin II (LL.B. Fordham 1941) – Partner of Patterson, Belknap & Webb (1950-1957, 1961-1970, 1974-1977); U.S. Ambassador to France (1973-1974)
Robert M. Pennoyer – Partner of Patterson, Belknap, Webb & Tyler (1962-1995)

Note: *= former Council on Foreign Relations member; name does not appear on 2012 Council on Foreign Relations membership roster.

Council on Foreign Relations: College Presidents, Deans, and Professors

Presidents of Major Universities
Harvard University
*A. Lawrence Lowell (1909-1933)
*James B. Conant (1933-1953)
*Nathan M. Pusey (1953-1971)
Neil L. Rudenstine (1991-2001)
Lawrence H. Summers (2001-2006)

Yale University
*James R. Angell (1921-1936)
*Charles Seymour (1937-1950)
*A. Whitney Griswold (1950-1963)
*Kingman Brewster Jr. (1963-1977)
*A. Bartlett Giamatti (1979-1986)
Benno C. Schmidt Jr. (1986-1992)
Richard C. Levin (1993-present)

Princeton University
*John Grier Hibben (1912-1932)
*Harold W. Dodds (1933-1957)
*Robert F. Goheen (1957-1972)
*William G. Bowen (1972-1988)
*Harold T. Shapiro (1988-2001)

Columbia University
*Dwight D. Eisenhower (1948-1953)
*Grayson L. Kirk (1953-1968)
*Andrew W. Cordier (1968-1970)
Michael I. Sovern (1980-1993)
George E. Rupp (1993-2002)
Lee C. Bollinger (2002-present)

Dartmouth College
*Ernest M. Hopkins (1916-1945)
*John Sloan Dickey (1945-1970)
*David T. McLaughlin (1981-1987)

Brown University
*William H.P. Faunce (1899-1929)
*Henry M. Wriston (1937-1955)
*Howard R. Swearer (1977-1988)
Vartan Gregorian (1989-1997)
Ruth J. Simmons (2001-2012)
Christina H. Paxson (2012-present)

University of Pennsylvania
*Harold E. Stassen (1948-1953)
*Martin Meyerson (1970-1981)
Judith Rodin (1994-2004)

Amherst College
*Stanley King (1932-1946)
*Charles W. Cole (1946-1960)
*Calvin H. Plimpton (1960-1971)
*John W. Ward (1971-1979)

Williams College
*Harry A. Garfield (1908-1934)
*Tyler Dennett (1934-1937)
*James P. Baxter III (1937-1961)
*John E. Sawyer (1961-1973) Stanford University
*Ray Lyman Wilbur (1916-1943)
*J. E. Wallace Sterling (1949-1968)
Richard W. Lyman (1970-1980)
*Donald Kennedy (1980-1992)
Gerhard Casper (1992-2000)

University of California at Berkeley
*Robert G. Sproul (1930-1958)
*Clark Kerr (1958-1967)
*Charles J. Hitch (1967-1975)

Cornell University
*Edmund E. Day (1937-1949)
*James A. Perkins (1963-1969)
*Dale R. Corson (1969-1977)
*Frank H. T. Rhodes (1977-1995)
David J. Skorton (2006-present)

Johns Hopkins University
*Frank J. Goodnow (1914-1929)
*Isaiah Bowman (1935-1948)
*Detlev Bronk (1949-1953)
*Lincoln Gordon (1967-1971)
Steven Muller (1972-1990)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology
*Henry S. Pritchett (1900-1907)
*Karl T. Compton (1930-1948)
*James R. Killian (1949-1959)
*Julius A. Stratton (1959-1966)
*Howard W. Johnson (1966-1971)
*Jerome B. Wiesner (1971-1980)
Susan Hockfield (2004-2012)
Leo Rafael Reif (2012-present)

New York University
*Elmer E. Brown (1911-1933)
*Harry Woodburn Chase (1933-1951)
*Henry T. Heald (1952-1956)
*James M. Hester (1962-1975)
*John C. Sawhill (1975-1979)
John Brademas (1981-1991)
L. Jay Oliva (1991-2002)
John Edward Sexton (2002-present)

City College of New York
*John H. Finley (1903-1913)
*Sidney E. Mezes (1914-1927)
*Nelson P. Mead (1938-1940) [acting]
*Harry N. Wright (1941-1952)
*Robert E. Marshak (1970-1979)
*Bernard W. Harleston (1981-1992)

College of William and Mary
*John Stewart Bryan (1934-1942)

University of Chicago
Hanna Holborn Gray (1978-1993)

Bowdoin College
*Kenneth C.M. Sills (1918-1952)
*James Stacy Coles (1952-1967)
Robert H. Edwards (1990-2001)

Swarthmore College
*Frank Aydelotte (1921-1940)
*John W. Nason (1940-1953)
Theodore W. Friend (1973-1982)

Carleton College
*Laurence M. Gould (1945-1962)
*John W. Nason (1962-1970)
*Howard R. Swearer (1970-1977)
Robert H. Edwards (1977-1986)
Stephen R. Lewis Jr. (1987-2002)

Haverford College
*Felix M. Morley (1940-1945)
*Gilbert F. White (1946-1955)
*Hugh Borton (1957-1967)

Smith College
*William A. Neilson (1917-1939)
Jill K. Conway (1975-1985)
Ruth J. Simmons (1995-2001)

Duke University
*Douglas M. Knight (1963-1969)
*Terry Sanford (1969-1985)
Nannerl O. Keohane (1993-2004)

George Washington University
Stephen J. Trachtenberg (1988-2007)
Steven Knapp (2007-present)

Wesleyan University [Connecticut]
*James L. McConaughy (1925-1943)
*Victor L. Butterfield (1943-1967)
Colin G. Campbell (1970-1988)
Douglas J. Bennet (1995-2007)

Colgate University [New York]
*Everett N. Case (1942-1962)
*Vincent M. Barnett Jr. (1963-1969)
*Thomas A. Bartlett (1969-1977)
Jeffrey I. Herbst (2010-present)

Note: *= former Council on Foreign Relations member; name does not appear on 2012 Council on Foreign Relations membership roster.

Other Prominent College Presidents

New York:
*Detlev Bronk – Rockefeller University (1953-1968)
George Bugliarello – Polytechnic University (1973-1994)
David A. Caputo – Pace University (2000-2007)
David C. Chang – Polytechnic University (1994-2005)
*Carter Davidson – Union College (1946-1965)
*Cornelis Willem de Kiewiet – University of Rochester (1951-1961)
Barbara Knowles Debs – Manhattanville College (1975-1985)
Jonathan F. Fanton – New School for Social Research (1982-1999)
Ellen V. Futter – Barnard College (1981-1993)
*Harry D. Gideonse – Brooklyn College (1939-1966)
*Alice Stone Ilchman – Sarah Lawrence College (1981-1998)
*Walter Consuelo Langsam – Wagner College (1945-1952)
*Joshua Lederberg – Rockefeller University (1978-1990)
John D. Maguire – State University of New York [SUNY] College at Old Westbury (1970-1981)
Elizabeth J. McCormack – Manhattanville College (1966-1974)
*Martin Meyerson – University of Buffalo [also known as SUNY at Buffalo] (1966-1970)
*Joseph S. Murphy – Queens College (1971-1976)
*Joseph A. O’Hare – Fordham University (1984-2003)
Ned Regan – Baruch College (2000-2004)
Steven B. Sample – University of Buffalo [also known as SUNY at Buffalo] (1982-1991)
*Frederick Seitz – Rockefeller University (1968-1978)
Donna E. Shalala – Hunter College (1980-1987)
Judith R. Shapiro – Barnard College (1994-2008)
Donald W. Shriver Jr. – Union Theological Seminary (1975-1991)
*George N. Shuster – Hunter College (1940-1960)
*Hans Simons – New School for Social Research (1950-1960)
*George D. Stoddard – University of State of New York [SUNY] (1942-1945)
*Alan Valentine – University of Rochester (1935-1950)
*Henry P. Van Dusen – Union Theological Seminary (1945-1963)
*Torsten N. Wiesel – Rockefeller University (1991-1998)
Harris L. Wofford – College at Old Wesrtbury [SUNY] (1966-1970)
Stephen J. Friedman – Pace University (2007-present)
Jennifer J. Raab – Hunter College (2001-present)
Robert A. Scott – Adelphi University (2000-present)
Debora L. Spar – Barnard College (2008-present)
David J. Steinberg – Long Island University (1985-present)

Massachusetts:
*Morris B. Abram – Brandeis University (1968-1970)
*Arthur Bronwell – Worcester Polytechnic Institute (1955-1962)
*Alice F. Emerson – Wheaton College (1975-1991)
*Glenn W. Ferguson – Clark University (1970-1973)
Matina S. Horner – Radcliffe College [part of Harvard University] (1972-1989)
*Elizabeth T. Kennan – Mount Holyoke College (1978-1995)
Nannerl O. Keohane – Wellesley College (1981-1993)
Dale Rogers Marshall – Wheaton College (1992-2004)
Barbara W. Newell – Wellesley College (1972-1979)
Jehuda Reinharz – Brandeis University (1994-2010)
Adele S. Simmons – Hampshire College (1977-1989)
*Donald C. Stone – Springfield College [Massachusetts] (1953-1957)
*David B. Truman – Mount Holyoke College (1969-1978)
*Nils Y. Wessell – Tufts University (1953-1966)
*Robert C. Wood – University of Massachusetts (1970-1977)
Leonard A. Schlesinger – Babson College (2008-present)

Texas:
Robert M. Gates – Texas A&M University (2002-2006)
*David F. Houston – Texas A&M University (1902-1905)
*Sidney E. Mezes – University of Texas [Austin] (1908-1914)
George E. Rupp – Rice University [Houston] (1985-1993)
Renu Khator – University of Houston (2008-present)
David W. Leebron – Rice University [Houston] (2004-present)

Northeast:
William R. Cotter – Colby College (1979-2000)
Robert H. Donaldson – President of Fairleigh Dickinson University [New Jersey] (1984-1990)
*Glenn W. Ferguson – University of Connecticut (1973-1978)
Claire L. Gaudiani – Connecticut College (1988-2001)
*Arthur A. Hauck – University of Maine (1934-1958)
*Jerome H. Holland – Delaware State College (1953-1960)
*Robert L. Johnson – Temple University (1941-1959)
Thomas Kean – Drew University [New Jersey] (1990-2005)
*John S. Millis – University of Vermont (1941-1949)
Olin C. Robison – Middlebury College (1975-1990)
Robert I. Rotberg – Lafayette College (1990-1993)
Robert A. Scott – Ramapo College (1985-2000)
Niara Sudarkasa – Lincoln University (1986-1998)
Arthur R. Taylor – Muhlenberg College (1992-c.2000)
Harris L. Wofford – Bryn Mawr College (1970-1978)
Jane Dammen McAuliffe – Bryn Mawr College (2008-present)

Midwest:
Alberta Arthurs – Chatham College (1977-1982)
Henry S. Bienen – Northwestern University (1995-2009)
Landrum R. Bolling – Earlham College [Indiana] (1958-1973)
Lee C. Bollinger – University of Michigan (1996-2001)
*Harry Woodburn Chase – University of Illinois (1930-1933)
*Carter Davidson – Knox College (1936-1946)
*James J. Duderstadt – University of Michigan (1988-1996)
*Thomas Ehrlich – Indiana University (1987-1994)
*Guy Stanton Ford – University of Minnesota (1938-1941)
*T. Keith Glennan – Case Institute of Technology (1947-1966)
*Henry T. Heald – Illinois Institute of Technology (1938-1952)
*David Dodds Henry – Wayne University [Detroit] (1945-1952); University of Illinois (1955-1971)
Rev. Theodore Hesburgh – University of Notre Dame (1952-1987)
*Frederick L. Hovde – Purdue University (1946-1971)
Kenneth H. Keller – University of Minnesota (1985-1988)
*Douglas M. Knight – Lawrence University (1954-1963)
*Walter Consuelo Langsam – Gettysburg College (1952-1955); University of Cincinnati (1955-1971)
Katharine C. Lyall – University of Wisconsin System (1992-2004)
M. Peter McPherson – Michigan State University (1993-2004)
*John S. Millis – Western Reserve University (1949-1967)
*Philip C. Nash – University of Toledo (1933-1947)
*Nathan M. Pusey – Lawrence University (1944-1953)
*David V. Ragone – Case Western Reserve University (1980-1987)
*Ronald W. Roskens – University of Nebraska (1977-1990)
*William F. Russell – State University of Iowa (1949-1954)
*Harold T. Shapiro – University of Michigan (1980-1987)
David J. Skorton – University of Iowa (2003-2006)
*William C. Spencer – Western College (1969-1974); The Lindenwood Colleges (1974-1979)
*S. Frederick Starr – Oberlin College (1983-1994)
*William E. Stevenson – Oberlin College (1946-1959)
*George D. Stoddard – University of Illinois (1946-1953)
*Herman B. Wells – Indiana University (1938-1962)
Clifton R. Wharton Jr. – Michigan State University (1970-1978)
*O. Meredith Wilson – University of Minnesota (1960-1967)
*Henry M. Wriston – Lawrence University (1925-1937)
Nancy L. Zimpher – University of Cincinnati (2003-2009)
Rev. Dennis H. Holtschneider – DePaul University (2004-present)
Luis Proenza – University of Akron (1999-present)

California:
*Tomas Arciniega – California State University at Bakersfield (1983-2004)
Harold Brown – California Institute of Technology (1969-1977)
*Arthur G. Coons – Occidental College (1946-1965)
*Charles K. Edmunds – Pomona College (1928-1941)
Pamela B. Gann – Claremont McKenna College (1999-present)
Marvin L. Goldberger – California Institute of Technology (1978-1987)
*E. Wilson Lyon – Pomona College (1941-1969)
John D. Maguire – Claremont Graduate University (1981-1998)
Steven B. Sample – University of Southern California (1991-2010)
*Peter W. Stanley – Pomona College (1991-2003)

West:
*Raymond B. Allen – University of Washington [Seattle] (1946-1952)
Louis E. Caldera – University of New Mexico (2003-2006)
*Harlan B. Cleveland – President of the University of Hawaii (1969-1974)
Robert H. Donaldson – University of Tulsa [Oklahoma] (1990-1996)
Mark A. Emmert – University of Washington [Seattle] (2004-2010)
*Dexter Merriam Keezer – Reed College [Portland, Oregon] (1934-1942)
*J. Quigg Newton Jr. – University of Colorado (1956-1963)
*O. Meredith Wilson – University of Oregon (1954-1960)
David L. Boren – University of Oklahoma (1994-present)
Richard F. Celeste – The Colorado College (2002-present)
Michael M. Crow – Arizona State University (2002-present)
Richard W. Lariviere – University of Oregon (2009-2011)
Michael K. Young – University of Utah (2004-2011); University of Washington [Seattle] (2011-present)

South:
Mary Brown Bullock – Agnes Scott College [Georgia] (1996-2006)
*Josiah Bunting III – Hampden-Sydney College (1977-1987); Superintendent of Virginia Military Institute (1996-2004)
*Oliver C. Carmichael – University of Alabama (1953-1957)
*Harry Woodburn Chase – University of North Carolina (1919-1930)
Johnnetta B. Cole – Spelman College (1987-1997); Bennett College for Women (2002-2007)
*Thomas W. Cole Jr. – Clark-Atlanta University (1989-2002)
*Randle Elliott – President of Hood College [Maryland] (1961-1971)
*Gordon Gray – University of North Carolina (1950-1955)
Edward T. Foote II – University of Miami [Florida] (1981-2001)
*Jerome H. Holland – Hampton University [Virginia] (1960-1970)
James T. Laney – Emory University [Atlanta, Georgia] (1977-1993)
Tilden J. LeMelle – University of the District of Columbia (1991-1996)
*Audrey Forbes Manley – Spelman College (1997-2002)
Walter E. Massey – Morehouse College [Atlanta, Georgia] (1995-2007)
*Frederick D. Patterson – Tuskegee Institute [Alabama] (1935-1953)
*Donald S. Russell – University of South Carolina (1952-1957)
*(Lt. Gen.) George M. Seignious II – The Citadel (1974-1979)
*Joseph J. Sisco – American University (1976-1980)
Donald M. Stewart – Spelman College (1977-1987)
Eugene P. Trani – Virginia Commonwealth University (1990-2009)
Michael F. Adams – University of Georgia (1997-present)
Erskine B. Bowles – University of North Carolina (2005-2010)
John J. DeGioia – Georgetown University (2001-present)
(Gen.) Robert H. Foglesong – Mississippi State University (2006-2008)
Christopher B. Howard – Hampden-Sydney College [Virginia] (2009-present)
Eduardo J. Padron – Miami Dade College (1995-present)
Mark B. Rosenberg – Florida International University (2009-present)
Donna E. Shalala – University of Miami [Florida] (2001-present)

Overseas:
*John S. Badeau – American University in Cairo (1944-1953)
*Thomas A. Bartlett – American University in Cairo (1963-1969)
Richard F. Pedersen – American University in Cairo (1978-1990)
*Calvin H. Plimpton – American University in Beirut (1984-1987)
Frederic P. Herter – American University in Beirut (1987-1993)
Patrick Awuah Jr. – Ashesi University [Ghana] (2002-present)
*Charles K. Edmunds – Lingnan University in Canton, China (1908-1924)
*Edgar J. Fisher – Dean of Robert College in Constantinople [Istanbul], Turkey (1917-1919, 1922-1934)

Chancellors and Provosts
*Clark Kerr – Chancellor, University of California at Berkeley (1952-1958)
*Glenn T. Seaborg – Chancellor, University of California at Berkeley (1958-1961)
*Martin Meyerson – Chancellor, University of California at Berkeley (1965)
*Roger W. Heyns – Chancellor, University of California at Berkeley (1965-1971)
*Chang-Lin Tien – Chancellor, University of California at Berkeley (1990-1997)
*Raymond B. Allen – Chancellor of University of California at Los Angeles [UCLA] (1952-1959)
*Franklin D. Murphy – Chancellor of University of California at Los Angeles [UCLA] (1960-1968); Chancellor of Univ. of Kansas (1951-1960)
Albert Carnesale – Chancellor of University of California in Los Angeles [UCLA] (1997-2005)

*Henry A. Kissinger – Chancellor of College of William and Mary (2000-2005)
*Sandra Day O’Connor – Chancellor of College of William and Mary (2005-2011)
Robert M. Gates – Chancellor of College of William and Mary (2011-present)

Barbara W. Newell – Chancellor of the State University System of Florida (1981-1985)
Charles B. Reed – Chancellor of the State University System of Florida (1985-1998)
William H. Danforth – Chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis (1971-1995)
Donna E. Shalala – Chancellor of University of Wisconsin at Madison (1987-1993)
Clifton R. Wharton Jr. – Chancellor of the State University of New York (1978-1987)
Nancy L. Zimpher – Chancellor of the State University of New York (2009-present); Chancellor of Univ. of Wisconsin–Milwaukee (1998-2003)
Mark B. Rosenberg – Chancellor of State University System of Florida (2005-present)
Charles B. Reed – Chancellor of the California State University (1998-present)
Stephen Robert – Chancellor of Brown University (1998-2007)
Linda P. Brady – Chancellor of The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (2008-present)

*Thomas A. Bartlett – Chancellor of University of Alabama System (1982-1989)
*Oliver C. Carmichael – Chancellor of Vanderbilt University (1937-1945)
*Ben M. Cherrington – Chancellor of University of Denver (1943-1946)
*Julius C.C. Edelman – former Senior Vice Chancellor of City University of New York
*Glenn W. Ferguson – Chancellor of Long Island University (1969-1970)
*Harry D. Gideonse – Chancellor of The New School for Social Research (1966-?)
*(Lt. Gen.) Howard D. Graves – Chancellor of Texas A&M University (1999-2003)
*Heber R. Harper – Chancellor of University of Denver (1922-1927);
*Alexander Heard – Chancellor of Vanderbilt University (1963-1982)
*Robert L. Johnson – Chancellor of Temple University (1959-1961)
*Edward H. Litchfield – Chancellor of University of Pittsburgh (1955-1965)
*John S. Millis – Chancellor of Case Western Reserve University (1967-1969)
*Joseph S. Murphy – Chancellor of City University of New York (CUNY) (1982-1990)
*Wesley W. Posvar – Chancellor of University of Pittsburgh (1967-1991)
*August Kenneth Pye – Chancellor of Duke University (1970-1971, 1976-1982)
*George D. Stoddard – Chancellor of New York University (1960-1964)
*Julius A. Stratton – Chancellor of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1956-1959); Provost of MIT (1949-1956)
*Herman B. Wells – Chancellor of Indiana University (1962-1999)

*Grayson L. Kirk – Provost, Columbia University (1949-1953)
*John A. Krout – Provost, Columbia University (1953-1958)
*Jacques Barzun – Provost, Columbia University (1958-1967)
*David B. Truman – Provost, Columbia University (1967-1969)
Peter B. Kenen – Provost, Columbia University (1969-1970)
Michael I. Sovern – Provost, Columbia University (1979-1980)
Fritz Stern – Provost, Columbia University (1980-1983)
Jonathan R. Cole – Provost, Columbia University (1989-2003)

*Charles Seymour – Provost of Yale University (1927-1937)
*Kingman Brewster, Jr. – Provost of Yale University (1961-1963)
Richard N. Cooper – Provost of Yale University (1972-1974)
Hanna Holborn Gray – Provost of Yale University (1974-1978)

*Josiah H. Penniman – Provost of University of Pennsylvania (1923-1939)
*Vartan Gregorian – Provost of University of Pennsylvania (1979-1980)
*Thomas Ehrlich – Provost of University of Pennsylvania (1981-1987)

Kenneth W. Dam – Provost, University of Chicago (1980-1982)
Robert McCormick Adams Jr. – Provost, University of Chicago (1982-1984)
Gerhard Casper – Provost, University of Chicago (1989-1992)

*Cornelis Willem de Kiewiet – Provost of Cornell University (1948-1951)
*Forrest F. Hill – Provost of Cornell University (1952-1955)
*Dale R. Corson – Provost of Cornell University (1963-1969)

*William G. Bowen – Provost of Princeton University (1967-1972)
Neil L. Rudenstine – Provost of Princeton University (1977-1987)
Albert Carnesale – Provost of Harvard University (1994-1997)
Lee C. Bollinger – Provost of Dartmouth College (1994-1996)
Stephen R. Lewis Jr. – Provost of Williams College (1968-1971)

*Charles K. Edmunds – Provost of Johns Hopkins University (1924-1926)
*Jerome B. Wiesner – Provost of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1966-1971)
John M. Deutch – Provost of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1985-1990)
Condoleezza Rice – Provost of Stanford University (1993-1999)

Judith Hicks Stiehm – Provost of Florida International University (1987-1991)
Mark B. Rosenberg – Provost of Florida International University (1998-2005)
*E. Blythe Stason – Provost of University of Michigan (1938-1944)
*James J. Duderstadt – Provost of University of Michigan (1986-1988)
*Payson S. Wild Jr. – Provost of Northwestern University (1969-1973)
*Tomas Arciniega – Provost, California State University at Fresno (1980-1983)
Richard W. Lariviere – Provost of University of Kansas (2006-2009)
Jeffrey I. Herbst – Provost of Miami College [Ohio] (2005-2010)
Linda P. Brady – Provost of University of Oregon (2006-2008)
George W. Breslauer – Provost of University of California at Berkeley (2006-present)

Board of Trustees of Major Universities

Harvard University
(known as Board of Overseers)
Alan D. Bersin
Leila Fawaz
Roger W. Ferguson Jr.
Ann M. Fudge
Penny Pritzker

Yale University
Jeffrey L. Bewkes
Gerhard Casper
*Barrington Daniel Parker Jr.
Margaret G. Warner
Fareed Zakaria

Princeton University
Stephen A. Oxman
Rep. Jim Leach
Neil Rudenstine
*Sen. Paul Sarbanes

Columbia University
Lee C. Bollinger, President
Jose A. Cabranes
Evan A. Davis
Joan Spero
David J. Stern (NBA Commissioner)
Harold Varmus

Johns Hopkins University
C. Michael Armstrong, Vice Chair
Robert J. Abernethy
Loren R. Douglass
Pamela P. Flaherty
Sanford D. Greenberg
R. Kendall Nottingham
Morris W. Offit
David M. Rubenstein
Frank Savage
Norman R. Augustine (emeritus)
Rafael Hernandez-Colon (emeritus)
Helmut Sonnenfeldt (emeritus)

Georgetown University
(known as Board of Directors)
John J. DeGioia
J. Bryan Hehir
Shirley Ann Jackson
Paul Tagliabue

University of Southern California
Bruce E. Karatz
Monica C. Lozano
Bruce M. Ramer
Steven B. Sample, President

California Institute of Technology
John E. Bryson (?)
Ronald L. Olson
Charles R. Trimble New York University
Florence A. Davis
Henry Kaufman
Richard Jay Kogan
Donald B. Marron
L. Jay Oliva
Lester Pollack
E. John Rosenwald Jr.
William C. Rudin
John E. Sexton, President
William D. Zabel
Mortimer Zuckerman
Maurice R. Greenberg, Life Trustee
Thomas S. Murphy, Life Trustee
William R. Salomon, Life Trustee

University of Chicago
Jamie Dimon
Arthur L. Kelley
Walter E. Massey
Thomas J. Pritzker
Marshall I. Wais Jr.

Cornell University
Andrew H. Tisch
Robert J. Katz
Abby Joseph Cohen (emeritus)
*Kenneth T. Derr (emeritus)
Dale Rogers Marshall (emeritus)
Margaret Osmer-McQuade (emeritus)
Sanford I. Weill (emeritus)

Deans, Chancellors, and Provosts

Deans of the Diplomatic Schools
*Halford L. Hoskins – Dean of Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (1933-1944)
*Robert Burgess Stewart – Dean of Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (1945-1965)
*(Amb.) Edmund A. Gullion – Dean of Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (1965-1979)
*(Amb.) Theodore L. Eliot Jr. – Dean of Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (1979-1985)
Jeswald Salacuse – Dean of Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (1986-1994)
*(Gen.) John R. Galvin – Dean of Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (1995-2000)
(Amb.) Stephen W. Bosworth – Dean of Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (2001-2013)
(Adm.) James G. Stavridis – Dean of Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (2013-present)

*John H. Williams – Dean of the Graduate School of Public Administration at Harvard University (1937-1947)
*Edward S. Mason – Dean of the Graduate School of Public Administration at Harvard University (1947-1958)
*Don K. Price Jr. – Dean of the Graduate School of Public Administration at Harvard University (1958-1977)
Graham T. Allison – Dean of John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University (1977-1989)
Robert D. Putnam – Dean of John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University (1989-1991)
Albert Carnesale – Dean of John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University (1991-1995)
Joseph S. Nye Jr. – Dean of John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University (1995-2004)

*Francis O. Wilcox – Dean of School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University (1961-1973)
*Robert E. Osgood – Dean of School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University (1973-1979)
George R. Packard – Dean of School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University (1979-1993)
Paul D. Wolfowitz – Dean of Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University (1993-2001)
Jessica P. Einhorn – Dean of Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University (2002-2012)
Vali R. Nasr – Dean of Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University (2012-present)

*Andrew W. Cordier – Dean of School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University (1962-1968, 1970-1972)
*Harvey Picker – Dean of School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University (1972-1983)
Alfred C. Stepan – Dean of School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University (1983-1991)
John G. Ruggie – Dean of School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University (1991-1996)
Lisa Anderson – Dean of School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University (1997-2007)
John H. Coatsworth – Dean of School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University (2007-present)

*Harold W. Dodds – Chairman of the Administrative Committee of the School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University (1930-1933)
*DeWitt C. Poole – Director of the School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University (1933-1939)
*Dana G. Munro – Director of Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University (1939-1958)
*Gardner Patterson – Director of Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University (1958-1963)
John P. Lewis – Dean of Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University (1969-1974)
*Donald E. Stokes – Dean of Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University (1974-1992)
Henry S. Bienen – Dean of Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University (1992-1994)
Anne-Marie Slaughter – Dean of Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University (2002-2009)

*Edmund A. Walsh – founding Dean of the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University (1919-1921)
*William E. Moran, Jr. – Dean of School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University (1962-1966)
Robert L. Gallucci – Dean of Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University (1996-2009)
Carol J. Lancaster – Dean of Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University (2009-present)

Maurice A. East – Dean of The Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University (1985-1994)
Harry Harding – Dean of The Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University (1995-2005)
Michael E. Brown – Dean of The Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University (2005-present)

Harvard University
*Edwin F. Gay – Dean of Harvard Business School (1908-1919)
*Wallace Brett Donham – Dean of Harvard Business School (1919-1942)
*Donald K. David – Dean of Harvard Business School (1942-1955)
*George P. Baker – Dean of Harvard Business School (1962-1970)
*James M. Landis – Dean of Harvard Law School (1937-1946)
*Charles H. Haskins – Dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Science at Harvard University (1908-1924)
*Payson S. Wild Jr. – Dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Science at Harvard University (1946-1949)
*McGeorge Bundy – Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University (1953-1961)
Henry Rosovsky – Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University (1973-1984)
A. Michael Spence – Dean of Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University (1984-1990)
*Francis Keppel – Dean of the Faculty of Education at Harvard University (1948-1962)
Ernest R. May – Dean of the College at Harvard University (1969-1972)
Harvey Brooks – Dean of Engineering and Applied Physics at Harvard University (1957-1975)

Columbia University
*Carl W. Ackerman – Dean of Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia University (1931-1956)
*Edward W. Barrett – Dean of Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia University (1956-1968)
*Elie Abel – Dean of Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia University (1970-1979)
*Osborn Elliott – Dean of Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia University (1979-1986)
*Huger W. Jervey – Dean of Columbia Law School (1924-1928)
Michael I. Sovern – Dean of Columbia Law School (1970-1979)
Benno C. Schmidt Jr. – Dean of Columbia Law School (1983-1985)
David W. Leebron – Dean of Columbia Law School (1996-2004)
*Philip Young – Dean of Graduate School of Business at Columbia University (1948-1953)
*Courtney C. Brown – Dean of Columbia Business School (1954-1969)
*George F. James – Dean of Columbia Business School (1969-1973)
R. Glenn Hubbard – Dean of Columbia Business School (2004-present)
Herbert Pardes – Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at Columbia (1989-1999)
Gerald D. Fischbach – Dean of College of Physicians and Surgeons and Faculty of Medicine at Columbia (2001-2006)
Allan Rosenfield – Dean of Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University (1986-2008)
*Thomas P. Peardon – Dean of the Faculty at Barnard College at Columbia University (1953-1959)
*Frederick P. Keppel – Dean of College at Columbia University (1910-1917)
*John G. Palfrey – Dean of College at Columbia University (1958-1962)
*David B. Truman – Dean of College at Columbia University (1963-1967)
*Jacques Barzun – Dean of Graduate Faculties at Columbia University (1954-1958)

Yale University
William H. Donaldson – Dean of Yale School of Management (1976-1980)
Jeffrey E. Garten – Dean of Yale School of Management (1995-2005)
*Eugene V. Rostow – Dean of Yale Law School (1955-1965)
Anthony T. Kronman – Dean of Yale Law School (1994-2004)
*Lewis Thomas – Dean of Yale School of Medicine (1972-1973)
*James G. Speth – Dean of Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies (1999-2009)

Stanford University
*Carl B. Spaeth – Dean of Stanford Law School (1946-1962)
*Bayless Manning – Dean of Stanford Law School (1964-1971)
*Thomas Ehrlich – Dean of Stanford Law School (1971-1975)
*John Hart Ely – Dean of Stanford Law School (1982-1987)
A. Michael Spence – Dean of Stanford Business School (1990-1999)
*Ray Lyman Wilbur – Dean of Stanford University School of Medicine (1911-1916)

University of California at Berkeley
Laura D’Andrea Tyson – Dean of Haas School of Business at University of California Berkeley (1998-2001)
(Rep.) Thomas J. Campbell – Dean of Haas School of Business at University of California at Berkeley (2002-present)
Albert Fishlow – former Dean of International and Area Studies at University of California at Berkeley
George W. Breslauer – Dean of Social Sciences Division in the College of Letters and Science at UC Berkeley (1999-present)
Christopher Edley Jr. – Dean of School of Law (Boalt Hall) at University of California at Berkeley (2004-present)
Michael Nacht – Dean of Goldman School of Public Policy at University of California at Berkeley (1998-present)
Orville H. Schell III – Dean of the Graduate School of Journalism at University of California at Berkeley (1996-2007)
*Donald H. McLaughlin – Dean of College of Mining at Univ. of Cal. at Berkeley (1941-42); Dean, College of Engineering at Berkeley (1942-43)

New York University
*Archibald W. Taylor – Dean of Graduate School of Business Administration at New York University (1919-1944)
*George D. Stoddard – Dean of the School of Education at New York University (1956-1960)
*James M. Hester – Dean of Graduate School of Arts and Sciences at New York University (1960-1961)
*R. Bayly Winder – Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Science at New York University (1970-1977)
*Lewis Thomas – Dean of New York University School of Medicine (1966-1969)
Jo Ivey Boufford – Dean of Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University (1997-2002)
John Edward Sexton – Dean of New York University School of Law (1988-2002)
Richard L. Revesz – Dean of New York University School of Law (2002-present)
Thomas F. Cooley – Dean of New York University Stern School of Business (2002-2010)
Peter B. Henry – Dean of New York University Stern School of Business (2010-present)

Cornell University
*Cornelis Willem de Kiewiet – Dean of College of Arts and Sciences at Cornell University (1945-1948)
*Edward H. Litchfield – Dean of School of Business and Public Administration at Cornell University (1953-1955)
William D. Carmichael – Dean of Graduate School of Business and Public Administration at Cornell University (1962-1968)

Other College Deans

Northeast:
*Vincent M. Barnett Jr. – Dean of Williams College (1957-1958)
*Arthur Bronwell – Dean of Engineering at University of Connecticut (1962-1970)
*Robert G. Caldwell – Dean of Humanities at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1939-195?)
*Harlan B. Cleveland – Dean of Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University (1956-1961)
Jerome B. Cohen – Dean of Graduate Studies and Dean of School of Business at Baruch College (1968-1971)
L. Gray Cowan – former Dean of Graduate School of Public Affairs at State University of New York (SUNY) in Albany
*Robert G. Cox – Dean of College of Business Administration at Syracuse University (1964-1970)
John M. Deutch – Dean of Science at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1981-1988)
Leila Fawaz – former Dean of Humanties and Arts at Tufts University
*Gerald Freund – Dean of Humanities and Arts at Hunter College (1971-1980)
Stephen J. Friedman – Dean of the School of Law at Pace University (2004-2007)
*Arthur A. Hauck – Dean of Lafayette College (1931-1934)
Ulric Haynes Jr. – former Dean of Frank G. Zarb School of Business at Hofstra University
William Curt Hunter – Dean of School of Business at University of Connecticut (2003-2006)
*Howard W. Johnson – Dean of Sloan School of Management at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1959-1966)
Lawrence J. Korb – Dean of the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Pittsburgh (1986-1988)
Michael Mastanduno – Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Dartmouth College (2010-present)
*William C. McClellan – Dean of Wharton School at University of Pennsylvania (1916-1919)
*Robert A. Moore – Dean of College at Medicine State University [in New York] (1957-1966)
Makau W. Mutua – Dean of State University of New York at Buffalo Law School (2008-present)
*W. Albert Noyes Jr. – Dean of the Graduate School at University of Rochester (1952-1956); Dean of College of Arts and Sciences at University of Rochester (1956-1958)
*David V. Ragone – Dean of Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College (1970-1972)
*Marshall A. Robinson – Dean of Graduate School of Business at University of Pittsburgh (1960-1963)
Olin C. Robison – Provost and Dean of Faculty at Bowdoin College (1970-1975)
*John P. Roche –Dean of Faculty of Arts and Science at Brandeis University (1959-1961)
Neil L. Rudenstine – Dean of the College at Princeton University (1972-1977)
Stephen B. Shepard – Graduate School of Journalism at The City University of New York (2006-present)
Adele S. Simmons – Dean of Student Affairs at Princeton University (1972-1977)
*Hans Simons – Dean of School of Politics at New School for Social Research (1943-1950)
Richard W. Sonnenfeldt – Dean of School of Management at Polytechnic Institute of New York (1982-1984)
James B. Steinberg – Dean of Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University (2011-present)
Arthur R. Taylor – Dean of Faculty of Business at Fordham University (1985-1992)
*Arthur R. Upgren – Dean of Amos Tuck Schol of Business Administration at Dartmouth College (1953-1957)
Mitchel B. Wallerstein – Dean of Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University (2003-2011)
*Nils Y. Wessell – Dean of Liberal Arts at Tufts University (1939-1953)
*Jerome B. Wiesner – Dean of Science at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1964-1966)
*Joseph H. Willits – Dean of Wharton School of Finance and Commerce at University of Pennsylvania (1933-1939)

Southeast:
*T. Alexander Aleinikoff – Dean of the Georgetown University Law Center (2004-present)
Linda P. Brady – Dean of College of Humanities and Social Sciences at North Carolina State University (2001-2006)
Thomas Buergenthal – Dean of Washington College of Law at American University (1980-1985)
*Robert G. Caldwell – Dean of Rice Institute [later Rice University] (1918-1933)
*Oliver C. Carmichael – Dean of the Graduate School at Vanderbilt University (1935-1937)
*Clarence Clyde Ferguson Jr. – Dean of Howard University Law School (1963-1969)
*Adrian S. Fisher – Dean of Georgetown University Law Center (1969-1975)
Pamela B. Gann – Dean of the Law School at Duke University (1988-1999)
John Maxwell Hamilton – Dean of Manship School of Mass Communications at Louisiana State University (1994-present)
*Alexander Heard – Dean of the Graduate School at the University of North Carolina (1958-1963)
*Calvin B. Hoover – Dean of Graduate School at Duke University (1937-1947)
Roger E. Kanet – Dean of the Graduate School for International Studies at University of Miami, Florida (1998-2000)
William M. LeoGrande – Dean of the School of Public Affairs at American University (1997-1999, 2002-present)
Paul G. Mahoney – Dean of University of Virginia School of Law (2008-present)
William E. Mayer – Dean of College of Business and Management at University of Maryland (1992-1996)
*Cecil Morgan – Dean of School of Law at Tulane University (1963-c.1966)
Ambler H. Moss Jr. – Dean of Graduate School of International Studies at University of Miami, Florida (1984-1994)
Michael Nacht – Dean of School of Public Affairs at University of Maryland (1987-1994)
William C. Olson – Dean of the School of International Service at American University (1979-1986)
*August Kenneth Pye – Dean of the Law School at Duke University (1968-1970, 1973-1977)
*David E. Rogers – Dean of Medical Faculty of School of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University (1968-1971)
Kurt L. Schmoke – Dean of Howard University Law School (2003-present)
Susan C. Schwab – Dean of School of Public Policy at University of Maryland (1995-2003)
*William O. Scroggs – Dean of the Graduate School at Louisiana State University (1941-1949)
Meredith Jung-En Woo – Dean of Arts and Sciences at University of Virginia (2008-present)
Michael K. Young – Dean of the School of Law at George Washington University (1998-2004)

Midwest:
*Raymond B. Allen – Dean of Wayne University College of Medicine (1936-1939); Dean of College Medicine at Chicago Colleges of University of Illinois (1943-1946)
J. Brian Atwood – Dean of the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs at University of Minnesota (2002-2010)
*Ken A. Bode – Dean of Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University (1998-2002)
Lee C. Bollinger – Dean of University of Michigan Law School (1987-1994)
*John Z. Bowers – Dean of Medical School at University of Wisconsin (1955-1961)
Gerhard Casper – Dean of University of Chicago Law School (1979-1987)
Noreen M. Clark – Dean of the School of Public Health at University of Michigan (1995-2005)
*Harlan B. Cleveland – Dean of the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs at University of Minnesota (1980-1987)
*Edmund E. Day – Dean of the School of Business Administration at University of Michigan (1923-1937)
*James J. Duderstadt – Dean of University of Michigan College of Engineering (1981-1986)
Sherman Garnett – Dean of James Madison College at Michigan State University (1999-present)
*Lloyd K. Garrison – Dean of University of Wisconsin Law School (1932-1945)
Loren Ghiglione – Dean of Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University (2002-2006)
Hanna Holborn Gray – Dean of Northwestern University (1972-1974)
*Roger W. Heyns – Dean of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts at University of Michigan (1958-1962)
William Curt Hunter – Dean of Henry B. Tippie College of Business at University of Iowa (2006-present)
Laurence E. Lynn Jr. – Dean of the School of Social Service Administration at University of Chicago (1983-1988)
*Joseph M. McDaniel Jr. – Dean of School of Commerce at Northwestern University (1949-1950)
*John S. Millis – Dean of Lawrence University (1936-1941)
*Robert A. Moore – Dean of Washington University [in St. Louis] School of Medicine (1946-1954)
*Franklin D. Murphy – Dean of School of Medicne at Unversity of Kansas (1948-1951)
Henry H. Perritt Jr. – Dean of Chicago-Kent College of Law at Illinois Institute of Technology (1997-2002)
*David V. Ragone – Dean of University of Michigan College of Engineering (1972-1980)
*Frank H.T. Rhodes – Dean of the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts at University of Michigan (1971-1974)
*Beardsley Ruml – Dean of Social Science Division at University of Chicago (1931-1933)
*William F. Russell – Dean of State University of Iowa (1927-1949)
George P. Shultz – Dean of Graduate School of Business at University of Chicago (1962-1968)
*Peter W. Stanley – Dean of College of Carleton College (1979-1984)
*E. Blythe Stason – Dean of University of Michigan Law School (1939-1960)
*George D. Stoddard – Dean of Graduate College at University of Iowa (1936-1942)
*Donald E. Stokes – Dean of University of Michigan Graduate School (1971-1974)
*Donald C. Stone – Dean of Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at University of Pittsburgh (1957-1969)
*G. Edward Schuh – Dean of the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs at University of Minnesota (1987-1997)
Eric Paul Schwartz – Dean of the Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota (2011-present)
Robert L. Thompson – Dean of Agriculture at Purdue University (1987-1993)
David E. Van Zandt – Dean of Northwestern University School of Law (1995-present)
*F. Champion Ward – Dean of College at University of Chicago (1947-1954)
*Payson S. Wild Jr. – Dean of Faculties at Northwestern University (1949-1969)

West:
*Tomas Arciniega – Dean of Education at San Diego State University (1973-1980)
*John Z. Bowers – Dean of College of Medicine at University of Utah (1950-1955)
*Arthur G. Coons – Dean of Faculty at Occidental College (1943-1946)
Kathleen B. Cooper – Dean of College of Business Administration at the University of North Texas (2005-present)
Geoffrey Cowan – Dean of Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism at University of Southern California (1996-2007)
Peter F. Cowhey – Dean of the Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies at Univ. of California at San Diego (2002-pres.)
*Royden Dangerfield – Dean of the Graduate College at University of Oklahoma (1938-1942)
*Brewster C. Denny – Dean of the Graduate School of Public Affairs at the University of Washington (1961-1980)
Tom J. Farer – Dean of the Graduate School of International Studies at University of Denver
Robert M. Gates – Interim Dean of the George Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M University (1999-2001)
Peter A. Gourevitch – Dean, Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies at Univ. of California at San Diego (1986-1996)
Robert L. Hutchings – Dean of Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at University of Texas at Austin (2010-present)
*Josef Korbel – Dean of Graduate School of International Studies at University of Denver (1964-1969)
Richard W. Lariviere – Dean of the College of Liberal Arts at the University of Texas at Austin (1999-2006)
*Martin Meyerson – Dean of Urban Development at College of Environmental Design at University of California at Berkeley (1963-1966)
Elizabeth Rindskopf Parker – Dean of McGeorge School of Law at the University of the Pacific (2002-present)
*James Grafton Rogers – Dean of Law School at University of Colorado (1928-1931, 1933-1935)
Philip J. Romero – Dean of Lundquist College of Business at the University of Oregon (1999-2004)
*Elspeth Davies Rostow – Dean of Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at University of Texas at Austin (1977-1983)
Jeswald Salacuse – Dean of the School of Law at Southern Methodist University (1980-1986)
James B. Steinberg – Dean of Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs at University of Texas at Austin (2006-2009)
C. S. Whitaker – former Dean of Social Sciences at University of Southern California
C. Kern Wildenthal – Dean of University of Texas Southwestern Medical School (1980-1986)
*Howard E. Wilson – Dean of School of Education at University of California at Los Angeles [UCLA] (1957-c.1966)

Others:
*Alan W. Horton – Dean of Graduate Faculty at American University in Cairo (1956-1962)
John A. Quelch – Dean of London Business School of Economics (1998-2001)
Laura D’Andrea Tyson – Dean of London Business School of Economics (2002-2006)
Alberto R. Coll – former Dean of Center for Naval Warfare Studies at U.S. Naval War College

Professors of the Foreign Affairs and Diplomacy Schools (2007)

Henry P. Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University
Eileen Babbitt
Stephen W. Bosworth, former Dean
John Allen Burgess
Antonia Handler Chayes
Leila Fawaz
Michael J. Glennon
Alan Henrikson
Larry D. Johnson
Robert Pfaltzgraff
Kilaparti Ramakrishna
Jeswald W. Salacuse, former Dean
Jill A. Schuker
G. Richard Thoman
W. Scott Thompson
David A. Wirth

The Elliott School of International Affairs at George Washington University
Gordon M. Adams
Michael E. Brown, Dean
Amitai Etzioni
Martha Finnemore
Leon Fuerth
James M. Goldgeier
Harry Harding
Hope M. Harrison (assistant professor)
Karl F. Inderfurth
Mike M. Mochizuki
Henry R. Nau
David L. Shambaugh
John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University
Graham T. Allison, former Dean
Fracis M. Bator, emeritus
Robert J. Blendon
Lewis M. Branscomb
Ashton B. Carter
Paul Doty
Martin S. Feldstein
Richard A. Frank
Jeffrey A. Frankel
David Gergen
J. Bryan Hehir
John P. Holdren
(Amb.) Swanee Hunt
Marvin Kalb
Elaine Kamarck
Juliette Kayyem
Barbara Kellerman
Robert Z. Lawrence
Ernest R. May
John R. Meyer
Richard L. Morningstar
Joseph S. Nye Jr., former Dean
Robert D. Putnam
Dani Rodrik
Richard Rosecrance
Robert I. Rotberg
John Ruggie
Sarah Sewall
Jessica Stern
Christopher Stone
Stephen Walt
John P. White
Dorothy S. Zinberg
Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University
Core Faculty:
Anthony C. Arend
*Daniel Byman
Victor D. Cha (on leave)
Robert Gallucci, Dean
Yvonne Haddad
Bruce Hoffman
Michael C. Hudson
Charles Kupchan
Carol Lancaster
Robert J. Lieber
Kathleen McNamara
Gwendolyn Mikell
Theodore Moran
Eusebio Mujal-Leon
*Elizabeth A. Stanley-Mitchell
Angela E. Stent
Nancy B. Tucker
Arturo Valenzuela
Celeste A. Wallander
Francis X. Winters, emeritus

Term Faculty:
Madeline K. Albright
Chester Crocker
Donald C.F. Daniel
Douglas J. Feith
*W. Anthony Lake
Susan F. Martin
Donald F. McHenry
*(Gen.) William E. Odom
Paul R. Pillar
David Steinberg
Charles Weiss
Casimir A. Yost

Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University
Gary J. Bass
Alan S. Blinder
Thomas J. Christensen
Christina Davis
*Mickey Edwards
Aaron L. Friedberg
Robert P. George
Robert F. Goheen
Sylvia Hewlett
Frederick P. Hitz
(Amb.) Edmund J. Hull
Robert L. Hutchings
G. John Ikenberry
Stanley N. Katz
Peter B. Kenen
Nannerl O. Keohane
Robert Keohane
Jacques Paul Klein
Daniel C. Kurtzer
Helen Milner
Andrew Moravcsik
William L. Nash
Michael O’Hanlon
Michael F. Oppenheimer
Eric P. Schwartz
*Harold T. Shapiro
Anne-Marie Slaughter, Dean School of International and Public Affairs at Columbia University
Full Time Faculty:
Lisa Anderson, former Dean
Richard K. Betts
Richard H. Clarida
Rodolfo de la Garza
David N. Dinkins
Michael W. Doyle
Albert Fishlow
*Stuart Gottlieb
Merit E. Janow
Edward Luck
Maria Victoria Murillo
Kenneth Prewitt
Jeffrey D. Sachs
Stephen Sestanovich
Alfred C. Stepan
Joseph Stiglitz

Appointment:
Joel E. Cohen
Lori Fisler Damrosch
Richard N. Gardner
Carol Gluck
Robert Jervis
Rashid Khalidi
Xiaobo Lu
Andrew J. Nathan
Catharine Nepomnyashchy Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University
Fouad Ajami – Middle East studies
Zbigniew Brzezinski – American foreign policy
Esther D. Brimmer – transatlantic relations
Kent E. Calder – Japan studies
Eliot A. Cohen – strategic studies
Charles Doran – international relations
Francis Deng
Jessica Einhorn, Dean
Isaiah Frank – international economics
Francis Fukuyama – international political economy
Charles Gati – European studies
Daniel Hamilton
David Lampton – China studies
Roger S. Leeds – international finance
Michael Mandelbaum
Steven Muller
*Paul Nitze – co-founder of SAIS (died in 2004)
Don Oberdorfer
Riordian Roett
Dorothy M. Sobol
*S. Frederick Starr
Ruth Wedgwood
Paul D. Wolfowitz (on leave)
I. William Zartman

Ivy League Professors (2011)

Yale University:
Drew S. Days III – Professor of Law at Yale Law School (1991-present)
Paul Gewirtz – Potter Stewart Professor of Constitutional Law at Yale Law School
Oona A. Hathaway – Gerard C. and Bernice Latrobe Smith Professor of International Law at Yale Law School
Anthony T. Kronman – Professor of Law at Yale Law School (1979-present)
W. Michael Reisman – Myres S. McDougal Professor of International Law at Yale Law School
Kate Stith – Professor of Law at Yale Law School (1991-present)
Daniel C. Esty – Professor of Environmental Law and Policy at Yale University (2001-present)
*Donald Kagan – Professor of History and Classics at Yale University (1969-Present); Dean of Yale College (1989-1992)
John Lewis Gaddis – Robert A. Lovett Professor of History
Jeffrey E. Garten – Juan Trippe Professor in the Practice of International Trade, Finance, and Business at Yale School of Management
Paul Bracken – Professor of Management at Yale School of Management
*Timothy D. Snyder – Professor of History at Yale University

Harvard University:
William P. Alford – Henry L. Stimson Professor of Law at Harvard Law School (1990-present)
Jack Landman Goldsmith III – Henry L. Shattuck Professor of Law at Harvard Law School (2005-present)
David W. Kennedy – Professor of Law at Harvard Law School (1986-present)
Jonathan Zittrain – Professor of Law at Harvard Law School
Dani Rodrik – Rafiq Hariri Professor of International Political Economy at JFK School of Government at Harvard University (1996-pres.)
Robert Jay Blendon – Professor of Health Policy at Harvard University
Joseph Lyon Bower – Donald K. David Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School (1972-present)
Jeffrey A. Frankel – James W. Harpel Professor of Capital Formation and Economic Growth at Harvard University
Benjamin M. Friedman – William Joseph Maier Professor of Political Economy at Harvard University
Henry Louis Gates Jr. – W.E.B. Du Bois Professor of the Humanities at Harvard University
Samuel P. Huntington – University Professor of Government at Harvard University
Charles Maier – Leverett Saltonstall Professor of History at Harvard University
Matthew S. Meselson – Thomas Dudley Cabot Professor of Natural Sciences at Harvard University
Anthony G. Oettinger – Professor of Applied Mathematics and Professor of Information Resources Policy at Harvard University
*Elizabeth Perry – Professor of Government at Harvard University
Susan J. Pharr – Edwin O. Reischauer Professor of Japanese Politics at Harvard University
Kenneth Rogoff – Professor of Economics at Harvard University
John Ruggie – Kirkpatrick Professor of International Affairs at Harvard University
Michael J. Sandel – Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor of Government at Harvard University
Nur Yalman – Professor of Social Anthropology and of Middle Eastern Studies at Harvard University

Columbia University:
Philip C. Bobbitt – Herbert Wechsler Professor of Federal Jurisprudence at Columbia Law School
Lee C. Bollinger – Professor of Law at Columbia Law School (2002-present)
Lori Fisler Damrosch – Hamilton Fish Prof. of International Law and Diplomacy at Columbia Law School
Merritt B. Fox – Michael E. Patterson Professor of Law at Columbia Law School
Richard N. Gardner – Professor of Law and International Organization at Columbia Law School
*Benjamin L. Liebman – Professor of Law at Columbia Law School
Michael I. Sovern – Chancellor Kent Professor of Law at Columbia Law School
*Timothy Wu – Professor of Law at Columbia Law School

*George Clement Bond – Professor of Anthropology at Columbia University
Padma Desai – Gladys and Roland Harriman Professor of Comparative Economic Systems at Columbia University
Anne Nelson – Professor of Journalism at Columbia University
Hugh T. Patrick – Calkins Professor of International Business at Columbia University
Paul G. Richards – Professor of the Natural Sciences at Columbia University

Princeton University:
Kwame A. Appiah – Laurance S. Rockefeller University Professor of Philosophy at Princeton University
Alan S. Blinder – Gordon S. Rentschler Memorial Professor of Economics and Public Affairs at Princeton University
*Paul R. Krugman – Professor of International Economics at Princeton University
Marta Tienda – Maurice P. During Professor of Demographic Studies at Princeton University; Professor of Sociology and Public Affairs at Princeton University
Abraham L. Udovitch – Khedouri A. Zilkha Professor of Jewish Civilization in the Near East at Princeton University

Gary J. Bass – Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Princeton University
Thomas J. Christensen – Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Princeton University (2003-present)
Aaron L. Friedberg – Professor of Politics
G. John Ikenberry – Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Princeton University
Helen V. Milner – Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Princeton University
Andrew Moravcsik – Professor of Politics
Anne-Marie Slaughter (on leave)
Ezra N. Suleiman – Professor of Politics

Other Professors (2006)
New York University School of Law
Jose E. Alvarez – Herbert and Rose Rubin Professor of International Law
Jerome A. Cohen
*Stephen Choi
Norman Dorsen
Noah Feldman
Eleanor M. Fox
Thomas M. Francke, emeritus
Andreas F. Lowenfeld
Theodor Meron
*Richard L. Revesz, Dean
John Edward Sexton

Georgetown Law School [Law Center]
*Rosa E. Brooks
Barry E. Carter
Stephen B. Cohen
*Viet D. Dinh
Thomas M. Franck
Judith Richards Hope
John H. Jackson
Eleanor Holmes Norton
Jane E. Stromseth
Daniel K. Tarullo
Edith Brown Weiss

George Washington University School of Law
Steve Charnovitz
Donald C. Clarke
Susan Karamanian

New York University
Jo Ivey Boufford – Professor of Public Service, Health Policy and Management at the NYU Wagner School

Bruce Bueno de Mesquita – Professor of Politics

Craig J. Calhoun – Professor of Sociology

Dalton Conley – Professor of Sociology and Public Policy

Stephen F. Cohen – Professor of Russian Studies and History

David B.H. Denoon – associate professor of politics

Shepard Forman – Professor of Politics

Farhad Kazemi – Professor of Politics and Middle Eastern Studies

N. Ishaq Nadiri – Jay Gould Professor of Economics

Ruth Ann Stewart – Professor of Public Policy at NYU Wagner School Columbia University – Department of Political Science
Lisa Anderson
Richard K. Betts
Gerald L. Curtis
Rodolfo O. De La Garza
Michael W. Doyle
Tanisha M. Fazal
Robert Jervis
Robert Legvold
Maria Victoria Murillo
Andrew James Nathan, Chair
Kenneth Prewitt
Alfred Stepan

MIT – Department of Political Science
Suzanne Berger
Lincoln P. Bloomfield, Emeritus
Nazli Choucri
Taylor Fravel
Chappel Lawson
Kenneth A. Oye
Barry Posen
Lucian W. Pye, Emeritus
Richard J. Samuels
Harvey M. Sapolsky
Eugene Skolnikoff, Emeritus
Stephen W. Van Evera
Cindy Williams

University of California at Berkeley – Department of Political Science
Vinod K. Aggarwal
George W. Breslauer, Dean
Barry Eichengreen
Gail Lapidus, emeritus
Nelson W. Polsby
Robert A. Scalapino, emeritus
Kenneth N. Waltz, emeritus
John A. Zysman

University of Pennsylvania – Department of Political Science
Francine R. Frankel
Ian S. Lustick
*Daryl G. Press
Thomas M. Callaghy – Professor of Political Science at University of Pennsylvania (1994-2008)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
John M. Deutch – Institute Professor, Department of Chemistry

Kenneth Keniston – Andrew W. Mellon Professor of Human Development

Ernest J. Moniz – Professor of Physics

Theodore A. Postol – Professor of Science, Technology and National Security Policy University of Maryland – School of Public Policy
Benjamin R. Barber
I.M. Destler
Carol Lee Graham
Steven Kull
Carmen M. Reinhart
John D. Steinbruner
Susan Schwab
Stansfield Turner
Shibley Telhami
Jay Winik

UC San Diego – International Relations & Pacific Studies
Peter F. Cowhey, Dean
Richard E. Feinberg
Peter A. Gourevitch
Stephan Haggard
Miles Kahler
*Lawrence B. Krause, Emeritus
Susan L. Shirk

UC Berkeley – Haas School of Business
Vinod K. Aggarwal
(Rep.) Tom Campbell, Dean
Richard K. Lyons
Mark Seasholes
David J. Teece
Laura D’Andrea Tyson, former Dean

Univ. of Southern California – Annenberg School for Communication
Jonathan Aronson
Geoffrey Cowan
Edwin O. Guthman
Jay T. Harris

Syracuse University – Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs
Catherine A. Bertini
Goodwin Cooke
(Gen.) Montgomery C. Meigs
Mitchel B. Wallerstein, Dean

Univ. of Minnesota – Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs
J. Brian Atwood, Dean
Ann Markusen
*G. Edward Schuh

Harvard Business School
*Rawi Abdelal
Rosabeth Moss Kanter
W. Carl Kester
Louis T. Wells Jr.
David B. Yoffie

Other College Professors
Ivy League:
Thomas J. Biersteker – Henry R. Luce Professor of Transnational Organizations at Brown University (1992-2006)
*Thomas E. Skidmore – Professor of Brazilian History at Brown University
Peter J. Katzenstein – Professor of International Studies at Cornell University
Judith V. Reppy – Professor of Science and Technology Studies at Cornell University
Michael Mastanduno – Nelson A. Rockefeller Professor of Government at Dartmouth College
Allan C. Stam – Professor of Government at Dartmouth College
Francine R. Frankel – Professor of South Asian Studies at University of Pennsylvania
Arthur Waldron – Professor of International Relations at University of Pennsylvania

Northeast:
Andrew J. Bacevich – Professor of International Relations and History at Boston University
Glenn C. Loury – Professor of Economics at Boston University
C. Robert Zelnick – Chairman of the Department of Journalism at Boston University
David A. Wirth – Professor of Law at Boston College Law School
William Taubman – Bertrand Snell Professor of Political Science at Amherst College
Ronald Tiersky – Professor of Political Science at Amherst College
Robert J. Art – Christian A. Herter Professor of International Relations at Brandeis University
Mark Weston Janis – Professor of Law at University of Connecticut School of Law
Jean Herskovits – Professor of History at the State University of New York at Purchase
Aristide R. Zolberg – Walter A. Eberstadt Professor of Political Science at New School University in New York City
Joel E. Cohen – Abby Rockefeller Mauze Professor of Populations at Rockefeller Universty
Henri J. Barkey – Bernard L. and Bertha F. Cohen Professor of International Relations at Lehigh University
Rajan Menon – Monroe J. Rathbone Professor of International Relations at Lehigh University
Henry J. Richardson III – Professor of Law at Temple University Law School

Southeast:
A.E. Dick Howard – White Burkett Miller Professor of Law and Public Affairs at University of Virginia
Paul G. Mahoney – Brokaw Professor of Corporate Law at University of Virginia
John Norton Moore – Walter L. Brown Professor of Law at University of Virginia
William B. Quandt – Edward R. Stettinius Professor of Government and Foreign Affairs at University of Virginia
Seymour M. Lipset – Professor of Public Policy at George Mason University
Frank W. Sesno – Professor of Public Policy and Communication at George Mason University
Diane F. Orentlicher – Professor of Law at American University
Robert Pastor – Professor of International Relations at American University
Jeanne Maddox Toungara – Professor of African studies at Howard University
Bruce R. Kuniholm – Professor of Public Policy Studies and History at Duke University
Ellen Mickiewicz – Professor of Public Policy Studies and Professor of Political Science at Duke University
Donald J. Puchala – Professor of Public Affairs at University of South Carolina
Gary K. Bertsch – University Professor of Public and International Affairs at University of Georgia
William J. Long – Professor of International Affairs at the Sam Nunn School at George Institute of Technology [Georgia Tech]
Thomas F. Remington – Professor of Political Science at Emory University; Chair of Political Science Department at Emory Universiity
Judith Hicks Stiehm – Professor of Political Science at Florida International University
Michael C. Desch – Professor of Diplomacy and International Commerce at University of Kentucky
John D. Stempel – Senior Professor at University of Kentucky Patterson School of Diplomacy and International Commerce
Warren I. Cohen – Distinguished University Professor of History at University of Maryland

Midwest:
Robert Axelrod – professor at the Ford School of Public Policy at University of Michigan
Noreen M. Clark – Professor of Public Health at University of Michigan
Marina v. N. Whitman – Professor of Business Administration and Public Policy at University of Michigan
Kenneth W. Dam – Professor of American and Foreign Law at the University of Chicago Law School
John J. Mearsheimer – Professor of Political Science at University of Chicago
Marvin Zonis – Professor of Behaviorial Science at University of Chicago Graduate School of Busines
Ken A. Bode – Professor of Journalism at DePauw University
Bartram S. Brown – Professor of Law at Chicago-Kent College of Law at Illinois Institute of Technology
Henry H. Perritt Jr. – Professor of Law at Chicago-Kent College of Law at Illinois Institute of Technology
Sumit Ganguly – Professor of Indian Cultures and Civilizations and Professor of Political Science at Indiana University
Andrew B. Wachtel – Professor of the Humanities at Northwestern University
Jeffrey Hunker – Professor of Technology and Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University
Janne E. Nolan – Professor of International Affairs at University of Pittsburgh
Margaret P. Karns – Professor of Political Science at University of Dayton
Douglass W. Cassel Jr. – Lilly Endowment Professor of Law at University of Notre Dame
Timothy R. Scully – Professor of Political Science at Notre Dame
Carlisle Ford Runge – Professor of Applied Economics and Law at University of Minnesota School of Law

Western:
Philip Chase Bobbitt – Professor of Law at University of Texas at Austin
Francis J. Gavin – Tom Slick Professor of International Affairs at University of Texas at Austin
William Roger Louis – Kerr Chair of English History and Culture at University of Texas at Austin
George C. Edwards III – Professor of Political Science at Texas A&M
James F. Hollifield – Professor of Political Science at Southern Methodist University
Cal Jillson – Professor of Political Science at Southern Methodist University
Raj Bhala – Professor of Law at University of Kansas
Dale R. Herspring – Professor of Political Science at Kansas State University
David C. Hendrickson – Distinguished Service Professor [of political science] at Colorado College
Myles V. Lynk – Professor of Law and the Legal Profession at Arizona State University
Philip J. Romero – Professor of Business Administration at University of Oregon
Donald C. Hellmann – Professor of International Studies and Political Science at University of Washington
Clark B. Lombardi – Professor of Islamic History and Law at University of Washington School of Law
Kenneth B. Pyle – Professor of History and Asian Studies at University of Washington
Terry L. Karl – Professor of Political Science at Stanford University
Scott D. Sagan – Professor of Political Science at Stanford University
Kau Raustiala – Professor of International Law at UCLA
Richard H. Steinberg – Professor of Law at UCLA
Amy B. Zegart – Associate Professor of Public Policy at UCLA
Gerald J. Bender – Professor of International Relations at University of Southern California
Ronald Steel – Professor of International Relations and History at University of Southern California
Jane S. Jaquette – Bertha Harton Orr Professor of Politics at Occidental College (Los Angeles)

Others:
Richard D. Portes – Professor of Economics at London Business School (London, Great Britain)
George de Menil – professor of economics at Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (Paris, France)
Steven Philip Kramer – Professor of National Security Studies at the National Defense University

Other Past Professors
*Carl Kelsey (Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 1903) – Professor of Sociology at University of Pennsylvania (1906-1941)
Walter W. McLaren (Ph.D. Harvard 1908) – Professor of Economics at Williams College (1914-1945); Professor of Economics and Politics at Keiogijuku [Keio University] in Tokyo, Japan (1908-1914)
*Nelson P. Mead (Ph.D. Columbia 1906) – Professor of History at College of the City of New York (1920-1967)
*J. Salwyn Schapiro (Ph.D. Columbia 1909) – Professor of History at College of the City of New York (1922-1947)
*Eliot G. Mears – Professor of Geography and International Trade at Stanford University (1925-1946)
*Rev. Reinhold Niebuhr – Professor of Christian Ethics at Union Theological Seminary (1930-1960)
*Cornelis Willem de Kiewiet (Ph.D. University of London 1927) – Professor of Modern European History at Cornell Unviersity (1941-1986)
*Hans Joachim Morgenthau – Professor of Political Science at University of Chicago (1949-1968)
*Gordon A. Craig (Ph.D. Princeton 1941) – Professor of History at Stanford University (1961-2005)
*Jeane J. Kirkpatrick (Ph.D. Columbia 1968) – Professor of Political Science at Georgetown University (1973-2002)
Madeleine K. Albright (Ph.D. Columbia 1976) – Professor of International Affairs at Georgetown University (1982-1993)

Past Ivy League Professors

Yale University:
*Clive Day (Ph.D. Yale 1899) – Knox Professor of Political Economy at Yale University (1922-1936)
*Edwin M. Borchard (Ph.D. Columbia 1913) – Professor of Law at Yale Law School (1917-1951)
*Myres S. McDougal – Professor of Law at Yale University (1939-1975)
*Harold D. Lasswell (Ph.D. University of Chicago 1926) – Professor of Law at Yale University (1946-1978)
*Robert Triffin – Frederick William Beinecke Professor of Economics at Yale University (1951-1980)
*Lloyd G. Reynolds (Ph.D. Harvard 1936) – Sterling Professor of Economics at Yale University (1952-1981)
*Frederick C. Barghoorn (Ph.D. Harvard 1941) – Professor of Political Science at Yale University (1957-c.1976)
*David E. Apter (Ph.D. Princeton 1954) – Henry J. Heinz II Professor of Political Science and Sociology at Yale University (1969-2000)
Gustav Ranis (Ph.D. Yale 1956) – Professor of Economics (1964-1982) and Frank Altschul Professor of International Economics (1982-2005) at Yale University

Harvard University:
*Charles H. Haskins (Ph.D. Johns Hopkins 1890) – Professor of History at Harvard University (1902-1931)
*Archibald Cary Coolidge (Ph.D. University of Freiburg [Germany] 1892) – Professor of History at Harvard University (1908-1928)
*George Grafton Wilson (Ph.D. Brown 1889) – Professor of International Law at Harvard University (1910-1936)
*Oliver Mitchell Wentworth Sprague (Ph.D. Harvard 1897) – Edmund Cogswell Converse Professor of Banking and Finance at Harvard University (1913-1941)
*Felix Frankfurter – Byrne Professor of Administrative Law at Harvard University (1914-1917, 1920-1939)
*Zechariah Chafee Jr. – Professor of Law at Harvard University (1919-1956)
*Clarence H. Haring (Ph.D. Harvard 1916) – Robert Woods Bliss Prof. of Latin American History and Economics at Harvard Univ. (1923-1953)
*Manley O. Hudson – Bemis Professor of International Law at Harvard Law School (1923-1960)
*Edwin F. Gay (Ph.D. University of Berlin 1902) – Professor of Economic History at Harvard University (1924-1936)
*William Y. Elliott (D.Phil. Oxford 1923) – Professor of Government at Harvard University (1931-1963)
*John H. Williams (Ph.D. Harvard 1919) – Nathaniel Ropes Professor of Political Economy at Harvard University (1933-1957)
*William L. Langer (Ph.D. Harvard 1923) – Coolidge Professor of History at Harvard University (1936-1964)
*Alvin H. Hansen (Ph.D. University of Wisconsin 1918) – Lucius N. Littauer Professor of Political Economy at Harvard University (1937-1958)
*Crane Brinton (Ph.D. Oxford 1923) – Professor of History at Harvard University (1942-c.1967)
*Rupert Emerson (Ph.D. London School of Economics 1927) – Professor of International Relations at Harvard University (1946-1970)
*Samuel H. Beer (Ph.D. Harvard 1943) – Professor of Government at Harvard University (1953-1982)
*Abram Bergson (Ph.D. Harvard 1940) – Professor of Economics at Harvard University (1956-1984)
*John King Fairbank (Ph.D. Oxford 1936) – Professor of History at Harvard University (1959-1972)
Roger D. Fisher – Professor of Law at Harvard Law School (1960-1992)
*Louis B. Sohn – Bemis Professor of International Law at Harvard Univ. (1961-1981); co-author of World Peace Through World Law (1958)
*Henry A. Kissinger (Ph.D. Harvard 1954) – Professor of Government at Harvard University (1962-1969)
Detlev F. Vagts – Professor of Law at Harvard Univ. (1962-1984); Bemis Professor of International Law at Harvard Univ. (1984-2005)
Jerome A. Cohen – Jeremiah J. Smith Professor of Law at Harvard University (1964-1981)

Columbia University:
*E.R.A. Seligman (Ph.D. Columbia 1885) – McVickar Professor of Political Economy and Finance at Columbia University (1904-1931)
*Henry R. Seager (Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 1894) – Professor of Political Economy at Columbia University (1905-1930)
*Wesley Clair Mitchell (Ph.D. University of Chicago 1899) – Professor of Economics at Columbia University (1914-1919, 1922-1944)
*Abram Bergson (Ph.D. Harvard 1940) – Professor of Economics at Columbia University (1950-1956)
*Charles D. Hazen (Ph.D. Johns Hopkins 1893) – Professor of History at Columbia University (1916-1938)
*Carlton Joseph Huntley Hayes (Ph.D. Columbia 1909) – Professor of History at Columbia University (1919-1950)
*Joseph P. Chamberlain (Ph.D. Columbia 1923) – Professor of Public Law at Columbia University (1923-1950)
*Huger W. Jervey – Professor of Law at Columbia University Law School (1924-1949)
*Robert L. Schuyler (Ph.D. Columbia 1909) – Professor of History at Columbia University (1924-1951)
*Charles Cheney Hyde – Hamilton Fish Professor of International Law and Diplomacy at Columbia University (1925-1945)
*Lindsay Rogers (Ph.D. Johns Hopkins 1915) – Burgess Professor of Public Law at Columbia University (1929-1959)
*Leo Wolman (Ph.D. Johns Hopkins 1914) – Professor of Economics at Columbia University (1931-1958)
*Philip C. Jessup (Ph.D. Columbia 1927) – Professor of International Law at Columbia University (1934-1946)
*Geroid T. Robinson (Ph.D. Columbia 1930) – Professor of History (1938-1950) and Seth Low Prof. of History (1950-1971) at Columbia Univ.
*John N. Hazard – Professor of Public Law at Columbia University (1946-1977)
*A. Arthur Schiller – Professor of Law at Columbia University (1949-1971)
*Henry P. de Vries – Professor of Law at Columbia University (1952-1981)
*Rene Albrecht-Carrie (Ph.D. Columbia 1938) – Professor of History at Columbia University (1953-1969)
*William L. Cary – Professor of Law at Columbia University (1955-1983)
*Henry L. Roberts (Ph.D. Yale 1942) – Professor of History at Columbia Univ. (1956-1967); Prof. of History at Dartmouth College (1967-1972)
*A(rthur) Doak Barnett – Professor of Political Science at Columbia University (1961-1969)
*Edward W. Said (Ph.D. Harvard 1964) – Professor of English and Comparative Literature at Columbia University (1970-2003)
Zbigniew Brzezinski (Ph.D. Harvard 1953) – Professor of Public Law and Government at Columbia University (1981-1989)

Princeton University:
*Edwin W. Kemmerer (Ph.D. Cornell 1903) – Professor of Economics and Finance (1912-1928) and Walker Professor of International Finance (1928-1943) at Princeton University
*Joseph R. Strayer (Ph.D. Harvard 1930, A.B. Princeton 1925) – Professor of History at Princeton University (1942-1973)
*Oskar Morgenstern – Professor of Economics at Princeton University (1944-1970)
L. Carl Brown (Ph.D. Harvard 1962) – Garrett Professor of Foreign Affairs at Princeton University (1970-1993)
Richard A. Falk – Albert G. Milbank Professor of International Law at Princeton University [Emeritus]
Bernard Lewis – Cleveland E. Dodge Professor of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University (1974-1986)
Peter B. Kenen (Ph.D. Harvard 1958) – Walker Professor of Economics and International Finance at Princeton University (1971-2004)

Council on Foreign Relations: Foundation and Organization Administrators
President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
*Elihu Root (1910-1925)
*Alger Hiss (1946-1949)
*James T. Shotwell (1949-1950)
*Joseph E. Johnson (1950-1971)
Thomas L. Hughes (1971-1991)
Morton I. Abramowitz (1991-1997)
Jessica T. Mathews (1997-present)

President of The Rockefeller Foundation
*Raymond B. Fosdick (1936-1948)
*Chester I. Barnard (1948-1952)
*Dean Rusk (1952-1961)
*J. George Harrar (1961-1972)
*John H. Knowles (1972-1979)
Richard W. Lyman (1980-1988)
Peter C. Goldmark Jr. (1988-1997)
Judith Rodin (2005-present)

President of Ford Foundation
*Paul G. Hoffman (1950-1953)
*H. Rowan Gaither (1953-1956)
*Henry T. Heald (1956-1965)
*McGeorge Bundy (1966-1979)
Franklin A. Thomas (1979-1996)
Susan V. Berresford (1996-2008)
Luis A. Ubinas (2008-present)

Chairman of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
*John Foster Dulles (1946-1949?)
*Harvey H. Bundy (1952-1958)
*Milton Katz (1970-1978)
Charles J. Zwick (?)
Robert Carswell (1993-?)
William H. Donaldson (1999-2003)

Chairman of The Rockefeller Foundation
*Walter W. Stewart (1940-1950)
*John Foster Dulles (1950-1952)
*John D. Rockefeller III (1952-1971)
*C. Douglas Dillon (1972-1975)
*Cyrus R. Vance (1975-1977)
Theodore M. Hesburgh (1977-1982)
Clifton R. Wharton Jr. (1982-1987)
*Alice Stone Ilchman (1995-2000)

Chairman of Ford Foundation
*H. Rowan Gaither Jr. (1956-1958)
*John J. McCloy (1958-1965)
*Julius A. Stratton (1966-1971)
*Alexander Heard (1971-1985)
*Edson W. Spencer (1986-1991)
Henry B. Schacht (1992-1994)
*Kathryn S. Fuller (c. 2006-present)

President of Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
*Everett N. Case (1962-1968)
*Nils Y. Wessell (1968-1979)
Ralph E. Gomory (1989-2007)

President of Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
*Nathan M. Pusey (1971-1975)
*John E. Sawyer (1975-1987)
*William G. Bowen (1988-2006)

President of Atlantic Council of the United States
*(Gen.) George M. Seignious II (1985-1989)
Rozanne L. Ridgway (1989-1993)
*Christopher J. Makins (1999-2005)
Frederick S. Kempe (2005-present) President and Chairman of Carnegie Corporation of New York
*Elihu Root (1919-1920)
*James R. Angell (1920-1921)
*Henry S. Pritchett (1921-1923)
*Frederick P. Keppel (1923-1941)
*Devereux C. Josephs (1945-1948)
*Charles Dollard (1948-1955)
*John W. Gardner (1955-1965)
*Alan Pifer (1965-1982)
David A. Hamburg (1982-1997)
Vartan Gregorian (1997-present)
*Frederick Sheffield (Chairman, 1966-1971)
Helene Kaplan (Chairman, ?-present)

President of Rockefeller Brothers Fund
*John D. Rockefeller III (1940-1956)
*Nelson A. Rockefeller (1956-1958)
*Dana S. Creel (1968-1975)
*William M. Dietel (1975-1987)
Colin G. Campbell (1988-2000)
Stephen B. Heintz (2001-present)

Chairman of Atlantic Council of the United States
*Christian A. Herter (1961-1963)
*(Gen.) Lauris Norstad (1963-1967)
*Livingston Merchant (1967-1971)
*W. Randolph Burgess (1971-1973)
*Henry H. Fowler (1973-1978)
*Kenneth Rush (1978-1985)
*(Gen.) Andrew J. Goodpaster (1985-1997)
Rozanne L. Ridgway (1993-1996) [Co-Chair]
(Lt. Gen.) Brent Scowcroft (1998-1999)
Henry E. Catto Jr. (2000-2006)
(Gen.) James L. Jones Jr. (2007-2009)

Chairman of The Economic Club of New York
*John G. Milburn (1910-1912)
*James Speyer (1912-1914)
*Henry Morgenthau (1918-1920)
*George W. Wickersham (1920-1922)
*William Church Osborn (1922-1924)
*Howard Elliott (1924-1926)
*Walker D. Hines (1926-1928)
*Samuel McRoberts (1930-1932)
*Thomas J. Watson (1932-1934)
*James P. Warburg (1934-1936)
*Paul D. Cravath (1936-1938)
*David Sarnoff (1940-1942)
*Winthrop W. Aldrich (1942-1944)
*Alfred P. Sloan, Jr. (1948-1950)
*Juan T. Trippe (1950-1952)
*H.E. Humphreys, Jr. (1954-1956)
*Arthur K. Watson (1963-1964)
*Alfred Hayes (1965-1966)
*Robert V. Roosa (1970-1971)
*George R. Vila (1972-1974)
*Charles C. Tillinghast, Jr. (1974-1975)
*James W. Davant (1976-1977)
*Edmund T. Pratt, Jr. (1979-1981)
Peter G. Peterson (1981-1983)
Dwayne O. Andreas (1985-1987)
*Rand V. Araskog (1987-1990)
Richard A. Voell (1990-1992)
Donald B. Marron (1992-1994)
John M. Hennessy (1994-1996)
William J. McDonough (1996-2000)
Barbara Hackman Franklin (2003-2007)
R. Glenn Hubbard (2008-2010)
Andrew H. Tisch (2010-2012)
Roger W. Ferguson Jr. (2012-present)
Past and Present Trustees of the Rockefeller Foundation
*Jerome D. Greene (1913-1917, 1928-1939)
*Charles Evans Hughes (1917-1921, 1926-1928)
*Julius Rosenwald (1917-1930)
*John G. Agar (1920-1928)
*Raymond B. Fosdick (1921-1948)
*John W. Davis (1922-1938)
*William Allen White (1923-1934)
*Ray Lyman Wilbur (1923-1940)
*James R. Angell (1928-1935)
*Ernest M. Hopkins (1928-1942)
*Charles P. Howland (1928-1932)
*Owen D. Young (1928-1939)
*Walter W. Stewart (1931-1950)
*Harold H. Swift (1931-1950)
*John D. Rockefeller III (1932-1971)
*Winthrop W. Aldrich (1935-1951)
*Lewis W. Douglas (1935-1947, 1952-1960)
*John Foster Dulles (1935-1952)
*Walter S. Gifford (1936-1950)
*Harold W. Dodds (1937-1953)
*Arthur Hays Sulzberger (1939-1957)
*Chester I. Barnard (1940-1952)
*Karl T. Compton (1940-1953)
*Robert G. Sproul (1940-1956)
*William I. Myers (1941-1957)
*John J. McCloy (1946-1949, 1953-1958)
*John Sloan Dickey (1947-1972)
*Rev. Henry P. Van Dusen (1947-1963)
*Robert A. Lovett (1949-1961)
*Dean Rusk (1950-1961)
*Wallace K. Harrison (1951-1961)
*Detlev Bronk (1953-1963)
*John R. Kimberly (1953-1968)
*Chester Bowles (1954-1960)
*Ralph J. Bunche (1955-1970)
*Lee A. DuBridge (1956-1967)
*Richard Bradfield (1957-1961)
*Barry Bingham (1958-1971)
*Arthur A. Houghton Jr. (1958-1972)
C. Douglas Dillon (1960, 1965-1974)
*Orvil E. Dryfoos (1960-1963)
*Clark Kerr (1960-1975)
*J. George Harrar (1961-1972)
Theodore M. Hesburgh (1961-1981)
*Frank Stanton (1962-1972)
*Robert F. Goheen (1963-1975)
*Thomas J. Watson Jr. (1963-1971)
*Frederick Seitz (1964-1976)
*Robert V. Roosa (1967-1982)
*John D. (Jay) Rockefeller IV (1968-1976, 1978-1980)
*Bill Moyers (1969-1980)
*Cyrus R. Vance (1970-1977, 1980-1981)
*Clifton R. Wharton Jr. (1970-1986)
W. Michael Blumenthal (1971-1977, 1979-1986)
Vernon E. Jordan Jr. (1971-1984)
*Nevin S. Scrimshaw (1971-1982)
John H. Knowles (1972-1978)
Jane Cahill Pfeiffer (1973-1985)
*Lane Kirkland (1973-1985)
Paul A. Volcker (1975-1978)
Richard W. Lyman (1976-1988)
Henry B. Schacht (1977-1981)
James P. Grant (1978-1986)
Eleanor B. Sheldon (1978-1986)
Victor H. Palmieri (1979-1989)
James D. Wolfensohn (1979-1985)
*Sterling Wortman (1979)
John Brademas (1981-1992)
Eleanor Holmes Norton (1981-1990)
Harold Brown (1982-1993)
W. Thomas Johnson (1982-1992)
Alice M. Rivlin (1982-1985)
Robert C. Maynard (1984-1992)
Harry Woolf (1984-1994)
Frances FitzGerald (1987-1996)
Alice Stone Ilchman (1987-2000)
Arthur Levitt Jr. (1987-1993)
Peter C. Goldmark Jr. (1988-1996)
Karen N. Horn (1988-1997)
Henry Cisneros (1989-1993)
Peggy Rockefeller Dulany (1989-1997)
Johnetta B. Cole (1991-2000)
Franklin D. Raines (1995)
William H. Foege (1997-2008)
Antonia Herandez (1998-2008)
Jessica T. Mathews (1998-2008)
Margaret Ann Hamburg (2004-2008)
Judith Rodin (2004-present)
*Sandra Day O’Connor (2005-present)
Raymond Smith (2005-present)
Ann M. Fudge (2006-present)
David Rockefeller Jr. (2006-present)
Richard D. Parsons (2007-present)

Note: *= former Council on Foreign Relations member; name does not appear on 2012 Council on Foreign Relations membership roster.

Heads of Major Organizations
Special-Interest Organizations
Abraham H. Foxman – National Director of Anti-Defamation League (ADL) (1987-present)
Glen S. Lewy – National Chairman of the Anti-Defamation League (2006-present)
Malcolm Hoenlein – Executive Vice Chairman of Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations
Thomas A. Dine – Executive Director of American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) (1980-1993)
Edgar M. Bronfman (Sr.) – President of World Jewish Congress (1981-2007); President of the World Jewish Restitution Organization
(Amb.) Ronald S. Lauder – President of World Jewish Congress (2007-present)
*Rabbi Arthur Hertzberg – President of the American Jewish Congress (1972-1978); Vice President of World Jewish Congress (1975-1991)
Robert K. Lifton – President of American Jewish Congress (1988-1994); President of Israel Policy Forum (1994-1996)
Henry Siegman – Executive Director of American Jewish Congress (1978-1994)
Larry Garber – Executive Director of the New Israel Fund
David A. Harris – Executive Director of American Jewish Committee (1990-present)
Jack Rosen – Chairman of American Jewish Congress
*Frederick P. Rose – President of Federation of Jewish Philanthropies of New York (1974-1977)
Kenneth J. Bialkin – National Chairman of Anti-Defamation League (1982-1986); Chairman & President of American Jewish Historical Society
*Irving M. Engel – President of American Jewish Committee (1954-1959)
(Amb.) Alfred H. Moses – President of American Jewish Committee (1991-1994)
Bruce M. Ramer – President of American Jewish Committee (1998-2001)
Harold Tanner – President of American Jewish Committee (2001-2004); Chairman, Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations
Lester Pollack – former Chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations
(Rabbi) Arthur Schneier – President of Appeal of Conscience Foundation

*Joseph M. McDaniel, Jr. – Secretary of Ford Foundation (1953-1967)
*James M. Nicely – Vice President and Treasurer of Ford Foundation (1961-1964)
*Laurence D. Stifel – Secretary of Rockefeller Foundation (1974-1983)
*James Brown Scott – Secretary of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1910-1940)
*Leslie Paffrath – Secretary of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1950-1959)
*Harding F. Bancroft – Vice Chairman of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1970-1981); Trustee of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1964-1981)
*Waldemar A. Nielsen – Deputy Director of Behavioral Sciences Division at Ford Foundation (1952-1953); Associate Director of International Affairs Program at Ford Foundation (1956-1961); President of African-American Institute (1961-1970)
Shepard Stone – Director of International Affairs at Ford Foundation (1954-1968); President of International Association of Cultural Freedom in Paris (1968-1973)

*Felix Frankfurter – Member of the national committee of American Civil Liberties Union (c.1923)
*Oswald Garrison Villard – Member of the national committee of American Civil Liberties Union (c.1923)
*Lloyd K. Garrison – former Vice Chairman of the national committee of American Civil Liberties Union (c.1944)
*Varian Fry – Member of the board of directors of American Civil Liberties Union (c.1944)
*Quincy Howe – Member of the board of directors of American Civil Liberties Union
*Whitney North Seymour – Member of the board of directors of American Civil Liberties Union (c.1944)
* Lewis Galantiere – Member of the board of directors of American Civil Liberties Union (c.1962-c.1965)
*August Heckscher – Member of the board of directors of American Civil Liberties Union (1957-1965)
*Gerard Piel – Member of the board of directors of American Civil Liberties Union (1957-c.1965)
*Walter Millis – Member (and later Vice Chairman) of the board of directors of American Civil Liberties Union (1957-1968)
*Patrick Murphy Malin – Executive Director of American Civil Liberties Union (1950-1962)
*Anthony D. Romero – Executive Director of American Civil Liberties Union

(Lt. Col.) John A. Nagl – President of the Center for a New American Security (2009-2011)
Richard H. Fontaine Jr. – President of the Center for a New American Security (2012-present)
Nathaniel C. Fick – CEO of the Center for a New American Security (CNAS) (2009-present)
*Donald B. Straus – Chairman of the board of Planned Parenthood Federation of America (1962-1965)
Rev. Jesse L. Jackson Sr. – Founder and President of Rainbow/PUSH Coalition (1996-present)
Raul Yzaguirre – President and CEO of National Council of La Raza (1974-2004)
*Vilma S. Martinez – President & General Counsel of Mexican-American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF) (1973-1982)
Antonia Hernandez – President & General Counsel of Mexican-American Legal Defense and Educational Fund (MALDEF) (1985-2004)
Bruce Kovner – Chairman of American Enterprise Institute
*Christopher C. DeMuth – President of American Enterprise Institute (1986-present)
*Henry James – Chairman of the board of Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association [TIAA] (1934-1947)
*Francis T.P. Plimpton – President of Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association [TIAA] (1951-1975)
Clifton R. Wharton Jr. – Chairman and CEO of TIAA-CREF (1987-1993)
John H. Biggs – Chairman and CEO of TIAA-CREF (1993-2002)
Thomas W. Jones – former Vice Chairman and President of TIAA-CREF
Anne M. Tatlock – Chairman of Andrew W. Mellon Foundation (2003-present)
Hanna Holborn Gray – former Chairman of Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
John C. Whitehead – former Chairman of Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
*Amos A. Jordan – President of Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) (1983-1988)
Robert B. Zoellick – President of Center for Strategic International Studies (CSIS) (1998-1999)
John J. Hamre – President of Center for Strategic International Studies (CSIS) (2000-present)
Vernon E. Jordan, Jr. – President of the National Urban League (1972-1981)
*Hugh B. Price – President of National Urban League (1994-2003)

Presidents of The American Society of International Law
*Elihu Root (1907-1924)
*Charles Evans Hughes (1924-1929)
*James Brown Scott (1929-1939)
*Frederic René Coudert (1942-1946)
*Charles Cheney Hyde (1946-1949)
*Manley Ottmer Hudson (1949-1952)
*Philip Caryl Jessup (1954-1955)
*Quincy Wright (1955-1956)
*Myres Smith McDougal (1958-1959)
*Arthur Hobson Dean (1961-1962)
*James Nevins Hyde (1963-1964)
*Alfred Brunson MacChesney III (1964-1966)
*John Reese Stevenson (1966-1968)
*Oscar Schachter (1968-1970)
*Harold Dwight Lasswell (1970-1972)
William Dill Rogers (1972-1974)
*Richard Reeve Baxter (1974-1976)
*Walter Sterling Surrey (1976-1978)
*Clarence Clyde Ferguson Jr. (1978-1980)
*Monroe Leigh (1980-1982)
*Covey Thomas Oliver (1982-1984)
*Keith Highet (1986-1988)
*Louis Bruno Sohn (1988-1990)
Peter Dennis Trooboff (1990-1992)
Edith Brown Weiss (1992-1994)
Louis Henkin (1994-1996)
Charles Nelson Brower (1996-1998)
Thomas Martin Franck (1998-2000)
Arthur William Rovine (2000-2002)
Anne-Marie Slaughter (2002-2004)
James Hal Carter (2004-2006)
José E. Alvarez (2006-2008)
Lucy F. Reed (2008-2010)

Presidents of the New York City Bar Association
*Elihu Root (1904-1905)
*George W. Wickersham (1914-1916)
*James Byrne (1921-1923)
*Charles Evans Hughes (1927-1929)
*Charles C. Burlingham (1929-1931)
*John W. Davis (1931-1933)
*Thomas D. Thacher (1933-1935)
*Henry L. Stimson (1937-1939)
*William D. Mitchell (1941-1943)
*Allen Wardwell (1943-1945)
*Robert P. Patterson (1948-1950)
Whitney North Seymour (1950-1952)
*Bethuel M. Webster (1952-1954)
*Allen T. Klots (1954-1956)
*Dudley B. Bonsal (1958-1960)
*Samuel I. Rosenman (1964-1966)
*Francis T.P. Plimpton (1968-1970)
*Orville H. Schell, Jr. (1972-1974)
*Cyrus R. Vance (1974-1976)
*Adrian W. DeWind (1976-1978)
*Oscar M. Ruebhausen (1980-1982)
Conrad K. Harper (1990-1992)
Barbara Paul Robinson (1994-1996)
*Evan A. Davis (2000-2002)

Presidents of Institute of International Education
*Stephen P. Duggan (1919-1946) [Director]
*Laurence Duggan (1946-1948)
*Kenneth Holland (1950-1973)
*Wallace B. Edgerton (1973-1980)
Richard M. Krasno (1981-1998)
Allan E. Goodman (1999-present)
The Chicago Council on Global Affairs
(formerly known as Chicago Council on Foreign Relations)

President:
*Victor Elting (1923-1924)
*William B. Hale (1924-1925)
*Walter Lichtenstein (1933-1935)
*Laird Bell (1937-1939)
*Meyer Kestnbaum (1947-1950)
*Melvin Brorby (1953-1956)
*Richard H. Templeton (1958-1960)
*Edward D. McDougal, Jr. (1962-1964)
*Herbert V. Prochnow (1966-1968)
*John E. Rielly (1974-2001)
Marshall Bouton (2001-present)

Chairman of the board:
*Augustin S. Hart Jr. (1974-1976)
*Edmund A. Stephan (1982-1985)
Cyrus F. Freidheim Jr. (1988-1991)
John W. Madigan (2001-2003)
Philip M. Condit (2003-2004)
Lester Crown (2004-present)

Executive Director:
*Clifton M. Utley (1931-1942)
*Porter McKeever (1952-1953)
*Carter Davison (1953-1960)
*John E. Reilly (1971-1974)

Presidents of the Asia Society
*John D. Rockefeller III (1956-1964)
*Kenneth T. Young Jr. (1964-1969)
Phillips Talbot (1970-1981)
Robert B. Oxnam (1981-1992)
Nicholas Platt (1992-2004)
Vishaka Desai (2004-present)

Presidents of Foreign Policy Association
*Raymond Leslie Buell (1933-1939)
*Brooks Emeny (1947-1953)
*John W. Nason (1953-1962)
*Samuel P. Hayes (1962-1974)
*Carter L. Burgess (1974-1980)
John Temple Swing (1993-1995)
Noel V. Lateef (c.2000-present)

Heads of American Red Cross
*Norman H. Davis (Chairman, 1938-1944)
*E. Roland Harriman (President, 1950-1953)
*E. Roland Harriman (Chairman, 1954-1973)
*Ellsworth Bunker (President, 1954-1956)
*(Gen.) Alfred Gruenther (President, 1957-1964)
*Jerome H. Holland (Chairman, 1979-1985)
Richard F. Schubert (President, 1983-1989)
Norman R. Augustine (Chairman, 1992-2001)
*David T. McLaughlin (Chairman, 2001-2004)

Heads of the English-Speaking Union of the U.S.
*John W. Davis (President, 1930-1938)
*James R. Angell (President, 1939-1946)
*Lewis W. Douglas (President, 1946-1947)
*William V. Griffin (President, 1947-1957)
*Arthur A. Houghton Jr. (President, 1957-1959)
*Charles E. Saltzman (President, 1961-1966)
*Kingman Brewster Jr. (Chairman, 1981-1984)

Presidents of American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
Norman Dorsen (1976-1991)
Nadine Strossen (1991-2008)

Presidents of World Peace Foundation
*William H.P. Faunce (?-1930)
*George H. Blakeslee (1930-1946)
*Harvey H. Bundy (1946-?)
*Max F. Millikan (1956-1969)
Robert I. Rotberg (1993-present)

Present Trustees of World Peace Foundation
Richard H. Ullman 1974-present
Lincoln P. Bloomfield 1977-present
Robert I. Rotberg 1980-present
*James M. Shannon 1985–1987, (second term) 1999-present
Peter D. Bell 1987-present
Kenneth A. Oye 1996-present
Anne-Marie Slaughter 1998-present
J. Brian Atwood 1999-present
John Shattuck 2001-present

North American Chairman of the Trilateral Commission
*Gerard C. Smith (1973-1977)
David Rockefeller (1977-1991)
Paul A. Volcker (1991-2001)
Thomas S. Foley (2001-2008)
Joseph S. Nye Jr. (2008-present)

President of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
Adele S. Simmons (1989-1999)
Jonathan F. Fanton (1999-2009)
Robert L. Gallucci (2009-present)

World Wildlife Fund
Russell E. Train – President of World Wildlife Fund (1978-1985)
William K. Reilly – President of World Wildlife Fund (1985-1989); Chairman of World Wildlife Fund (2000-2006)
*Kathryn S. Fuller – President of World Wildlife Fund (1989-2005)
*S. Dillon Ripley – Chairman of World Wildlife Fund (1975-1980)
Bruce E. Babbitt – Chairman of World Wildlife Fund (2006-Present)

President of The Brookings Institution
*Kermit Gordon (1967-1977)
Bruce K. MacLaury (1977-1995)
Michael H. Armacost (1995-2002)
Strobe Talbott (2002-present)

President of Aspen Institute [of Humanistic Studies]
*Robert O. Anderson (1957-1963)
*William E. Stevenson (1967-1970)
*Joseph E. Slater (1970-1986)
*David T. McLaughlin (1988-1994, 1995-1997)
*S. Frederick Starr (1994)
Walter S. Isaacson (2003-present)

President of RAND Corporation
Henry S. Rowen (1967-1972)
*Donald B. Rice (1972-1989)
James A. Thomson (1989-2011)
Michael D. Rich (2011-present)

Chairman and President of Hudson Institute
*(Col.) Oliver G. Haywood – Chairman of Hudson Institute (1973-1977)
Walter P. Stern – former Chairman of Hudson Institute
*Donald G. Brennan – President of Hudson Institute (1962-1964)
Herbert I. London – President of Hudson Institute (1997-2011)

Chairman of The Brookings Institution
*Morehead Patterson (1959-1962)
*C. Douglas Dillon (1970-1976)
John C. Whitehead (c.1989-1993)
James A. Johnson (1994-2003)
John L. Thornton (2003-present) Past Trustees of World Peace Foundation
*William H. P. Faunce 1910–1930
*A. Lawrence Lowell 1910–1942
*George A. Plimpton 1910–1918 (second term) 1920–1936
*George H. Blakeslee 1914–1954
*Stephen Pierce Duggan 1920–1947
*Manley O. Hudson 1923–1960
*Dwight W. Morrow 1923–1925
*Willis J. Abbot 1927–1934
*Frank Aydelotte 1927–1956
*Jeremiah Smith, Jr. 1927–1931
*Isaiah Bowman 1930–1933
*Roland W. Boyden 1930–1931
*Harry A. Garfield 1930–1942
*Alanson B. Houghton 1930–1932
*Newton D. Baker 1932–1938
*Raymond B. Fosdick 1933–1935
*James G. McDonald 1933–1935
*Harvey H. Bundy 1934–1963
*James Phinney Baxter, 3d 1937–1968
*Christian A. Herter 1937–1966
*Bruce C. Hopper 1937–1969
*James Grafton Rogers 1937–1953
*Charles Seymour 1939–1945
*Henry M. Wriston 1939–1952
*John H. Williams 1940–1942
*Percy W. Bidwell 1942–1963
*John S. Dickey 1942–1952
*William K. Jackson 1942–1947
*Kenneth C. M. Sills 1942–1954
*Payson S. Wild 1942–1950
*Alger Hiss 1948–1950
*Joseph E. Johnson 1949–1981
*Arnold Wolfers 1950–1961
*James Terry Duce 1951–1960
*Tracy S. Voorhees 1953–1960
*Erwin D. Canham 1955–1977
*Jerome Preston 1955–1973
*Lincoln Gordon 1956–1961
*Max F. Millikan 1956–1969
*Leland M. Goodrich 1957–1974
Robert R. Bowie 1958–1977
*Milton Katz 1958–1995
*Jerome B. Wiesner 1960–1967
*Carroll L. Wilson 1960–1982
*Calvin H. Plimpton 1961–1978
*Arthur E. Whittemore 1961–1969
*Kingman Brewster, Jr. 1962–1966
*Edmund A. Gullion 1965–1985
Franklin A. Lindsay 1965–1972
Louis W. Cabot 1969–1971
*Hartford N. Gunn, Jr. 1969–1970
George C. Lodge 1969–1991
Suzanne Berger 1972–1982
Joseph S. Nye, Jr. 1972–1977 (second term) 1981–1987
Stephen Stamas 1972–1982
*Robert A. Charpie 1974–1982
Richard N. Cooper 1974–1977
*John C. Sawhill 1975–1979
*Abram J. Chayes 1977–2000
*T. Jefferson Coolidge, Jr. 1977–1985
*Raymond Vernon 1977–1994
*Theodore L. Eliot, Jr. 1979–1985
Adele S. Simmons 1980–1986
Richard A. Wiley 1982–1994
Donald F. McHenry 1987–1994
Stephanie Bell-Rose 1996–2001

Churches and Synagogues
*(Rabbi) Julius Mark – Senior Rabbi of Congregation Emanu-El [in New York City] (1948-1968)
*Joseph Cardinal Bernardin – Roman Catholic Archbishop of Archdiocese of Chicago (1982-1996)
*Charles L. Slattery – Protestant Episcopal Bishop for the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts (1927-1930)
*Paul Moore, Jr. – Protestant Episcopal Bishop for the Episcopal Diocese of New York (1972-1989)
Rick Warren – Senior Pastor of Saddleback Church in Lake Forest, California (1980-present)
*Charles S. Macfarland – General Secretary of Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America (1912-1931)
*J. Irwin Miller – President of the National Council of Churches USA (1960-1963)
Leonid Kishkovsky – President of National Council of Churches USA (1990-1991)
Craig B. Anderson – President of National Council of Churches USA (1998-1999)
Andrew J. Young – President of National Council of Churches USA (2000-2001)

Labor Unions
John J. Sweeney – President of AFL-CIO (1995-2009)
Thomas R. Donahue – President of AFL-CIO (1995); Secretary-Treasurer of AFL-CIO (1979-1995)
*Lane Kirkland – President of AFL-CIO (1979-1995)
*Walter P. Reuther – President of United Automobile Workers [UAW] (1946-1970)
*Leonard Woodcock – President of United Automobile Workers [UAW] (1970-1977)
*David Dubinsky – President, International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (1932-1966)
*Sol C. Chaikin – President, International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (1975-1986)
*John T. Joyce – President, International Union of Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers (1979-1999)
*Murray Finley – President, Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union (1976-1987)
*Jack Sheinkman – President, Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union (1987-1995)
Jay Mazur – President, Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees (UNITE) (1986-2001); President, International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (1986-1995)
*Jerry Wurf – former President, American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME, AFL-CIO)
*Glenn E. Watts – President, Communications Workers of America (1974-1985)
*Sandra Feldman – President of American Federation of Teachers (1997-2004); President of United Federation of Teachers (1986-1997)

Other Organizations
William M. Abrams – Executive Director of Trickle Up Program (2005-present)
David Abshire – President of Center for the Study of the Presidency
Peter Ackerman – Chairman of Freedom House
Nancy Aossey – President and CEO of International Medical Corps
Carole Artigiani – Executive Director of Global Kids, Inc.
*Kenneth H. Bacon – President and CEO of Refugees International
Zoe Baird – President of The Markle Foundation
Pauline H. Baker – President of The Fund for Peace
Carol Bellamy – President and CEO of World Learning
Nancy Berry – President of Women’s World Banking
Nancy M. Birdsall – President, Center for Global Development
Barry M. Blechman – co-founder and Chairman, Henry L. Stimson Center
*Salih Booker – Executive Director of Global Rights
Lester R. Brown – President, Earth Policy Institute
Colin G. Campbell – Chairman and President of The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation (2000-present)
Jimmy Carter – Founder of the Carter Center
Richard E. Cavanagh – President and CEO of The Conference Board (1996-2008)
Buntzie E. Churchill – President of World Affairs Council of Philadelphia
Eileen Claussen – President, Pew Center on Global Climate Change and Strategies for the Global Environment
William R. Cotter – President of Oaks Foundation
Lorne W. Craner – President of International Republican Institute (1995-2001, 2005-present)
Donald Cuneo – President of International House of New York
Florence A. Davis – President of The Starr Foundation
Richard A. Debs – Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Bretton Woods Committee
Ralston H. Deffenbaugh Jr. – President of Lutheran Immigration and Refugee Service
William Drayton – President and CEO of Ashoka
William Drozdiak – President of American Council on Germany
Peggy Rockefeller Dulany – Founder and Chairman of The Synergos Institute
Marian Wright Edelman – Founder and CEO (and former president) of Children’s Defense Fund
Amitai Etzioni – Founder and Director of The Communitarian Network
Michelle M. Foss – Director of Center for Energy Economics
Ellen V. Futter – President, American Museum of Natural History
Helene D. Gayle – President and CEO of CARE USA (2006-present)
Adrienne Germain – President of International Women’s Health Coalition
Carl Gershman – President of National Endowment for Democracy
Roy M. Goodman – President and CEO of United Nations Development Corporation
Jessie C. Gruman – President, Center for Advancing Health
Peter Hakim – President, Inter-American Dialogue
Lee H. Hamilton – Director, Woodrow Wilson Center
John L. Holden – President, National Committee on United States-China Relations
Robert E. Hunter – Chairman, Council for a Community of Democracies
Alberto Ibarguen – President of John S. and James L. Knight Foundation (2005-present)
James R. Jones – Chairman of World Affairs Council of America
John T. Joyce – President of the International Construction Institute (a foreign NGO)
Eugenia Kemble – Executive Director of Albert Shanker Institute
Craig Kennedy – President of German Marshall Fund of the U.S.
Teresa Heinz Kerry – Chairman of Heinz Family Philanthropies
Jessie J. Knight Jr. – President of San Diego Regional Chamber of Commerce
Charles E. M. Kolb – President of Committee for Economic Development
Geraldine S. Kunstadter – Chairman of the board, Institute of World Affairs
Stewart Kwoh – President of Asian Pacific American Legal Center of Southern California
Ellen Laipson – President and CEO of Henry L. Stimson Center
Nicholas P. Lapham – President of the African Parks Foundation of America
Jonathan Lash – President of World Resources Institute
Mildred Robbins Leet – Chair and Co-Founder of Trickle Up Program
John H. Lichtblau – Chairman of Petroleum Industry Research Foundation, Inc.
Elizabeth Littlefield – CEO, Consultative Group to Assist the Poor
Charles MacCormack – President and CEO of Save the Children Federation, Inc.
J. Curtis Mack II – President of Los Angeles World Affairs Council (1988-present)
Darius Mans – President of Africare (2010-present)
Steve Mariotti – Founder and President of National Foundation for Teaching Entrepreneurship
Alice Tepper Marlin – President and CEO of Social Accountability International
Sylvia M. Mathews – President of Global Development Program at Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Mora L. McLean – President and CEO of Africa-America Institute
Thomas J. Miller – President and CEO of the United Nations Association of the United States of America (2009-present)
John Edwin Mroz – President and CEO of East-West Institute
Zygmunt Nagorski – President of Center for International Leadership
Grover G. Norquist – President of Americans for Tax Reform (1985-present)
Jane T. Olson – Chairman of Human Rights Watch
Roswell B. Perkins – Chairman of American Law Insitute
Peter G. Peterson – Chairman of the board, Institute for International Economics
Livia B. Plaks – President, Project on Ethnic Relations
Alexander H. Platt – Chairman of Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs
Glenn T. Prickett – Executive Director of the Center for Environmental Leadership in Business
R. Sean Randolph – President of Bay Area Economic Forum
Jonathan T.M. Reckford – CEO of Habitat for Humanity (2005-present)
William S. Reese – President and CEO of International Youth Foundation
Renate Rennie – President of Tinker Foundation
William R. Rhodes – Chairman of Americas Society; Chairman of Council of the Americas
Joan Rohlfing – President and Chief Operating Officer of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (2010-present)
Kenneth Roth – Executive Director of Human Rights Watch
George E. Rupp – President and CEO of International Rescue Committee
Jeffrey D. Sachs – Director of The Earth Institute at Columbia University
Steven E. Sanderson – President and CEO of Wildlife Conservation Society
Carl J. Schramm – President and CEO of Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation (2002-present)
*Patricia S. Schroeder – President and CEO of Association of American Publishers, Inc.
William F. Schulz – Executive Director of Amnesty International USA
Chris Seiple – President of Institute for Global Engagement
Jill W. Sheffield – President of Family Care International
Dimitri K. Simes – President of The Nixon Center
Adele S. Simmons – President of the Global Philanthropy Partnership
*Steven Sinding – Director-General of International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF)
George Soros – Chairman of Open Society Institute
Richard W. Soudriette – President of The International Foundation for Election Systems (IFES)
Joan E. Spero – President of Doris Duke Charitable Foundation
Stephen Stamas – Chairman of The American Assembly
Ann M. Starrs – President of Family Care International (2008-present)
Donald M. Stewart – former President and CEO of The College Board
Patricia Q. Stonesifer – CEO of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Jeffrey L. Sturchio – President and CEO of Global Health Council (2009-present)
William H. Timbers – President and CEO, USEC Inc.
Paul A. Volcker – Chairman of the Board of Trustees, Group of Thirty (G-30)
George Vradenburg III – President of the Vradenburg Foundation
Jane Wales – President and CEO of World Affairs Council of Northern California
(Rep.) Vin Weber – Chairman of National Endowment for Democracy
*Eddie N. Williams – President of Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies
(Amb.) Andrew Young – Chairman of Leon H. Sullivan Foundation
William D. Zabel – Chairman of Human Rights First
James J. Zogby – Founder and President of Arab-American Institute
Thomas J. Donohue – President of U.S. Chamber of Commerce

Former heads of major organizations
*Hamilton Fish Armstrong – President of Woodrow Wilson Foundation (1935-1937)
*John S. Badeau – President of Near East Foundation (1953-1961)
Grace Barry – President of The Economic Club of Chicago (1986-2011)
Peter D. Bell – President and CEO of CARE USA (1995-2006)
Cathleen P. Black – President and CEO of Newspaper Association of America (1991-1996)
*Robert S. Brookings – founder of The Brookings Institution
*Arthur F. Burns – President of National Bureau of Economic Research [New York City] (1957-1967)
*Cass Canfield – Chairman of the executive committee of Planned Parenthood Federation of America-World Population Emergency Campaign (1962-1967); Chairman of the governing body of International Planned Parenthood Federation (1963-1969); Honorary Chairman of International Planned Parenthood Federation (1969-1986)
*Edward C. Carter – Secretary General of the Institute of Pacific Relations (1933-1946); President of the Russian Relief (1941-1950); Secretary of the American Institute of Pacific Relations (1926-1933); Secretary (1922-1930) and Chairman (1930-1933) of The Inquiry [in New York City] (1922-1930)
*John M. Cates Jr. – President of Center for Inter-American Relations [renamed Americas Society] (1971-1975)
Julius E. Coles – President of Africare (2002-2010)
Barbara Knowles Debs – former President of The New York Historical Society
*Robert W. de Forest – President of Russell Sage Foundation (1918-1931)
*J. Richardson Dilworth – former President of Rockefeller Brothers, Inc.
Rita DiMartino – former director of the National Council of La Raza
Paula DiPerna – former President of Joyce Foundation
Joan B. Dunlop – former President of the International Women’s Health Coalition
*Brooks Emeny – President of Council on World Affairs (1943-1947)
Amitai Etzioni – President of American Sociological Association (1995)
Martin S. Feldstein – President and CEO of National Bureau of Economic Research (1977-1982, 1984-2008)
William P. Fuller – former President of The Asia Foundation
*James M. Hester – former President of Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation
*Sonja Hillgren – former President of the National Press Club
Ruth Hinerfeld – former President of the League of Women Voters of the United States
Lee W. Huebner – former President of Ripon Society
Jackson Janes – former Executive Director of the American Institute for Contemporary German Studies
*Herman Kahn – founder of Hudson Institute
Allen H. Kassof – President of Project on Ethnic Relations [in Eastern Europe] (1991-2005)
Craig Kennedy – President of Joyce Foundation (1986-1992)
Henry L. King – former President of New York State Bar Association
Antonio Kireopoulos – former Executive Director of the U.S. Conference of Religions for Peace
Michael Krepon – former President of Henry L. Stimson Center
Eugene K. Lawson – President of U.S.-Russia Business Council (1993-2008)
*Samuel W. Lewis – President of U.S. Institute of Peace (1987-1993)
Seymour M. Lipset – President of American Sociological Association (1993)
Robert Gerald Livingston – President of the German Marshall Fund of the U.S. (1977-1981)
C. Payne Lucas – former President of Africare (1971-2002)
Eileen R. Mackevich – former President of Chicago Humanties Festival
*Severo Mallet-Prevost – President of Pan-American Society (1921-1927)
Alice Tepper Marlin – former President and CEO of Council on Economic Priorities
Gay J. McDougall – former Executive Director of Global Rights
*Lloyd N. Morrisett – former President of The Markle Foundation
*Philip C. Nash – Executive Director of League of Nations Association (1929-1933)
*J. Quigg Newton Jr. – President of The Commonwealth Fund (1963-1975)
Rodney W. Nichols – President and CEO of New York Academy of Sciences (1992-2001)
*Richard H. Nolte – President of Near East Foundation (1984-1987)
*Charles Reinold Noyes – President (1946-1948) and Chairman (1948-1950) of National Bureau of Economic Research [New York City]
*Michel Oksenberg – former President of East-West Center
Herbert Pardes – President of American Psychiatric Association (1989-1990)
Kenneth Prewitt – President of Social Science Research Council (1979-1985)
*Benjamin H. Read – President of German Marshall Fund of the U.S. (1973-1977)
*S. Dillon Ripley, II – Secretary of Smithsonian Institution (1964-1984); President of International Council of Bird Preservation (1958-1982)
*Marshall A. Robinson – President of Russell Sage Foundation (1979-1986)
*David E. Rogers – President of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (1972-1986)
Lionel A. Rosenblatt – former President of Refugees International
*Oscar M. Ruebhausen – Chairman of Russell Sage Foundation (1965-1980); Trustee of Hudson Institute (1961-1971)
S. Bruce Schearer – former President of The Synergos Institute
Richard F. Schubert – former President and CEO of The Points of Light Foundation
Eleanor B. Sheldon – President of Social Science Research Council (1972-1979)
*Jeremy J. Stone – President and CEO of Federation of American Scientists (1970-2000)
*Roger D. Stone – President of Center for Inter-American Relations [renamed Americas Society] (1975-1982)
*Silas H. Strawn – President of U.S. Chamber of Commerce (1931-1932)
Martha R. Wallace – former Executive Director of The Henry Luce Foundation, Inc.
Michaela Walsh – founding President of Women’s World Banking
*Haydn Williams – former President of The Asia Foundation
*Henry M. Wriston – President (1958-1962) and Chairman (1962-1965) of the American Assembly
*George Zeidenstein – President of Population Council (1976-1993)

The Group of Thirty (G-30)
Paul A. Volcker, Chairman of the Board of Trustees
*E. Gerald Corrigan
Martin S. Feldstein
Roger W. Ferguson
Stanley Fischer
Arminio Fraga Neto
Timothy F. Geithner
Peter B. Kenen
William R. Rhodes
Lawrence H. Summers
Marina v.N. Whitman
Richard A. Debs (Emeritus)
John G. Heimann (Emeritus)
William J. McDonough (Emeritus)

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

Carnegie Endowment Experts (2006)
David Bosco
Thomas Carothers
Joseph Cirincione
Karen DeYoung
Rose Gottemoeller
Robert Kagan
Jessica Tuchman Mathews
George Perkovich
Ashley J. Tellis

Carnegie Endowment Staff (2006)
Paul Balaran
David Bosco
Thomas Carothers
Joseph Cirincione
Karen DeYoung
Rose Gottemoeller
Robert Kagan
Jessica Tuchman Mathews
David Rothkopf
Jon Wolfsthal Directors of the Institute for International Economics
Peter G. Peterson, Chairman of the Board
*Anthony M. Solomon, Honorary Chairman of the Executive Committee
Bill Bradley
Jessica P. Einhorn
Stanley Fischer
Maurice R. Greenberg
Carla A. Hills
Donald F. McHenry
James W. Owens
Frank H. Pearl
Joseph E. Robert Jr.
David Rockefeller
David M. Rubenstein
Richard E. Salomon
Lawrence H. Summers
Laura D’Andrea Tyson
Paul A. Volcker
*Dennis Weatherstone
Marina v.N. Whitman

Presidents of American Bar Association
*Frank B. Kellogg (1912)
*Elihu Root (1915)
*Cordenio A. Severance (1921)
*John W. Davis (1922)
*Charles Evans Hughes (1924)
*Silas H. Strawn (1927)
*William L. Ransom (1935)
*Whitney North Seymour (1960)
*Leon Jaworski (1971)

President of Boy Scouts of America
*Mortimer L. Schiff (1931)
*Amory Houghton (1946-1951)
*John M. Schiff (1951-1956)
*Tomas J. Watson Jr. (1964-1968)

Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) Experts (2007)
CSIS Experts
David Abshire, Vice Chairman
Jon B. Alterman
(Amb.) Anne Armstrong
David D. Aufhauser
Joel D. Barkan
*William E. Brock III
Harold Brown
Zbigniew Brzezinski
Richard Burt
Roderic Ai Camp
Kurt Campbell
Frank Carlucci
Derek Chollet
William S. Cohen
*Anthony H. Cordesman
Bathsheba N. Crocker
Arnaud de Borchgrave
Charles F. Doran
Diana Lady Dougan
Robert J. Einhorn
Richard Fairbanks
Eric P. Farnsworth
Michele Flournoy
Bates Gill Bonnie S. Glaser
David L. Goldwyn
*Gerrit W. Gong
John J. Hamre, President and CEO
Benjamin W. Heineman Jr.
Charles M. Herzfeld
Kathleen Hicks
Carla A. Hills
Shireen Hunter
Fred C. Ikle
*(Brig. Gen.) Amos A. Jordan
*Henry A. Kissinger
Vinca LaFleur
*Walter Laqueur
Alexander T.J. Lennon
Edward N. Luttwak
Donald B. Marron
Carola McGiffert
Sarah E. Mendelson
Johanna Mendelson-Forman
J. Stephen Morrison
(Amb.) Richard W. Murphy
(Sen.) Sam Nunn, Chairman
Joseph S. Nye Jr.
E. Stanley O’Neal William J. Perry
*Erik R. Peterson
(Amb.) Steven Pifer
Arturo C. Porzecanski
*(Gen.) Joseph W. Ralston
Mitchell B. Reiss
(Amb.) Felix G. Rohatyn
David M. Rubenstein
Dakota Rudesill
(Amb.) Teresita C. Schaffer
James R. Schlesinger
Brent Scowcroft
*Simon Serfaty
*William J. Taylor Jr.
Celeste A. Wallander
Murray Weidenbaum
Sidney Weintraub
Frederick B. Whittemore
Howard J. Wiarda
Anne A. Witkowsky
*Christine E. Wormuth
*(Gen.) Anthony Zinni Board of Advisors of The Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) (as of 2009)
J. Kenneth Blackwell
John R. Bolton
(Lt. Gen.) Paul Cerjan, USA
(Lt. Gen.) Earl B. Hailston, USMC
(Adm.) Jerome Johnson, USN
Max M. Kampelman
Dave K. McCurdy
Joshua Muravchik
*Richard Perle
Peter R. Rosenblatt
Stephen Solarz
*(Adm.) Carlisle Trost, USN
R. James Woolsey

Board of Trustees of major organizations (2006)
Brookings Institution
Robert J. Abernethy
Zoe Baird
Alan R. Batkin
Richard C. Blum
Kenneth W. Dam
Vishakha N. Desai
Thomas E. Donilon
Kenneth M. Duberstein
Cyrus F. Freidheim Jr.
Ann M. Fudge
Jeffrey W. Greenberg
Teresa Heinz-Kerry
Glenn H. Hutchins
Joel Z. Hyatt
Shirley Ann Jackson
William A. Owens
*Frank H. Pearl
John Edward Porter
Steven Rattner
Lawrence H. Summers
Strobe Talbott, President
John L. Thornton, Chairman
Andrew H. Tisch
Laura D’Andrea Tyson
David Yergin

Honorary Trustees of Brookings Institution
Louis W. Cabot
William T. Coleman Jr.
Charles W. Duncan Jr.
*Robert F. Erburu
Bart Friedman
Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Robert D. Haas
Lee H. Hamilton
William A. Haseltine
F. Warren Hellman
Robert A. Helman
Roy M. Huffington
James A. Johnson
Vernon E. Jordan Jr.
James T. Lynn
Jessica T. Mathews
Donald F. McHenry
*Robert S. McNamara
Charles W. Robinson
James D. Robinson III
Judith Rodin
Warren B. Rudman
Ralph S. Saul
Henry B. Schacht
Joa E. Spero
John C. Whitehead
James D. Wolfensohn
Ezra K. Zilkha
CSIS
Sam Nunn, Chairman
David M. Abshire, Vice Chairman
*William A. Schreyer
Anne Armstrong
*William E. Brock
Harold Brown, Counselor
Zbigniew Brzezinski, Counselor
William S. Cohen
Richard Fairbanks, Counselor
John J. Hamre, President and CEO
Benjamin W. Heineman Jr.
Carla A. Hills
*Henry A. Kissinger
Donald B. Marron
Joseph S. Nye Jr.
E. Stanley O’Neal
Felix G. Rohatyn
David Rubenstein
James R. Schlesinger
Brent Scowcroft
Murray Weidenbaum
Frederick B. Whittemore

Aspen Institute (as of 2011)
Madeleine K. Albright
Paul F. Anderson
Henry E. Catto Jr.
Lester Crown
*Michael D. Eisner
Henrietta H. Fore
Stephen Friedman (as of 2011)
Henry Louis Gates Jr.
David Gergen
Patrick W. Gross
Sidney Harman
Walter Isaacson, President
Leonard A. Lauder
*Gerald M. Levin
Frederick V. Malek
*Philip Merrill
William A. Nitze
Thomas R. Pickering
Peter Reiling
Condoleezza Rice (as of 2011)
Ann W. Richards
Jack Valenti
Roderick von Lipsey
Vin Weber
Frederick B. Whittemore
Alice Young
Mortimer B. Zuckerman (resigned)

Rockefeller Brothers Fund
Stephen B. Heintz, President
Jessica P. Einhorn, Trustee
Robert B. Oxnam, Trustee
David Rockefeller Jr., Trustee
Frank Wisner, Trustee
David Rockefeller (Sr.), Advisory Trustee
Jonathan F. Fanton, Advisory Trustee
William H. Luers, Advisory Trustee
Richard D. Parsons, Advisory Trustee

Freedom House
Peter Ackerman, Chairman
Stuart E. Eizenstat, Vice-Chairman
Mark Palmer, Vice-Chairman
Max M. Kampelman, Chairman Emeritus
Bette Bao Lord, Chairman Emeritus
*Kenneth L. Adelman
Thomas S. Foley
Theodore Forstmann
Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Sidney Harman
Samuel P. Huntington
John T. Joyce
Farooq Kathwari
*Jeane J. Kirkpatrick
*W. Anthony Lake
Jay Mazur
John Norton Moore
Andrew Nathan
Diana Villiers Negroponte
Patrick J. O’Rourke
Nina Rosenwald
David M. Rubenstein
Arthur Waldron
Ruth Wedgwood

RAND Corporation
Bruce Karatz
Harold Brown
Frank C. Carlucci
Timothy F. Geithner
Rita Hauser
Karen Elliott House
Philip Lader
Arthur Levitt
*Lloyd N. Morrisett
Ronald L. Olson
*Michael K. Powell
*Donald B. Rice
Jerry I. Speyer, Vice Chairman
James A. Thomson
Marta Tienda

Hudson Institute
Walter P. Stern, Chairman of the board
(Sen.) Rudy Boschwitz
Marie-Josee Kravis
Herbert I. London
*Richard Perle
Jack Rosen
Nina Rosenwald
Thomas J. Donohue, Trustee Emeriti
Kenneth Duberstein, Trustee Emeriti
Roger D. Fisher, Trustee Emeriti
*(Gen.) Alexander M. Haig Jr., Trustee Emeriti
Paul G. Stern, Trustee Emeriti

American Enterprise Institute (AEI)
Bruce Kovner, Chairman
Lee Raymond, Vice-Chairman
Roger Hertog
John A. Luke Jr.
Paul W. McCracken, Trustee Emeritus

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (as of 2007)
(Sen.) Bill Bradley
Robert Carswell
Jerome A. Cohen
Richard A. Debs
William H. Donaldson
Roger W. Ferguson Jr.
Jamie Gorelick
(Rep.) Jim Leach
Robert Legvold
Stephen R. Lewis Jr.
Jessica T. Mathews, President
J. Stapleton Roy
Ford Foundation
*Kathryn S. Fuller
Kofi Appenteng

Carnegie Corporation of New York
Vartan Gregorian
Helene Kaplan
Thomas H. Kean
(Adm.) William A. Owens
Thomas R. Pickering
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
Anne M. Tatlock, Chairman
Paul LeClerc
Walter E. Massey
Hannah H. Gray, Chairman Emeriti
John C. Whitehead, Chairman Emeriti

Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
*Harold T. Shapiro, Chairman
Richard E. Salomon
Marta Tienda
*Dennis Weatherstone

German Marshall Fund of the U.S.
Guido Goldman, Co-Chairman
Marc Leland, Co-Chairman
David Ignatius
Craig Kennedy, President
Roman Martinez IV
Barbara Shailor
Amity Shlaes
(Amb.) Jenonne Walker
Leah Zell Wanger
J. Robinson West
Suzanne H. Woolsey

Board members of National Endowment for Democracy
(Rep.) Vin Weber, Chairman
(Rep.) Dick Gephardt, Vice-Chairman
Carl Gershman, President
(Amb.) Morton Abramowitz, Director
Sen. Evan Bayh, Director
John A. Bohn, Director
Rita DiMartino, Director
Kenneth M. Duberstein, Director
Esther Dyson, Director
(Sen.) Bill Frist, Director
Francis Fukuyama, Director
Suzanne Garment, Director
(Rep.) Lee Hamilton, Director
*(Amb.) Richard C. Holbrooke, Director
*(Sen.) Paul Sarbanes, Director
(Amb.) Terence A. Todman, Director
(Rep.) Howard Wolpe, Director

American Security Project
(Board of Directors as of 2008)
Gary Hart, Chairman
Richard L. Armitage (TC, not CFR)
Lael Brainard
(Brig. Gen.) Stephen A. Cheney
(Lt. Gen.) Daniel Christman
Nelson W. Cunningham
Kenneth M. Duberstein
(Sen.) Chuck Hagel
Sen. John Forbes Kerry
(Sen.) George Mitchell
Susan E. Rice
(Sen.) Warren B. Rudman
*(Gen.) Anthony Zinni
Asia Society
Vishakha N. Desai, President
Jamie Metzl, Executive Vice President
Leon D. Black
Ronnie C. Chan
Purnendu Chatterjee
Henry Cornell
Rohit M. Desai
Charles C. Foster
Carol Gluck
John H. J. Guth
*Richard C. Holbrooke
Charles R. Kaye
Chong-Moon Lee
Hassan Nemazee
John D. Rockefeller IV
Carl Spielvogel
John L. Thornton
Pote Videt

United States Institute of Peace (2006)
J. Robinson West, Chair
Maria Otero, Vice-Chair
*Holly J. Burkhalter
Chester A. Crocker
Seymour Martin Lipset
Mora L. McLean
Barry Lowenkron (ex officio)
Peter W. Rodman (ex officio)
Richard H. Solomon, President (ex officio)

Federation of American Scientists
(Board of Sponsors)
Ann Druyan
Marvin L. Goldberger
John P. Holdren
Carl Kaysen
Jessica Tuchman Mathews
Matthew S. Meselson
Stephen S. Morse
*George W. Rathjens
Vernon Ruttan
Jeffrey Sachs
Stanley K. Sheinbaum
Joseph E. Stiglitz
Harold E. Varmus
*Torsten N. Wiesel World Affairs Council of America
(Amb.) James R. Jones, Chairman
Marshall Bouton
Joseph Ha
Noel V. Lateef
Jane Wales
Peter White
Dov Zakheim

Henry Luce Foundation
Claire L. Gaudiani
James T. Laney
Thomas L. Pulling

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Thomas H. Kean, Chairman
*Nancy Ann [Min] DeParle
Linda Griego
Robert W. Johnson IV
James E. Burke (emeriti)

Foreign Policy Association
(Board of Diectors) – 2005
John H. Biggs
Terrence J. Checki
David Denoon
James P. Dougherty
Maurice R. Greenberg
Patrick W. Gross
Michael W. Hodin
Noel V. Lateef, President
Ponchitta Pierce
W. Michael Reisman
William R. Rhodes
Theodore Roosevelt IV
Anne-Marie Slaughter
John Temple Swing, former President
Enzo Viscusi

Inter-American Foundation (2005)
Roger W. Wallace
James R. Jones
Rita DiMartino
John C. Duncan
Susan Kaufman Purcell

Council on Foreign Relations Members in the Atlantic Council of the United States (2007)
(Gen.) James L. Jones Jr. – Chairman
Frederick S. Kempe – President
Jan. M. Lodal – Treasurer
Walter B. Slocombe – Secretary

Vice Chairs
Carol Adelman
Geraldine S. Kunstadter
John D. Macomber
Virginia A. Mulberger
Paula Stern

Directors
David L. Aaron
Robert J. Abernethy
David D. Aufhauser
Nancy Kassebaum Baker
Donald K. Bandler
Lucy Wilson Benson
Julia Chang Bloch
Avis T. Bohlen
Harold Brown
Richard R. Burt
Sarah C. Carey
(Lt. Gen.) Daniel W. Christman
(Gen.) Wesley K. Clark
W. Bowman Cutter
Brian D. Dailey
Kenneth W. Dam
William H. Draper III
Stuart E. Eizenstat
*Robert F. Ellsworth
Barbara H. Franklin
Sherri W. Goodman
John A. Gordon
Janet Mullins Grissom
Marc Grossman
Harry Harding
Rita E. Hauser
Benjamin Huberman
Robert E. Hunter
Robert L. Hutchings
Arnold Kanter
Francis J. Kelly
James V. Kimsey
*Henry A. Kissinger
(Adm.) Charles R. Larson
Roderick K. von Lipsey
Barry R. McCaffrey Directors (continued)
James P. McCarthy
*Philip Merrill
Jack N. Merritt
*Judith A. Miller
George E. Moose
Steven Muller
William A. Nitze
Philip A. Odeen
William J. Perry
Thomas R. Pickering
Joseph W. Prueher
Stanley R. Resor
Susan E. Rice
Joseph E. Robert Jr.
Charles O. Rossotti
James R. Schlesinger
Jill A. Schuker
Brent Scowcroft
Eric K. Shinseki
Matthew R. Simmons
Kiron K. Skinner
Anne-Marie Slaughter
William Y. Smith
Helmut Sonnenfeldt
William H. Taft IV
Carl E. Vuono
Roger W. Wallace
J. Robinson West
Togo D. West Jr.
R. James Woolsey
Dov S. Zakheim

Honorary Directors
James A. Baker III
Frank C. Carlucci
Warren M. Christopher
*Harlan B. Cleveland
Gerald R. Ford
*(Gen.) Alexander M. Haig Jr.
Christian A. Herter Jr.
*Robert S. McNamara
*Bernard W. Rogers
Edward L. Rowny
*Raymond P. Shafer
George P. Shultz
William H. Webster
John C. Whitehead Patron Councillors
Sidney Harman
John E. Osborn

Senior Councillors
Barbara Barrett
Patrick W. Gross
Franklin Lindsay
Daniel N. Nelson
C.J. Silas
Jed Snyder

Councillors
Steve Charnovitz
Charles B. Heck
Bobby R. Inman
Ronald F. Lehman
Ian O. Lesser
James G. Lowenstein
Z. Blake Marshall
Michael Pillsbury
Peter W. Rodman
Hugh V. Simon
Carl A. Swanson
Russell E. Train
Jenonne Walker
Larry D. Welch
Allan Wendt
*Milton A. Wolf

Associate Councillors
*Robert R. Bowie
Mark Brzezinski
David Ginsburg
Brandon Grove
Ulric Haynes Jr.
Max M. Kampelman
William B. Matteson
Andrew J. Pierre
Davis R. Robinson
Miriam Sapiro
Mary E. Sarotte
Jeremy J. Stone
Alexander C. Tomlinson
Stephen D. Wesbrook

CFR Members on The Advisory Board of America Abroad Media (2005)
Michael H. Armacost
Francis Bator
Samuel “Sandy” Berger
Zbigniew Brzezinski
William H. Draper, III
Robert M. Gates
David Gergen
Richard Haass
Chuck Hagel Lee Hamilton
Carla A. Hills
Stanley Hoffmann
Samuel Huntington
Sen. John Forbes Kerry
*Jeane Kirkpatrick
*W. Anthony Lake
Ernest May
Robert S. McNamara Thomas R. Pickering
Susan E. Rice
Felix G. Rohatyn
Stephen Rosen
Dennis Ross
Brent Scrowcroft
James B. Steinberg
Strobe Talbott
R. James Woolsey

CFR Members in the Human Rights Watch (as of April 2005)
Board of Directors
Jane Olson, Chair
James F. Hoge Jr., Vice-Chair
Omar Amanat
Jonathan Fanton, Chair (1998-2003)
Michael Gellert
Vartan Gregorian
Kati Marton
Joel Motley
Catherine Powell
Shibley Telhami

Emeritus Board
Lisa Anderson
Robert L. Bernstein, Founding Chair, (1979-1997)
William D. Carmichael
Alice H. Henkin
Stephen Kass
Peter Osnos
Bruce Rabb, Secretary
Orville Schell
Gary Sick
Malcolm B. Smith

Human Rights Watch LGBT Advisory Committee
Thom Lynch
Bruce Rabb

Human Rights Watch Arms Advisory Committee
*David Brown, Co-Chair
*Steve Fetter
Patricia Irvin
Janne E. Nolan
Andrew J. Pierre
David Rieff
*Torsten N. Wiesel

Human Rights Watch Children’s Rights Advisory Committee
Alice Henkin Human Rights Watch Africa Advisory Committee
Vincent A. Mai, Chair
Carole Artigiani
Robert L. Bernstein
William Carmichael
Roberta Cohen
Jonathan Fanton
Gail M. Gerhart
Alice H. Henkin
Robert D. Joffe
Thomas Karis
Aristide R. Zolberg

Human Rights Watch Americas Advisory Committee
Peter D. Bell
Tom J. Farer
Peter Hakim
Mark Kaplan
Stephen L. Kass
Kenneth Maxwell
Robert Pastor
Bruce Rabb
Michael Shifter
George Soros
Rose Styron
Arturo Valenzuela

Human Rights Watch Asia Advisory Committee
Harry Barnes
Robert L. Bernstein
Jerome Cohen
Merle Goldman
Andrew J. Nathan
Bruce Rabb
Barnett Rubin
Frances Seymour
Barbara Shailor
Ko-Yung Tung

Human Rights Watch Women’s Rights Advisory Committee
Joan Dunlop
Adrienne Germain
Susan Osnos
Catherine Powell Human Rights Watch Europe and Central Asia Advisory Committee
Alice H. Henkin, Vice-Chair
Henri Barkey
Stephen Del Rosso
Felice Gaer
Michael Gellert
Jeri Laber
Michael McFaul
Sarah E. Mendelson
Karl Meyer
Joel Motley
*Herbert Okun
Jane Olson
Peter Osnos
Hannah Pakula
Colette Shulman
Leon Sigal
Malcolm Smith
Ruti Teitel
Mark von Hagen

Human Rights Watch Middle East Advisory Committee
Gary G. Sick, Chair
Shibley Telhami, Vice-Chair
Bruce Rabb, Vice-Chair
Khaled Abou El Fadl
Lisa Anderson
Shaul Bakhash
*Richard Bartlett
Warren Bass
Rita E. Hauser
Rev. J. Bryan Hehir
Judith Kipper
Ann M. Lesch
*Robert Malley
James J. Zogby

Human Rights Watch U.S. Advisory Committee
Catherine Powell, Chair
Bruce Rabb
Lynne Walker-Huntley

Think Tanks (2006)
Brookings Institution – Scholars (2006)
Shaul Bakhash
Michael S. Barr
Lael Brainard
Ralph C. Bryant
Daniel L. Byman
Ivo H. Daalder
Kenneth W. Dam
Francis M. Deng
Joshua M. Epstein
Richard A. Falkenrath
*(Amb.) Raymond L. Garthoff
*(Amb.) James E. Goodby
*(Amb.) Lincoln Gordon
Philip H. Gordon
Carol Graham
Fiona Hill
(Amb.) Martin S. Indyk
Flynt L. Leverett
Robert E. Litan
Thomas E. Mann
Andrew Moravcsik
Michael O’Hanlon
Kongdan Oh
Peter R. Orszag
Kenneth M. Pollack
*Nigel Purvis
William B. Quandt
Susan E. Rice
Alice M. Rivlin
David Sandalow
*Charles L. Schultze
David Shambaugh
Peter W. Singer
Robert Solomon
Helmut Sonnenfeldt
James B. Steinberg
Strobe Talbott
Shibley Telhami
Peter S. Watson
Tamara Cofman Wittes CFR Hoover Institution Fellows
Richard V. Allen
Michael H. Armacost
Bruce D. Berkowitz
John A. Bohn
Bruce Bueno de Mesquita
Lawrence Chickering
Sidney D. Drell
Mary Eberstadt
Newt Gingrich
Gidon Gottlieb
(Adm.) Bobby R. Inman
Stephen D. Krasner (on leave)
Tod Lindberg
Seymour Martin Lipset
Michael A. McFaul
Brig. Gen. Herbert Raymond McMaster
William J. Perry
John Raisian
Condoleezza Rice (on leave)
Philip J. Romero
Henry S. Rowen
Kori Schake
George P. Shultz
Kiron K. Skinner
Abraham D. Sofaer
Charles Wolf Jr.
Robert Zelnick

American Enterprise Institute Scholars
Michael Auslin
John R. Bolton
Alex Brill
Nicholas Eberstadt
Mark Falcoff
Newt Gingrich
Jack Landman Goldsmith III
R. Glenn Hubbard
*Jeane J. Kirkpatrick – deceased
*Irving Kristol
*James R. Lilley
Joshua Muravchik
*Michael Novak
Norman J. Ornstein
*Richard Perle
(Sen.) Fred Thompson (2006)
Peter J. Wallison
*Ben J. Wattenberg
Paul D. Wolfowitz Pacific Council on International Policy – Board of Directors
John E. Bryson, Co-Chairman
Warren M. Christopher, Co-Chairman
Robert J. Abernethy
John F. Cooke
Lee Cullum
*Robert F. Erburu, Chairman Emeritus
Edward K. Hamilton
Ellen M. Hancock
Mel Levine
Nancy Lieberman
Richard Mallery
Willem Mesdag
Luis G. Nogales
Michael Parks
Bruce M. Ramer
Lawrence J. Ramer
James B. Steinberg
David K.Y. Tang
Peter Tarnoff
Janet L. Yellen

RAND Experts
David L. Aaron
Lynn Davis
James F. Dobbins
Charles N. Goldman
Andrew Hoehn
Bruce Hoffman
F. Stephen Larrabee
Thomas L. McNaugher
Michael D. Rich
Charles Wolf Jr.

Aspen Institute Policy Experts
Kurt M. Campbell
Dick Clark
*Mickey Edwards
Charles M. Firestone
Elliot F. Gerson
*Steve Grand
Alice Henkin
Peter A. Reiling

Council on Foreign Relations Members – JP Morgan International Council
JP Morgan Int’l Council
George P. Shultz, Chairman
(Sen.) Bill Bradley
Martin S. Feldstein
*Henry A. Kissinger
David Rockefeller
Walter V. Shipley

Ex-Officio Members
William M. “Bill” Daley
Jamie Dimon
William B. Harrison Jr. Trilateral Commission members (Past and Present) on the JP Morgan International Council
George P. Shultz
Riley P. Bechtel
Martin S. Feldstein
David Rockefeller
Minoru Makihara
Brian Mulroney
David J. O’Reilly
David Rockefeller
Ernesto Zedillo JP Morgan National Advisory Board
Richard I. Beattie
Paul J. Fribourg
John B. Hess
David M. Rubenstein
Stephen A. Schwarzman (S&B 1969)
Mortimer B. Zuckerman

Fortune 500 Council on Foreign Relations members
Michael R. Bloomberg
Edgar M. Brofman Sr.
Anne Cox Chambers
Lester Crown
Victor K. Fung
Maurice R. Greenberg
Teresa Heinz (Kerry)
Bruce S. Kovner
Henry R. Kravis
Leonard A. Lauder
Ronald S. Lauder
Rupert Murdoch
Jack Nash
Marc B. Nathanson
Penny Pritzker
Thomas J. Pritzker
David Rockefeller
Stephen A. Schwarzman
George Soros
Sanford I. Weill
Mortimer B. Zuckerman

Nobel Prize Recipients
*Elihu Root – Nobel Peace Prize (1912)
*Charles G. Dawes – Nobel Peace Prize (1925)
*Frank B. Kellogg – Nobel Peace Prize (1929)
*Ralph J. Bunche – Nobel Peace Prize (1950)
*Henry A. Kissinger – Nobel Peace Prize (1973)
Elie Wiesel – Nobel Peace Prize (1986)
Jimmy Carter – Nobel Peace Prize (2002)
*Isidor I. Rabi – Nobel Prize in Physics (1944)
Murray Gell-Mann – Nobel Prize in Physics (1969)

Council on Foreign Relations Members – Directors of American subsidiary of I.G. Farben (1930)
*Charles E. Mitchell
*Herman A. Metz
*Paul Warburg

Miscellaneous:
*Leon Jaworski – Director of Office of Watergate Special Prosecution Force (1973-1974)
*Michael I. Pupin – scientist who discovered X-Rays
*Jonas Salk – polio doctor
*Cyrus S. Eaton – founder of the Pugwash Conferences
*George Gallup – founder of the Gallup Poll
Charles V. Hamilton – co-author of book Black Power (with Stokely Carmichael)
Walter S. Isaacson – co-author of The Wise Men
Evan W. Thomas III – co-author of book The Wise Men
Lawrence G. Wright – author of book Remembering Satan
Zoe Baird – appointed Attorney General by President Bill Clinton; withdrew her nomination due to “Nannygate” scandal

Council on Foreign Relations Members in the U.S. Federal Government

Legislative Branch (Congress)
United States Senate:
John D. “Jay” Rockefeller IV (D-West Virginia, 1985-present)
John S. McCain III (R-Arizona, 1987-present)
Dianne Feinstein (D-California, 1992-present)
Jack Reed (D-Rhode Island, 1997-present)
*Charles E. Schumer (D-New York, 1999-present)
Mark Warner (D-Virginia, 2009-present)

United States House of Representatives:
*Charles B. Rangel (D-New York, 1971-present)
Thomas E. Petri (R-Wisconsin, 1979-present)
James H. S. Cooper (D-Tennessee; 1983-1995, 2003-present)
Jim McDermott (D-Washington, 1989-present)
Nita M. Lowey (D-New York, 1989-present)
*Ed Pastor (D-Arizona, 1991-present)
*Sanford D. Bishop Jr. (D-Georgia, 1993-present)
William M. “Mac” Thornberry (R-Texas, 1995-present)
Charles W. Boustany Jr. (R-Louisiana, 2005-present)
Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-District of Columbia, 1991-present) [Delegate]

Judicial Branch

Ruth Bader Ginsburg – Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1993-present)
Stephen G. Breyer – Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1994-present)
Pauline Newman – Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (1984-present)
*Jose A. Cabranes – Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (1994-present)
*Barrington D. Parker Jr. – Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (2001-present)
John M. Rogers – Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit (2002-present)
*Neil M. Gorsuch – Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (2006-present)
*Robert P. Patterson Jr. – Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York (1988-present)
Keith P. Ellison – U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas [Houston] (1999-present)
*Randolph Baxter – Judge of the U.S. Bankruptcy Court in Cleveland, Ohio

Independent Agencies:
*James H. Billington – Librarian of Congress (1987-present)
Irving A. Williamson – Chairman (2012-present) and Commissioner (2007-present) of the United States International Trade Commission

Note: *= former Council on Foreign Relations member; name does not appear on 2012 Council on Foreign Relations membership roster.

Executive Branch – The Obama Administration
President of the United States Barack H. Obama Jr.
Vice President of the United States Joseph R. Biden Jr.
Secretary of State John Forbes Kerry CFR, BM
Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel CFR, BM
Secretary of the Treasury Jacob J. Lew CFR
U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder
Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker CFR
Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano CFR
Secretary of Health and Human Services Kathleen Sebelius BM
Secretary of Energy Ernest J. Moniz CFR
Secretary of Labor Thomas E. Perez [designated]
Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood
Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack
Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Shaun Donovan
Secretary of Education Arne Duncan
Secretary of Veterans Affairs (Gen.) Eric Shinseki CFR

National Security Advisor Susan E. Rice CFR, TC, RS
Director of Central Intelligence Agency John Brennan
U.S. Representative to the United Nations Samantha Power [designated]

Notes:
CFR = Council on Foreign Relations member; TC = Trilateral Commission Member; BM = Bilderberg Meetings; RS = Rhodes Scholar
New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson withdrew his nomination as Secretary of Commerce.
Former U.S. Senator Tom Daschle withdrew his nomination as Secretary of Health and Human Services.

Council on Foreign Relations: Politicians, Bureaucrats, and Judges

President of the United States
*Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)
*Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961)
*Richard M. Nixon (1969-1974)
*Gerald R. Ford (1974-1977)
Jimmy Carter (1977-1981)
*George H.W. Bush (1989-1993)
William J. “Bill” Clinton (1993-2001) Vice-President of the U.S.
*Charles G. Dawes (1925-1929)
*Richard M. Nixon (1953-1961)
*Hubert H. Humphrey (1965-1969)
*Gerald R. Ford (1973-1974)
*Nelson A. Rockefeller (1974-1977)
Walter F. Mondale (1977-1981)
*George H.W. Bush (1981-1989)
Richard B. “Dick” Cheney (2001-2009) Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court
*Charles Evans Hughes (1910-1916, 1930-1941 [Chief Justice])
*Felix Frankfurter (1939-1962)
*Arthur J. Goldberg (1962-1965))
*Sandra Day O’Connor (1981-2006)
Ruth Bader Ginsburg (1993-present)
Stephen G. Breyer (1994-present)

Members of the U.S. Senate
Senate Majority Leaders:
Howard H. Baker Jr. (Republican Party, 1981-1985)
George J. Mitchell (Democratic Party, 1989-1995)
Thomas A. “Tom” Daschle (Democratic Party, 2001-2003)
William H. “Bill” Frist (Republican Party, 2003-2007)

Current Senators:
John D. “Jay” Rockefeller IV (D-West Virginia, 1985-present)
John S. McCain III (R-Arizona, 1987-present)
Dianne Feinstein (D-California, 1992-present)
Jack Reed (D-Rhode Island, 1997-present)
*Charles E. Schumer (D-New York, 1999-present)
Mark Warner (D-Virginia, 2009-present)

Former Senators:
Howard H. Baker Jr. (R-Tennessee, 1967-1985)
Nancy Kassebaum Baker (R-Kansas, 1978-1997)
*Birch E. Bayh Jr. (D-Indiana, 1963-1981)
Birch Evans “Evan” Bayh III (D-Indiana, 1999-2011)
*William Benton (D-Connecticut, 1949-1953)
*Lloyd M. Bentsen Jr. (D-Texas, 1971-1993)
David L. Boren (D-Oklahoma, 1979-1994)
Rudy Boschwitz (R-Minnesota, 1978-1991)
Bill Bradley (D-New Jersey, 1979-1997)
Nicholas F. Brady (R-New Jersey, 1982)
*William E. Brock III (R-Tennessee, 1971-1977)
*Edward W. Brooke III (R-Massachusetts, 1967-1979)
*James L. Buckley (New York, 1971-1977)
*Arthur Capper (R-Kansas, 1919-1949)
*Clifford P. Case (R-New Jersey, 1955-1979)
*John H. Chafee (R-Rhode Island, 1976-1999)
*Frank F. Church (D-Idaho, 1957-1981)
Dick Clark (D-Iowa, 1973-1979)
William S. Cohen (R-Maine, 1979-1997)
*John Sherman Cooper (R-Kentucky; 1946-1949, 1952-1955,
1956-1973)
*John C. Culver (D-Iowa, 1975-1981)
Alfonse “Al” D’Amato (D-New York, 1981-1999)
Thomas A. “Tom” Daschle (D-South Dakota, 1987-2005)
Christopher J. Dodd (D-Connecticut, 1981-2011)
*John Foster Dulles (R-New York, 1949)
*Thomas Coleman du Pont (R-Delaware, 1921-1922, 1925-1928)
*Ralph E. Flanders (R-Vermont, 1946-1959)
Wyche Fowler Jr. (D-Georgia, 1987-1993)
William H. “Bill” Frist (R-Tennessee, 1995-2007)
Bob Graham (D-Florida, 1987-2005)
*Ernest Gruening (D-Alaska, 1959-1969)
Chuck Hagel (R-Nebraska, 1997-2009)
Gary Hart (D-Colorado, 1975-1987)
*John H. Heinz III (R-Pennsylvania, 1977-1991)
*Hubert H. Humphrey (D-Minnesota; 1949-1964, 1971-1978)
*Jacob K. Javits (R-New York, 1957-1981)
*Frank B. Kellogg (R-Minnesota, 1917-1923)
*Robert F. Kennedy (D-New York, 1965-1968)
J. Robert “Bob” Kerrey (D-Nebraska, 1989-2001)
John Forbes Kerry (D-Massachusetts, 1985-2013)
*Herbert H. Lehman (D-New York, 1949-1957)
Joseph I. Lieberman (D-Connecticut, 1989-2013)
*Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (R-Massachusetts; 1937-1944, 1947-1953)
*Charles M. Mathias Jr. (R-Maryland, 1969-1987)
*Gale W. McGee (D-Wyoming, 1959-1977)
*George S. McGovern (D-South Dakota, 1963-1981)
George J. Mitchell (D-Maine, 1980-1995)
Walter F. Mondale (D-Minnesota, 1964-1976)
*Daniel P. Moynihan (D-New York, 1977-2001)
*Edmund Muskie (D-Maine, 1959-1980)
*Richard Nixon (R-California, 1951-1953)
Sam Nunn (D-Georgia, 1972-1997)
*Claiborne Pell (D-Rhode Island, 1961-1997)
*Charles H. Percy (R-Illinois, 1967-1985)
Larry Pressler (R-South Dakota, 1979-1997)
*Abraham A. Ribicoff (D-Connecticut, 1963-1981)
Charles S. Robb (D-Virginia, 1989-2001)
*Elihu Root (R-New York, 1909-1915)
*William V. Roth Jr. (R-Delaware, 1971-2001)
Warren B. Rudman (R-New Hampshire, 1981-1993)
*Donald S. Russell (D-South Carolina, 1965-1966)
*Frederic M. Sackett (R-Kentucky, 1925-1930)
*Terry Sanford (D-North Carolina, 1986-1993)
*Paul S. Sarbanes (D-Maryland, 1977-2007)
James R. Sasser (D-Tennessee, 1977-1995)
*H. Alexander Smith (R-New Jersey, 1944-1959)
Olympia J. Snowe (R-Maine, 1995-2013)
*Adlai E. Stevenson III (D-Illinois, 1970-1981)
*W. Stuart Symington (D-Missouri, 1953-1976)
*John G. Tower (R-Texas, 1961-1985)
Fred D. Thompson (R-Tennessee, 1994-2003)
Robert G. Torricelli (D-New Jersey, 1997-2003)
*Frederic C. Walcott (R-Connecticut, 1929-1935)
John W. Warner (R-Virginia, 1979-2009)
*James H. Webb (D-Virginia, 2007-2013)
*Lowell P. Weicker Jr. (R-Connecticut, 1971-1989)
Timothy E. Wirth (D-Colorado, 1987-1993)
Harris L. Wofford (D-Pennsylvania, 1991-1995)

Note: *= former Council on Foreign Relations member; name does not appear on 2011 Council on Foreign Relations membership roster.
Note: D=Democratic Party R=Republican Party

Members of the U.S. House of Representatives
Speakers of the House of Representatives:
Thomas S. Foley (Democratic Party, 1989-1995)
Newton L. “Newt” Gingrich (Republican Party, 1995-1999)

Current Members:
*Charles B. Rangel (D-New York, 1971-present)
Thomas E. Petri (R-Wisconsin, 1979-present)
James H.S. Cooper (D-Tennessee; 1983-1995, 2003-present)
Jim McDermott (D-Washington, 1989-present)
Nita M. Lowey (D-New York, 1989-present)
*Ed Pastor (D-Arizona, 1991-present)
*Sanford D. Bishop Jr. (D-Georgia, 1993-present)
William M. Thornberry (R-Texas, 1995-present)
Charles W. Boustany Jr. (R-Louisiana, 2005-present)
Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-District of Columbia, 1991-present) [Delegate]

Former Members:
John B. Anderson (R-Illinois, 1961-1981)
Michael A. Andrews (D-Texas, 1983-1995)
*Les Aspin (D-Wisconsin, 1971-1993)
James L. Bacchus (D-Florida, 1991-1995)
*Robert L. Bacon (R-New York, 1923-1938)
Michael D. Barnes (D-Maryland, 1979-1987)
*Anthony C. Beilenson (D-California, 1977-1997)
*Lloyd M. Bentsen Jr. (D-Texas, 1948-1955)
Douglas K. Bereuter (R-Nebraska, 1979-2004)
Howard L. Berman (D-California, 1983-2013)
*Jonathan B. Bingham (D-New York, 1965-1983)
*Chester Bowles (D-Connecticut, 1959-1961)
John Brademas (D-Indiana, 1959-1981)
*William E. Brock III (R-Tennessee, 1963-1971)
*George H.W. Bush (R-Texas, 1967-1971)
Thomas J. Campbell (R-California; 1989-1993, 1995-2001)
*Hugh L. Carey (D-New York, 1961-1974)
*Clifford P. Case (R-New Jersey, 1945-1953)
Richard B. “Dick” Cheney (R-Wyoming, 1979-1989)
*William F. Clinger Jr. (R-Pennsylvania, 1979-1997)
*Jeffrey Cohelan (D-California, 1959-1971)
William S. Cohen (R-Maine, 1973-1979)
*Barber B. Conable (R-New York, 1965-1985)
*Frederic R. Coudert Jr. (R-New York, 1947-1959)
*John C. Culver (D-Iowa, 1965-1975)
*Emilio Q. Daddario (D-Connecticut, 1959-1971)
Thomas A. “Tom” Daschle (D-South Dakota, 1979-1987)
*John W. Davis (D-West Virginia, 1911-1913)
Norman D. Dicks (D-Washington, 1977-2013)
Christopher J. Dodd (D-Connecticut, 1975-1981)
*Lewis W. Douglas (D-Arizona, 1927-1933)
David Dreier (R-California, 1981-2013)
*Mervyn M. Dymally (D-California, 1981-1993)
*Mickey Edwards (R-Oklahoma, 1977-1993)
*Robert F. Ellsworth (R-Kansas, 1961-1967)
*Dante B. Fascell (D-Florida, 1955-1993)
*Geraldine Ferraro (D-New York, 1979-1985)
Thomas S. Foley (D-Washington, 1965-1995)
*Gerald R. Ford (R-Michigan, 1949-1973)
Harold E. Ford Jr. (D-Tennessee, 1997-2007)
Wyche Fowler Jr. (D-Georgia, 1977-1987)
*Barney Frank (D-Massachusetts, 1981-2013)
*Donald M. Fraser (D-Minnesota, 1963-1979)
*Peter H.B. Frelinghuysen Jr. (R-New Jersey, 1953-1975)
*Sam Gejdenson (D-Connecticut, 1981-2001)
Richard A. “Dick” Gephardt (D-Missouri, 1977-2005)
Newton L. “Newt” Gingrich (R-Georgia, 1979-1999)
Daniel R. Glickman (D-Kansas, 1977-1995)
*Porter Goss (R-Florida, 1989-2004)
*Bill Green (R-New York, 1978-1993)
Lee H. Hamilton (D-Indiana, 1965-1999) Jane Harman (D-California, 1993-1999, 2001-2011)
Katherine Harris (R-Florida, 2003-2007)
*Brooks Hays (D-Arkansas, 1943-1959)
*John H. Heinz III (R-Pennsylvania, 1971-1977)
*Christian A. Herter (R-Massachusetts, 1943-1953)
Elizabeth Holtzman (D-New York, 1973-1981)
*Alanson B. Houghton (R-New York, 1919-1922)
Amory Houghton Jr. (R-New York, 1987-2005)
*Jacob K. Javits (R-New York, 1947-1954)
*Nancy Lee Johnson (R-Connecticut, 1983-2007)
James R. Jones (D-Oklahoma, 1973-1987)
James T. Kolbe (R-Arizona, 1985-2007)
*Melvin Laird (R-Wisconsin, 1953-1969)
Jim Leach (R-Iowa, 1977-2007)
Mel Levine (D-California, 1983-1993)
*John V. Lindsay (R-New York, 1959-1965)
*Lucius N. Littauer (R-New York, 1897-1907)
*Clare Boothe Luce (R-Connecticut, 1943-1947)
Lynn Martin (R-Illinois, 1981-1991)
Charles M. Mathias Jr. (R-Maryland, 1961-1969)
*Robert T. Matsui (D-California, 1979-2005)
John S. McCain III (R-Arizona, 1983-1987)
Dave K. McCurdy (D-Oklahoma, 1981-1995)
*George S. McGovern (D-South Dakota, 1957-1961)
*Herman A. Metz (D-New York, 1913-1915)
*Ogden L. Mills (R-New York, 1921-1927)
*Susan Molinari (R-New York, 1990-1997)
Jim Moody (D-Wisconsin, 1983-1993)
*Thomas E. Morgan (D-Pennsylvania, 1945-1977)
*F. Bradford Morse (R-Massachusetts, 1961-1972)
Stephen L. Neal (D-North Carolina, 1975-1995)
*Richard M. Nixon (R-California, 1947-1951)
David R. Obey (D-Wisconsin, 1969-2011)
*Herbert Parsons (R-New York, 1905-1911)
*Donald M. Payne (D-New Jersey, 1989-2012)
*Edmund Platt (R-New York, 1913-1920)
John Edward Porter (R-Illinois, 1980-2001)
Larry Pressler (R-South Dakota, 1975-1979)
Jack Reed (D-Rhode Island, 1991-1997)
Ogden R. Reid (D-New York, 1963-1975)
*Henry S. Reuss (D-Wisconsin, 1955-1983)
*Abraham A. Ribicoff (D-Conneticut, 1949-1953)
William B. “Bill” Richardson (D-New Mexico, 1983-1997)
*William V. Roth Jr. (R-Delaware, 1967-1970)
*Donald H. Rumsfeld (R-Illinois, 1963-1969)
*Paul S. Sarbanes (D-Maryland, 1971-1977)
Charles J. (Joe) Scarborough (R-Florida, 1995-2001)
*Patricia S. Schroder (D-Colorado, 1973-1997)
*Charles E. Schumer (D-New York, 1981-1999)
*William W. Scranton (R-Pennsylvania, 1961-1963)
Karen F. Shepherd (D-Utah, 1993-1995)
Jim C. Slattery (D-Kansas, 1983-1995)
Olympia J. Snowe (R-Maine, 1979-1995)
Stephen J. Solarz (D-New York, 1975-1993)
John M. Spratt Jr. (D-South Carolina, 1983-2011)
*David A. Stockman (R-Michigan, 1977-1981)
*Louis Stokes (D-Ohio, 1969-1999)
Ellen O. Tauscher (D-California, 1997-2009)
*Esteban Edward Torres (D-California, 1983-1999)
Robert G. Torricelli (D-New Jersey, 1983-1997)
Vin Weber (R-Minnesota, 1981-1993)
*Lowell P. Weicker Jr. (R-Connecticut, 1969-1971)
*Charles W. Whalen Jr. (R-Ohio, 1967-1979)
*Heather A. Wilson (D-New Mexico, 1998-2009)
Timothy E. Wirth (D-Colorado, 1975-1987)
Howard Wolpe (D-Michigan, 1979-1993)
Andrew J. Young (D-Georgia, 1973-1977)
Carlos A. Romero-Barcelo (Puerto Rico, 1991-2001) [Delegate]

Cabinet Officials
U.S. Secretary of State
*Elihu Root (1905-1909)
*Charles Evans Hughes (1921-1925)
*Frank B. Kellogg (1925-1929)
*Henry L. Stimson (1929-1933)
*Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (1944-1945)
*Dean G. Acheson (1949-1953)
*John Foster Dulles (1953-1959)
*Christian A. Herter (1959-1961)
*Dean Rusk (1961-1969)
*William P. Rogers (1969-1973)
*Henry A. Kissinger (1973-1977)
*Cyrus R. Vance (1977-1980)
*Edmund S. Muskie (1980-1981)
*Alexander M. Haig Jr. (1981-1982)
George P. Shultz (1982-1989)
James A. Baker III (1989-1992)
*Lawrence S. Eagleburger (1992-1993)
*Warren M. Christopher (1993-1997)
Madeleine K. Albright (1997-2001)
Colin L. Powell (2001-2005)
Condoleezza Rice (2005-2009)
John Forbes Kerry (2013-present) U.S. Secretary of Defense
*James V. Forrestal (1947-1949)
*Robert A. Lovett (1951-1953)
*Neil H. McElroy (1957-1959)
*Thomas S. Gates Jr. (1959-1961)
*Robert S. McNamara (1961-1968)
*Melvin R. Laird (1969-1973)
*Elliot L. Richardson (1973)
James R. Schlesinger (1973-1975)
*Donald Rumsfeld (1975-1977)
Harold Brown (1977-1981)
*Caspar W. Weinberger (1981-1987)
Frank C. Carlucci (1987-1989)
Richard B. “Dick” Cheney (1989-1993)
*Les Aspin (1993-1994)
William J. Perry (1994-1997)
William S. Cohen (1997-2001)
*Donald Rumsfeld (2001-2006)
Robert M. Gates (2006-2011)
Chuck Hagel (2013-present) U.S. Secretary of the Treasury
*David F. Houston (1920-1921)
*Andrew W. Mellon (1921-1932)
*Ogden L. Mills (1932-1933)
*William H. Woodin (1933)
*Robert B. Anderson (1957-1961)
*C. Douglas Dillon (1961-1965)
*Henry H. Fowler (1965-1968)
*David M. Kennedy (1969-1971)
George P. Shultz (1972-1974)
*William E. Simon (1974-1977)
W. Michael Blumenthal (1977-1979)
*G. William Miller (1979-1981)
*Donald T. Regan (1981-1985)
James A. Baker III (1985-1988)
Nicholas F. Brady (1988-1993)
*Lloyd M. Bentsen Jr. (1993-1994)
Robert E. Rubin (1995-1999)
Lawrence H. Summers (1999-2001)
Henry Paulson (2006-2009)
Timothy F. Geithner (2009-2013)
Jacob J. Lew (2013-present)

U.S. Secretary of Commerce
*Herbert Hoover (1921-1928)
*W. Averell Harriman (1946-1948)
*Lewis L. Strauss (1958-1959)
*John T. Connor (Sr.) (1965-1967)
*Alexander B. Trowbridge Jr. (1967-1968)
Peter G. Peterson (1972-1973)
*Elliot L. Richardson (1976-1977)
*Juanita Morris Kreps (1977-1979)
*Malcolm Baldrige (1981-1987)
Robert A. Mosbacher (1989-1992)
Barbara Hackman Franklin (1992-1993)
*Ron Brown (1993-1996)
Mickey Kantor (1996-1997)
William M. Daley (1997-2000)
John E. Bryson (2011-2012)
Penny Pritzker (2013-present)

U.S. Secretary of Labor
*James P. Mitchell (1953-1961)
*Arthur J. Goldberg (1961-1962)
George P. Shultz (1969-1970)
*James D. Hodgson (1970-1973)
F. Ray Marshall (1977-1981)
*William E. Brock III (1985-1987)
Lynn Martin (1991-1993)
Elaine Chao (2001-2009) U.S. Attorney General
*George W. Wickersham (1909-1913)
*William D. Mitchell (1929-1933)
*Francis Biddle (1941-1945)
*William P. Rogers (1957-1961)
*Robert F. Kennedy (1961-1964)
*Nicholas deB. Katzenbach (1964-1966)
*Ramsey Clark (1967-1969)
*Elliot L. Richardson (1973-1974)
Richard “Dick” Thornburgh (1988-1991)

U.S. Secretary of War (no longer exists)
*Elihu Root (1899-1904)
*Henry L. Stimson (1911-1913)
*Newton D. Baker (1916-1921)
*Dwight F. Davis (1925-1929)
*Henry L. Stimson (1940-1945)
*Robert P. Patterson Sr. (1945-1947)

U.S. Secretary of Transportation
William T. Coleman Jr. (1975-1977)
*Neil Goldschmidt (1979-1981)
*Andrew L. “Drew” Lewis (1981-1983)
James H. Burnley IV (1987-1989)
Federico F. Pena (1993-1997)
U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
*Robert C. Wood (1969)
*James T. Lynn (1973-1975)
Carla A. Hills (1975-1977)
*Patricia Roberts Harris (1977-1979)
*Henry Cisneros (1993-1997)

U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services
*Patricia Roberts Harris (1979-1981)
Louis W. Sullivan (1989-1993)
Donna Shalala (1993-2001)
Tommy G. Thompson (2001-2005)

U.S. Secretary of Energy
James R. Schlesinger (1977-1979)
Charles Duncan Jr. (1979-1981)
Federico F. Pena (1997-1998)
Bill Richardson (1998-2001)
Ernest J. Moniz (2013-present)

U.S. Secretary of Agriculture
*David F. Houston (1913-1920)
*Orville L. Freeman (1961-1969)
Daniel R. Glickman (1995-2001)
Ann M. Veneman (2001-2005)

U.S. Secretary of the Interior
*Ray Lyman Wilbur (1929-1933)
Bruce Babbitt (1993-2001)

U.S. Secretary of Veterans Affairs
Togo West (1998-2000)
(Gen.) Eric K. Shinseki (2009-present)

Other Cabinet Positions
*Oscar S. Straus – U.S. Secretary of Commerce and Labor (1906-1909)
*Shirley Hufstedler – U.S. Secretary of Education (1979-1981)
Janet Napolitano – U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security (2009-present) U.S. Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare (no longer exists)
*Marion B. Folsom (1955-1958)
*Abraham A. Ribicoff (1961-1962)
*John W. Gardner (1965-1968)
*Elliot L. Richardson (1970-1973)
*Caspar W. Weinberger (1973-1975)
Joseph A. Califano Jr. (1977-1979)
*Patricia Roberts Harris (1979)

Other Executive Branch Positions
National Security Advisor
*Dillon Anderson (1955-1956)
*Gordon Gray (1958-1961)
*McGeorge Bundy (1961-1966)
*Walt W. Rostow (1966-1969)
*Henry A. Kissinger (1969-1975)
Brent Scowcroft (1975-1977)
Zbigniew Brzezinski (1977-1981)
Richard V. Allen (1981-1982)
Robert C. McFarlane (1983-1985)
Frank C. Carlucci (1986-1987)
Gen. Colin L. Powell (1987-1989)
Brent Scowcroft (1989-1993)
*W. Anthony Lake (1993-1997)
Samuel “Sandy” Berger (1997-2001)
Condoleezza Rice (2001-2005)
Stephen J. Hadley (2005-2009)
(Gen.) James L. Jones Jr. (2009-2010)
Thomas E. Donilon (2010-2013)
Susan E. Rice (2013-present)
Director of Central Intelligence Agency
*Gen. Walter Bedell Smith (1950-1953)
*Allen W. Dulles (1953-1961)
*John Alex McCone (1961-1965)
*Richard Helms (1966-1973)
James R. Schlesinger (1973)
*William E. Colby (1973-1976)
*George H.W. Bush (1976-1977)
Stansfield Turner (1977-1981)
*William J. Casey (1981-1987)
William H. Webster (1987-1991)
Robert M. Gates (1991-1993)
R. James Woolsey (1993-1995)
*Adm. William Studeman (1995) [acting]
John M. Deutch (1995-1996)
George J. Tenet (1997-2004)
*Porter Goss (2004-2006)
Gen. Michael V. Hayden (2006-2009)
Gen. David H. Petraeus (2011-2012)
Chairman of President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB)
*James R. Killian (1956-1963)
*Maxwell D. Taylor (1968-1970)
*George W. Anderson Jr. (1970-1976)
*Leo Cherne (1976-1977)
*Anne L. Armstrong (1982-1990)
(Adm.) Bobby Ray Inman (1991-1993)
*(Adm.) William J. Crowe Jr. (1993-1994)
*Les Aspin (1994-1995)
Thomas S. Foley (1996-1997)
*Warren B. Rudman (1995-1996, 1997-2000)
Brent Scowcroft (2001-2005)
Stephen Friedman (2005-2009)
David L. Boren (Co-Chairman) (2009-?)
Chuck Hagel (Co-Chairman) (2009-?)

Director, Office of Management and Budget (known as Bureau of the Budget from 1921 to 1969)
*Charles G. Dawes (1921-1922)
*Lewis W. Douglas (1933-1934)
*Frank Pace Jr. (1949-1950)
*Joseph M. Dodge (1953-1954)
*Rowland R. Hughes (1954-1956)
*Percival F. Brundage (1956-1958)
*David E. Bell (1961-1962)
*Kermit Gordon (1963-1965)
*Charles L. Schultze (1965-1968)
Charles J. Zwick (1968-1969)
George P. Shultz (1970-1972)
*Caspar W. Weinberger (1972-1973)
*James T. Lynn (1975-1977)
*David A. Stockman (1981-1985)
Joseph R. Wright Jr. (1985,1988-1989)
*Richard G. Darman (1989-1993)
Alice M. Rivlin (1994-1996)
Franklin D. Raines (1996-1998)
Jacob J. Lew (1998-2001)
*Joshua Bolten (2003-2006)
Peter R. Orszag (2009-2010)
Jacob J. Lew (2010-2012)
Sylvia Mathews Burwell (2013-present)

White House Chief of Staff
*Alexander M. Haig Jr. (1973-1974)
*Donald Rumsfeld (1974-1975)
Richard B. “Dick” Cheney (1975-1977)
James A. Baker III (1981-1985)
*Donald T. Regan (1985-1987)
Howard H. Baker Jr. (1987-1988)
Kenneth Duberstein (1988-1989)
James A. Baker III (1992-1993)
Thomas “Mack” McLarty III (1993-1994)
Erskine B. Bowles (1997-1998)
*Joshua Bolten (2006-2009)
William M. Daley (2011-2012)
Jacob J. Lew (2012-2013)

Chairman, Council of Economic Advisors
*Arthur F. Burns (1953-1956)
*Arthur M. Okun (1968-1969)
Paul W. McCracken (1969-1972)
Alan Greenspan (1974-1977)
*Charles L. Schultze (1977-1981)
Murray L. Weidenbaum (1981-1982)
Martin S. Feldstein (1982-1984)
Laura D’Andrea Tyson (1993-1995)
Joseph E. Stiglitz (1995-1997)
Janet L. Yellen (1997-1999)
R. Glenn Hubbard (2001-2003) U.S. Trade Representative
(known as Special Representative for Trade Negotiations until 1979)
*Christian A. Herter (1962-1966)
William M. Roth (1967-1969)
*Carl J. Gilbert (1969-1971)
*William D. Eberle (1971-1975)
Robert S. Strauss (1977-1979)
*Reubin O. Askew (1979-1981)
*William E. Brock III (1981-1985)
Carla A. Hills (1989-1993)
Mickey Kantor (1993-1996)
Charlene Barshefsky (1997-2000)
Robert B. Zoellick (2001-2005)
Susan C. Schwab (2006-2009)

Director, National Economic Council
Robert E. Rubin (1993-1995)
Laura D’Andrea Tyson (1995-1997)
Gene Sperling (1997-2001)
Stephen Friedman (2003-2005)
Allan B. Hubbard (2005-2007)
Lawrence H. Summers (2009-2011)
Gene Sperling (2011-present)

Independent Agencies
Director of U.S. Information Agency
*Theodore C. Streibert (1953-1956)
*George V. Allen (1957-1960)
*Edward R. Murrow (1961-1964)
*Leonard H. Marks (1965-1968)
John E. Reinhardt (1977-1978)
Bruce S. Gelb (1989-1991)
Henry E. Catto Jr. (1991-1993)
Joseph D. Duffey (1993-1997)

President of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
*Howland H. Sargeant (1954-1975) [Radio Liberty]
*John Richardson Jr. (1961-1968) [Radio Free Europe]
*Sig Mickelson (1975-1978)
*Glenn W. Ferguson (1978-1982)
*James L. Buckley (1982-1985)
Thomas A. Dine (1997-2005)
Jeffrey Gedmin (2007-present)

Director of Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
*William Chapman Foster (1961-1969)
*Gerard C. Smith (1969-1973)
Fred C. Ikle (1973-1977)
*Paul C. Warnke (1977-1978)
*George M. Seignious II (1978-1980)
*Ralph Earle II (1980-1981)
*Eugene V. Rostow (1981-1983)
*Kenneth Adelman (1983-1987)
William F. Burns (1988-1989)
Ronald F. Lehman II (1989-1993)
Thomas Graham Jr. (1993)
John D. Holum (1993-1998) Chairman of U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
*James M. Landis (1935-1937)
*William L. Cary (1961-1964)
*William J. Casey (1971-1973)
Harold M. Williams (1977-1981)
Arthur Levitt Jr. (1993-2001)
William H. Donaldson (2003-2005)
Mary Jo White (2013-present)

Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency
*William D. Ruckelshaus (1970-1973, 1983-1985)
Russell E. Train (1973-1977)
William K. Reilly (1989-1992)
Christine Todd Whitman (2001-2003)

Director of Peace Corps
*Robert Sargent Shriver Jr. (1961-1966)
*Kevin O’Donnell (1971-1972)
Richard F. Celeste (1979-1981)
Elaine Chao (1991-1992)
Carol Bellamy (1993-1995)
Aaron S. Williams (2009-2012)

Administrator of U.S. Agency for International Development
*M. Fowler Hamilton (1961-1962)
*David E. Bell (1962-1966)
*William S. Gaud (1966-1969)
*Daniel Parker (1973-1977)
Douglas J. Bennet (1979-1981)
M. Peter McPherson (1981-1987)
Ronald W. Roskens (1990-1992)
J. Brian Atwood (1993-1999)
*Randall L. Tobias (2006-2007)
Henrietta H. Fore (2007-2009)

Federal Judges
U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York
*Learned Hand (1909-1924)
*Thomas D. Thacher (1925-1930)
*Robert P. Patterson Sr. (1930-1939)
*Dudley B. Bonsal (1962-1976)
*Murray I. Gurfein (1971-1974)
Lawrence W. Pierce (1971-1981)
Abraham D. Sofaer (1979-1985)
*Robert P. Patterson Jr. (1988-present)
*Barrington D. Parker Jr. (1994-2001) U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit [New York City]
*Learned Hand (1924-1951)
*Robert P. Patterson Sr. (1939-1940)
*Henry J. Friendly (1959-1974)
*Murray I. Gurfein (1974-1979)
Lawrence W. Pierce (1981-1995)
*Jose A. Cabranes (1994-present)
*Barrington D. Parker Jr. (2001-present)

Robert C. Bonner – U.S. District Court for the Central District of California (1989-1990)
*Dudley B. Bonsal – Judge, U.S. Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (1981-1984)
Stephen G. Breyer – U.S. Court of Appeals for the 1st Circuit (1980-1994)
*James L. Buckley – U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit (1985-1996)
*Jose A. Cabranes – U.S. District Court for the District of Connecticut (1979-1994)
*William Clark – U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit (1938-1943); U.S. District Court for New Jersey (1925-1938)
Keith P. Ellison – U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas [Houston] (1999-present)
Ruth Bader Ginsburg – U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit (1980-1993)
*Neil M. Gorsuch – U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit (2006-present)
*Shirley M. Hufstedler – U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit (1968-1979)
George J. Mitchell – U.S. District Court for the District of Maine (1979-1980)
Pauline Newman – U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (1984-present)
Charles B. Renfrew – U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California (1971-1980)
John M. Rogers – U.S. Court of Appeals for the 6th Circuit (2002-present)
*Donald S. Russell – U.S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit (1971-1998); U.S. District Court for South Carolina (1966-1971)
William W. Schwarzer – U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California (1976-1991)
Laurence H. Silberman – U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit (1985-2000)
Fern M. Smith – U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California (1988-2005)
*Theodore Tannenwald Jr. – Judge of U.S. Tax Court (1965-1983); Chief Judge of U.S. Tax Court (1981-1983)
Russell E. Train – Judge of U.S. Tax Court (1957-1965)
William H. Webster – U.S. Court of Appeals for the 8th Circuit (1973-1978); U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri (1970-1973)
*Charles E. Wyzanski Jr. – U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts (1941-1971)

State Governors
Haley Barbour (R-Mississippi) 2004-2012

*Charles E. Hughes (R-New York) 1907-1910
*Alfred E. Smith (D-New York) 1919-1920, 1923-1928
*Herbert H. Lehman (D-New York) 1933-1942
*Thomas E. Dewey (R-New York) 1943-1954
*W. Averell Harriman (D-New York) 1955-1958
*Nelson Rockefeller (R-New York) 1959-1973
*Hugh L. Carey (D-New York) 1975-1982
*Mario Cuomo (D-New York) 1983-1994

*James L. McConaughy (R-Connecticut) 1947-1948
*Chester Bowles (D-Connecticut) 1949-1951
*Abraham A. Ribicoff (D-Connecticut) 1955-1961
*Lowell P. Weicker Jr. (ind.-Connecticut) 1991-1995

*Christian A. Herter (R-Massachusetts) 1953-1957
*Michael Dukakis (D-Massachusetts) 1975-1979, 1983-1991
William F. Weld (R-Massachusetts) 1991-1997

*William W. Scranton (R-Pennsylvania) 1963-1967
*Raymond P. Shafer (R-Pennsylvania) 1967-1971
Richard “Dick” Thornburgh (R-Pennsylvania) 1979-1987

Charles Robb (D-Virginia) 1982-1986
Gerald L. Baliles (D-Virginia) 1986-1990
James S. Gilmore III (R-Virginia) 1998-2002
Mark R. Warner (D-Virginia) 2002-2006

*Jerry Apodaca (D-New Mexico) 1975-1979
*Reubin O. Askew (D-Florida) 1971-1979
Bruce Babbitt (D-Arizona) 1978-1987
*Robert P. Bass (R-New Hampshire) 1911-1913
Birch Evans “Evan” Bayh III (D-Indiana) 1989-1997
David L. Boren (D-Oklahoma) 1975-1979
*Arthur Capper (R-Kansas) 1915-1919
Jimmy Carter (D-Georgia) 1971-1975
Richard F. Celeste (D-Ohio) 1983-1991
*John H. Chafee (R-Rhode Island) 1963-1969
William J. “Bill” Clinton (D-Arkansas) 1979-1981, 1983-1992
*Orville L. Freeman (D-Minnesota) 1955-1961
*Neil Goldschmidt (D-Oregon) 1987-1991
Bob Graham (D-Florida) 1979-1987
*Ernest Gruening (D-Alaska) 1939-1953 (Territorial Governor)
Rafael Hernandez-Colon (Puerto Rico) 1973-1977, 1985-1993
*Jon M. Huntsman Jr. (R-Utah) 2005-2009
Thomas H. Kean (R-New Jersey) 1982-1990
J. Robert “Bob” Kerrey (D-Nebraska) 1983-1987
*Walter J. Kohler Jr. (R-Wisconsin) 1951-1957
Raymond E. Mabus (D-Mississippi) 1988-1992
*Luis Munoz-Marin (Puerto Rico) 1949-1965
*Paul V. McNutt (D-Indiana) 1933-1937
*Edmund Muskie (D-Maine) 1955-1959
Janet A. Napolitano (D-Arizona) 2003-2009
*Ann W. Richards (D-Texas) 1991-1995
Bill Richardson (D-New Mexico) 2003-2011
John D. “Jay” Rockefeller IV (D-West Virginia) 1977-1985
Carlos A. Romero-Barcelo (Puerto Rico) 1977-1985
*Donald S. Russell (D-South Carolina) 1963-1965
*Terry Sanford (D-North Carolina) 1961-1965
*Harold E. Stassen (R-Minnesota) 1939-1943
*Adlai E. Stevenson Jr. (D-Illinois) 1949-1953
Tommy G. Thompson (R-Wisconsin) 1987-2001
*William H. Vanderbilt III (R-Rhode Island) 1939-1941
Christine Todd Whitman (R-New Jersey) 1994-2001 Mayors
*John V. Lindsay – Mayor of New York City (1966-1973)
David N. Dinkins – Mayor of New York City (1990-1993)
Michael R. Bloomberg – Mayor of New York City (2002-present)
*Newton D. Baker – Mayor of Cleveland (1912-1915)
J. Kenneth Blackwell – Mayor of Cincinnati (1979-1980)
*Cory A. Booker – Mayor of Newark, New Jersey (2006-present)
*Tom Bradley – Mayor of Los Angeles (1973-1993)
*Henry Cisneros – Mayor of San Antonio (1981-1989)
(Sen.) Dianne Feinstein – Mayor of San Francisco (1978-1988)
Maurice Ferre – Mayor of Miami, Florida (1973-1985)
*Donald M. Fraser – Mayor of Minneapolis (1980-1993)
*Neil Goldschmidt – Mayor of Portland, Oregon (1973-1979)
*W. Wilson Goode – Mayor of Philadelphia (1984-1992)
*Herbert H. Humphrey – Mayor of Minneapolis (1945-1948)
*Vance C. McCormick – Mayor of Harrisburg, Penn. (1902-1905)
*J. Quigg Newton Jr. – Mayor of Denver (1947-1955)
*John O’Leary – Mayor of Portland, Maine (1980-1981)
Frederico F. Pena – Mayor of Denver (1983-1991)
Carlos Romero-Barcelo – Mayor of San Juan, Puerto Rico (1968-1976)
Kurt L. Schmoke – Mayor of Baltimore (1987-1999)
William H. White – Mayor of Houston (2004-2010)
(Amb.) Andrew Young – Mayor of Atlanta (1982-1990)

Lieutenant Governors
*Gaspar G. Bacon – Massachusetts (1933-1934)
Richard F. Celeste – Ohio (1975-1978)
*Mario Cuomo – New York (1979-1982)
*Mervyn M. Dymally – California (1975-1979)
*William P. Hobby – Texas (1973-1991)
John Forbes Kerry – Massachusetts (1983-1985)
*Herbert H. Lehman – New York (1929-1932)
*James L. McConaughy – Connecticut (1939-1940)
*Charles Poletti – New York (1939-1942)
*Elliot L. Richardson – Massachusetts (1965-1967)
Charles S. Robb – Virginia (1978-1982)
*Raymond P. Shafer – Pennsylvania (1963-1967)
Kathleen Kennedy Townsend – Maryland (1995-2003)

State Attorney Generals
Bruce Babbitt – Attorney General of Arizona (1975-1978)
Thurbert E. Baker – Attorney General of Georgia (1997-2011)
*Edward W. Brooke III – Attorney Gen. of Massachusetts (1962-1966)
Bill Clinton – Attorney General of Arkansas (1977-1979)
James S. Gilmore III – Attorney General of Virginia (1994-1998)
*Jacob K. Javits – Attorney General of New York (1954-1957)
Joseph I. Lieberman – Attorney General of Connecticut (1983-1989)
Walter F. Mondale – Attorney General of Minnesota (1960-1964)
*Elliot L. Richardson – Attorney Gen. of Massachusetts (1967-1969)
Warren B. Rudman – Attorney General of New Hampshire (1970-76)
Daniel S. Sullivan – Attorney General of Alaska (2009-2010)

Current State and Local Government Officials in the Council on Foreign Relations
Michael R. Bloomberg – Mayor of New York City (2002-present)
Daniel L. Doctoroff – Deputy Mayor of New York City for Economic Development and Rebuilding
Carol O’Cleireacain – Deputy Treasurer of the State of New Jersey
Setti D. Warren – Mayor of Newton, Massachusetts (2010-present)
Gina Raimondo – General Treasurer of Rhode Island (2011-present)

State and Local Offices (other than Governors, Mayors, Lieutenant Governors, and Attorney Generals)
*Elliott V. Bell – Superintendent of Banks of the State of New York (1943-1949)
*Oren Root – Superintendent of Banks of the State of New York (1961-1964)
John G. Heimann – Superintendent of Banks of the State of New York (1975-1976)
Muriel Siebert – Superintendent of Banks of the State of New York (1977-1982)
Jill Considine – Superintendent of Banks of the State of New York (1985-1991)
*Neil D. Levin – Superintendent of Banks of the State of New York (1995-1997)
Diana L. Taylor – Superintendent of Banks of the State of New York (2003-2007)
Harold M. Agnew – New Mexico State Senator (1955-1961)
Alan D. Bersin – California Secretary of Education (2005-2006)
J. Kenneth Blackwell – Ohio Secretary of State (1999-2007); Ohio State Treasurer (1994-1999)
Christopher Bancroft Burnham – Treasurer of Connecticut (1995-1997)
Thomas J. Campbell – California State Senator (1993-1995)
*Barber B. Conable – New York State Senator (1963-1964)
*Mervyn M. Dymally – California State Senator (1967-1975)
Antonio Oscar Garza Jr. – Secretary of State of Texas (1995-1997)
Harrison J. Goldin – Comptroller of New York City; former New York State Senator (1966-1973)
Roy M. Goodman – New York State Senator (1968-2002)
Katherine Harris – Florida Secretary of State (1999-2002); Florida State Senator (1994-1998)
Elizabeth Holtzman – New York City Comptroller (1990-1993)
*Nancy Lee Johnson – Connecticut State Senator (1977-1982)
Joseph I. Lieberman – Connecticut State Senator (1970-1980)
*H. Carl McCall – New York State Comptroller (1993-2003)
Jim Moody – Wisconsin State Senator (1979-1982)
Ned Regan – New York State Comptroller (1979-1993)
John D. “Jay” Rockefeller IV – West Virginia Secretary of State (1968-1972)
*Terry Sanford – North Carolina State Senator (1953-1955)
*Gail S. Shaffer – New York Secretary of State (1983-1995)
Olympia J. Snowe – Maine State Senator (1976-1978)
*Adlai E. Stevenson III – Illinois State Treasurer (1967-1970)
James M. Strock – California Secretary for Environmental Protection (1991-1997)
Ann M. Veneman – California Secretary of Food and Agriculture (1995-1999)
*Frederic C. Walcott – Connecticut State Senator (1925-1929)
Steven P. Westly – California State Controller (2003-2007)
Harris L. Wofford – Secretary of Pennsylvania Labor and Industry (1987-1991)

Presidential Elections

Presidential Candidates
*Charles E. Hughes – Republican 1916
*John W. Davis – Democrat 1924
*Herbert Hoover – Republican 1928, 1932
*Alfred E. Smith – Democrat 1928
*Thomas E. Dewey – Republican 1944, 1948
*Adlai E. Stevenson Jr. – Democrat 1952, 1956
*Dwight D. Eisenhower – Republican 1952, 1956
*Richard Nixon – Republican 1960, 1968, 1972
*Hubert H. Humphrey – Democrat 1968
*George S. McGovern – Democrat 1972
*Gerald R. Ford – Republican 1976
Jimmy Carter – Democrat 1976, 1980
John B. Anderson – independent (former Republican) 1980
Walter F. Mondale – Democrat 1984
*Michael Dukakis – Democrat 1988
*George H.W. Bush – Republican 1988, 1992
William J. “Bill” Clinton – Democrat 1992, 1996
John Forbes Kerry – Democrat 2004
John McCain – Republican 2008
Vice Presidential Candidates
*Charles G. Dawes – Republican 1924
*Richard M. Nixon – Republican 1952, 1956
*Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. – Republican 1960
*Hubert H. Humphrey – Democrat 1964
*Edmund S. Muskie – Democrat 1968
*R. Sargent Shriver Jr. – Democrat 1972
Walter F. Mondale – Democrat 1976, 1980
*George H.W. Bush – Republican 1980, 1984
Geraldine Ferraro – Democrat 1984
*Lloyd M. Bentsen – Democrat 1988
Joseph Lieberman – Democrat 2000
Richard B. “Dick” Cheney – Republican 2000, 2004

Council on Foreign Relations: Ambassadors and Diplomats

Ambassadors to European countries and Canada

U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain
*John W. Davis (1918-1921)
*Frank B. Kellogg (1924-1925)
*Alanson B. Houghton (1925-1929)
*Charles G. Dawes (1929-1931)
*Andrew W. Mellon (1932-1933)
*W. Averell Harriman (1946)
*Lewis W. Douglas (1947-1950)
*Walter S. Gifford (1950-1953)
*Winthrop W. Aldrich (1953-1957)
*John Hay Whitney (1957-1961)
*David K.E. Bruce (1961-1969)
*Elliot L. Richardson (1975-1976)
*Anne L. Armstrong (1976-1977)
*Kingman Brewster Jr. (1977-1981)
Henry E. Catto Jr. (1989-1991)
*(Adm.) William J. Crowe Jr. (1994-1997)
Philip J. Lader (1997-2001)

U.S. Ambassador to Germany
(West Germany from 1949-1991)
*James W. Gerard (1913-1917)
*Alanson B. Houghton (1922-1925)
*Frederic M. Sackett (1930-1933)
*William E. Dodd (1933-1937) [Nazi regime]
*Hugh R. Wilson (1938) [Nazi regime]
*James B. Conant (1955-1957)
*David K.E. Bruce (1957-1959)
*Walter C. Dowling (1959-1963)
*George C. McGhee (1963-1968)
*Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (1968-1969)
*Kenneth Rush (1969-1972)
*Martin J. Hillenbrand (1972-1976)
*Walter J. Stoessel Jr. (1976-1981)
*Arthur F. Burns (1981-1985)
Richard R. Burt (1985-1989)
Robert M. Kimmitt (1991-1993)
*Richard C. Holbrooke (1993-1994)
*Charles E. Redman (1994-1996)
J. D. Bindenagel (1996-1997) [Charge d’Affaires ad interim]
John C. Kornblum (1997-2001)

U.S. Ambassador to East Germany
*John Sherman Cooper (1974-1976)
*Herbert S. Okun (1980-1983)
Rozanne Ridgway (1983-1985)

U.S. Ambassador to the Netherlands
*John W. Garrett (1917-1919) [Minister]
*William Phillips (1920-1922) [Minister]
*Richard M. Tobin (1923-1929) [Minister]
*Stanley K. Hornbeck (1944-1947)
*Selden Chapin (1949-1953)
*William R. Tyler (1965-1969)
*Robert J. McCloskey (1976-1978)
Geri M. Joseph (1978-1981)
L. Paul Bremer (1983-1986)
Clifford M. Sobel (2001-2005)

U.S. Ambassador to France
*Jesse Isidor Straus (1933-1936)
*William C. Bullitt (1936-1940)
*David K.E. Bruce (1949-1952)
*James Clement Dunn (1952-1953)
*C. Douglas Dillon (1953-1957)
*Amory Houghton (1957-1961)
*James M. Gavin (1961-1962)
*Charles E. Bohlen (1962-1968)
*Robert Sargent Shriver Jr. (1968-1970)
*Arthur K. Watson (1970-1972)
*John N. Irwin II (1973-1974)
*Kenneth Rush (1974-1977)
Arthur A. Hartman (1977-1981)
*Evan Griffith Galbraith (1981-1985)
Walter J.P. Curley Jr. (1989-1993)
*Pamela C. Harriman (1993-1997)
Felix G. Rohatyn (1997-2000)

U.S. Ambassador to Italy
*Henry P. Fletcher (1924-1929)
*John W. Garrett (1929-1933)
*William Phillips (1936-1941)
*James Clement Dunn (1947-1952)
*Ellsworth Bunker (1952-1953)
*Clare Boothe Luce (1953-1956)
*James D. Zellerbach (1957-1960)
*G. Frederick Reinhardt (1961-1968)
Richard N. Gardner (1977-1981)
*Maxwell M. Rabb (1981-1989)
Reginald Bartholomew (1993-1997)

U.S. Ambassador to Spain
*Claude G. Bowers (1933-1939)
*Alexander W. Weddell (1939-1942)
*Carlton J.H. Hayes (1942-1945)
*Norman Armour (1945)
*Philip W. Bonsal (1946-1947) [Charge d’Affaires ad interim]
*Lincoln MacVeagh (1952-1953)
*James Clement Dunn (1953-1955)
*Angier Biddle Duke (1965-1968)
Terence A. Todman (1978-1983)
*Thomas O. Enders (1983-1986)
Reginald Bartholomew (1986-1989)
Richard N. Gardner (1993-1997)

U.S. Ambassador to Portugal
*Robert G. Caldwell (1933-1937)
*John C. Wiley (1947-1948)
*Lincoln MacVeagh (1948-1952)
*George W. Anderson Jr. (1963-1966)
*W. Tapley Bennett Jr. (1966-1969)
*Stuart N. Scott (1974-1975)
Frank C. Carlucci (1975-1978)
Richard J. Bloomfield (1978-1982)
Henry Allen Holmes (1982-1985)
*Everett Ellis Briggs (1990-1993)
Sharon P. Wilkinson (1993-1994) [Charge d’Affaire ad interim]
Elizabeth Frawley Bagley (1994-1997)
U.S. Ambassador to Russia
(Soviet Union from 1917-1991)
*John W. Riddle (1907-1909)
*William C. Bullitt (1933-1936)
*Laurence A. Steinhardt (1939-1941)
*(Adm.) William H. Standley (1942-1943)
*W. Averell Harriman (1943-1946)
*(Gen.) Walter Bedell Smith (1946-1948)
*(Adm.) Alan G. Kirk (1949-1951)
*George F. Kennan (1952)
*Charles E. Bohlen (1953-1957)
*Llewellyn E. Thompson Jr. (1957-1962)
*Foy D. Kohler (1962-1966)
*Llewellyn E. Thompson Jr. (1966-1969)
*Jacob D. Beam (1969-1973)
*Walter J. Stoessel Jr. (1974-1976)
*Thomas J. Watson Jr. (1979-1981)
Arthur A. Hartman (1981-1987)
Jack F. Matlock Jr. (1987-1991)
Robert S. Strauss (1991-1992)
Thomas R. Pickering (1993-1996)
*Alexander Vershbow (2001-2005)
William J. Burns (2005-2008)
Michael McFaul (2012-present)

U.S. Ambassador to Poland
*Hugh S. Gibson (1919-1924) [Minister]
*F. Lammot Belin (1932-1933)
*John Cudahy (1933-1937)
*Arthur Bliss Lane (1944-1947)
*Waldemar J. Gallman (1948-1950)
*Jacob D. Beam (1957-1961)
*John M. Cabot (1962-1965)
*Walter J. Stoessel Jr. (1968-1972)
*William E. Schaufele Jr. (1978-1980)
*Nicholas A. Rey (1993-1997)
Lee A. Feinstein (2009-2012)

U.S. Ambassador to Czech Republic (Czechoslovakia from 1919-1992)
*Richard Crane (1919-1921) [Minister]
*Francis White (1933) [Minister]
*Wilbur J. Carr (1937-1939) [Minister]
*Laurence A. Steinhardt (1945-1948)
*Ellis O. Briggs (1949-1952)
*Jacob D. Beam (1966-1969)
Jack F. Matlock Jr. (1981-1983)
William H. Luers (1983-1986)
Shirley Temple Black (1989-1992)
Adrian A. Basora (1992-1995)
Jenonne Walker (1995-1998)
John H. F. Shattuck (1998-2000)

U.S. Ambassador to Hungary
*Ulysses Grant-Smith (1922) [Minister]
*Nicholas Roosevelt (1930-1933) [Minister]
*Selden Chapin (1947-1949) [Minister]
*Martin J. Hillenbrand (1967-1969)
Richard F. Pedersen (1973-1975)
*Philip M. Kaiser (1977-1980)
*Harry E. Bergold Jr. (1980-1983)
Mark Palmer (1986-1990)
Donald M. Blinken (1994-1997)
Note: *= former Council on Foreign Relations member; name does not appear on 2012 Council on Foreign Relations membership roster.

U.S. Ambassador to Canada
*William Phillips (1927-1929) [Minister]
*Norman Armour (1935-1938) [Minister]
*Jay Pierrepont Moffat (1940-1943) [Minister]
*Laurence A. Steinhardt (1948-1950)
*Robert D. Stuart Jr. (1953-1956)
*Livingston T. Merchant (1956-1958, 1961-62)
*W. Walton Butterworth (1962-1968)
*Harold F. Linder (1968-1969)
*Adolph W. Schmidt (1969-1974)
*Thomas O. Enders (1975-1979)
Edward N. Ney (1989-1992)
*Peter Barry Teeley (1992-1993)
Gordon D. Giffin (1997-2001)

U.S. Ambassador to Belgium
*Henry P. Fletcher (1922-1924)
*William Phillips (1924-1927)
*Hugh S. Gibson (1927-1933, 1937-1938)
*Dave Hennen Morris (1933-1937)
*John Cudahy (1940)
*(Adm.) Alan G. Kirk (1946-1949)
*Robert D. Murphy (1949-1952)
*Myron M. Cowen (1952-1953)
*William A. M. Burden (1959-1961)
*Douglas MacArthur II (1961-1965)
*Robert Strausz-Hupe (1972-1974)
Anne Cox Chambers (1977-1981)
Bruce S. Gelb (1991-1993)
Alan John Blinken (1993-1998)

U.S. Ambassador to Switzerland
*Joseph C. Grew (1921-1924) [Minister]
*Hugh S. Gibson (1924-1927) [Minister]
*Hugh R. Wilson (1927-1937) [Minister]
*Leland Harrison (1937-1947) [Minister]
*Richard C. Patterson Jr. (1951-1953)
*Robert M. McKinney (1961-1963)
*Shelby C. Davis (1969-1975)
*Nathaniel Davis (1975-1977)
*Richard D. Vine (1979-1981)

U.S. Ambassador to Austria
*George S. Messersmith (1934-1937)
*John C. Wiley (1937-1938) [Charge d’Affaires]
*Llewellyn E. Thompson Jr. (1952-1957)
*Douglas MacArthur II (1967-1969)
*Milton A. Wolf (1977-1980)
*Philip M. Kaiser (1980-1981)
Ronald S. Lauder (1986-1987)
*Henry A. Grunwald (1988-1990)
Roy M. Huffington (1990-1993)
Swanee Hunt (1993-1997)
Kathryn Walt Hall (1997-2001)

U.S. Ambassador to Greece
*Robert P. Skinner (1926-1932)
*Lincoln MacVeagh (1933-1941, 1943-1947)
*George V. Allen (1956-1957)
*Ellis O. Briggs (1959-1962)
*Henry R. Labouisse Jr. (1962-1965)
Phillips Talbot (1965-1969)
*Jack B. Kubisch (1974-1977)
*Robert J. McCloskey (1978-1981)
R. Nicholas Burns (1997-2001)
Thomas J. Miller (2001-2004)
Daniel V. Speckhard (2007-2010)

U.S. Ambassador to Malta
Gina K. Abercrombie-Winstanley (2012-pres.) U.S. Ambassador to Sweden
*Robert Woods Bliss (1923-1927) [Minister]
*Leland Harrison (1927-1929) [Minister]
*Laurence A. Steinhardt (1933-1937) [Min.]
*Herschel V. Johnson (1941-1946) [Min.]
*W. Walton Butterworth (1950-1953)
*John M. Cabot (1954-1957)
*Francis White (1957-1958)
*Jerome H. Holland (1970-1972)
*Robert Strausz-Hupe (1974-1976)
David Shiverick Smith (1976-1977)
*Charles E. Redman (1989-1992)
Lyndon L. Olson Jr. (1998-2001)
Charles A. Heimbold Jr. (2001-2004)
Mark F. Brzezinski (2011-present)

U.S. Ambassador to Denmark
*Joseph C. Grew (1920-1921)
*Angier Biddle Duke (1968-1969)
*Philip K. Crowe (1973-1975)
*Warren D. Manshel (1978-1981)
Terence A. Todman (1983-1989)
Edward E. Elson (1994-1998)
Laurie S. Fulton (2009-2013)

U.S. Ambassador to Finland
*John M. Cabot (1950-1952) [Minister]
Rozanne Ridgway (1977-1980)
*James E. Goodby (1980-1981)
Rockwell A. Schnabel (1986-1989)
John Hubert Kelly (1991-1994)
*Eric S. Edelman (1998-2001)

U.S. Ambassador to Iceland
*Lincoln MacVeagh (1941-1942) [Minister]
*James K. Penfield (1961-1967)
Charles E. Cobb Jr. (1989-1992)

U.S. Ambassador to Norway
*Hoffman Philip (1930-1935)
*Lithgow Osborne (1944-1946)
*Phillip K. Crowe (1969-1973)
Robin Chandler Duke (2000-2001)

U.S. Ambassador to Ireland
*John Cudahy (1937-1940) [Minister]
Walter J.P. Curley Jr. (1975-1977)
Jean Kennedy Smith (1993-1998)
Thomas C. Foley (2006-2009)

U.S. Ambassador to Luxembourg
(U.S. Minister to Luxembourg: c.1917-1953)
*John W. Garrett (1917-1919)
*Henry P. Fletcher (1923-1924)
*William Phillips (1920-1922, 1924-1927)
*Hugh S. Gibson (1927-1933, 1937-1938)
*Dave Hennen Morris (1933-1937)
*John Cudahy (1940)
*Jay Pierrepont Moffat (1941-1943)
*(Adm.) Alan G. Kirk (1946-1949)
*William Rivkin (1962-1965)
*Patricia Roberts Harris (1965-1967)
James G. Lowenstein (1977-1981)

Envoys to the Holy See (Vatican City)
*Myron C. Taylor (1939-1950) [as Personal Representaive]
*Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (1970-1977) [as Personal Representative] U.S. Ambassador to Serbia/Yugoslavia/ Serbia-Montenegro
*John W. Riddle (1906-1907) [Minister]
*Arthur Bliss Lane (1937-1941)
*Lincoln MacVeagh (1943-1944)
*Richard C. Patterson Jr. (1944-1946)
*George V. Allen (1950-1953)
*George F. Kennan (1961-1963)
Laurence H. Silberman (1975-1977)
Lawrence Eagleburger (1977-1980)
*Warren Zimmermann (1989-1992)

U.S. Ambassador to Romania
*John W. Riddle (1905-1907) [Minister)
*William S. Culbertson (1925-1928) [Minister]
*Leland Harrison (1935-1937) [Minister]
*Robert H. Thayer (1955-1957) [Minister]
Harry G. Barnes Jr. (1973-1976)
Alfred H. Moses (1994-1997)
*Michael E. Guest (2001-2005)

U.S. Ambassador to Bulgaria
*Donald R. Heath (1947-1950) [Minister]
*Nathaniel Davis (1965-1966) [Minister]
*Raymond L. Garthoff (1977-1979)
Avis T. Bohlen (1996-1999)
James W. Pardew (2002-2005)

U.S. Ambassador to Slovenia
E. Allan Wendt (1993-1995)
Nancy H. Ely-Raphel (1998-2001)

U.S. Ministers to Lithuania
*Robert P. Skinner (1932-1933)
*John Van A. MacMurray (1933-1936)
*Arthur Bliss Lane (1936-1937)

U.S. Minister to Estonia
*Robert P. Skinner (1932-1933)
*John Van A. MacMurray (1934-1936)
*Arthur Bliss Lane (1936-1937)
*John C. Wiley (1938-1940)

U.S. Ministers to Latvia
*Robert P. Skinner (1932-1933)
*John Van A. MacMurray (1933-1936)
*Arthur Bliss Lane (1936-1937)
*John C. Wiley (1938-1940)

U.S. Ambassador to Ukraine
William Green Miller (1993-1998)
Steven K. Pifer (1998-2000)
Carlos E. Pascual (2000-2003)

U.S. Ambassador to Cyprus
*Robert J. McCloskey (1973-1974)
*Rodger P. Davies (1974)
Donald K. Bandler (1999-2001)

Other Ambassadors:
*Ulysses Grant-Smith – Albania (1922-1925)
James Franklin Jeffrey – Albania (2002-2004)
Peter W. Galbraith – Croatia (1993-1998)
Daniel V. Speckhard – Belarus (1997-2000)
Kenneth S. Yalowitz – Belarus (1994-1997); Georgia (1998-2001)
Carl Spielvogel – Slovakia (2000-2001)
Thomas J. Miller – Bosnia and Herzegovina (1999-2001)

Ambassadors to the Middle East
U.S. Ambassador to Turkey
(Ottoman Empire from c. 1887-1919)
*Oscar S. Straus (1887-1889, 1898-1899, 1909-1910)
*Henry Morgenthau Sr. (1913-1916)
*Abram I. Elkus (1916-1917)
*Joseph C. Grew (1927-1932)
*Robert P. Skinner (1933-1936)
*John Van A. MacMurray (1936-1941)
*Laurence A. Steinhardt (1942-1945)
*George C. McGhee (1952-1953)
*Raymond A. Hare (1961-1965)
*Parker T. Hart (1965-1968)
*Robert W. Komer (1968-1969)
*William B. Macomber Jr. (1973-1977)
Ronald I. Spiers (1977-1980)
*James W. Spain (1980-1981)
*Robert Strausz-Hupe (1981-1989)
Morton I. Abramowitz (1989-1991)
Marc Grossman (1995-1997)
*Mark Robert Parris (1997-2000)
*Eric S. Edelman (2003-2005)
James Franklin Jeffrey (2008-2010)

U.S. Ambassador to Egypt
*John W. Riddle (1904-1905) [Consul General]
*Henry A. Byroade (1955-1956)
*Raymond A. Hare (1956-1959)
*G. Frederick Reinhardt (1960-1961)
*John S. Badeau (1961-1964)
*Lucius D. Battle (1964-1967)
*Richard H. Nolte (1967)
Joseph N. Greene Jr. (1972-1973) [as Principal Officer]
*Hermann F. Eilts:
(1973-1974, as Principal Officer),
(1974-1979, as Ambassador)
*Alfred L. Atherton Jr. (1979-1983)
Nicholas A. Veliotes (1983-1986)
Frank G. Wisner II (1986-1991)
Robert H. Pelletreau Jr. (1991-1993)
Daniel C. Kurtzer (1998-2001)
C. David Welch (2001-2005)

U.S. Ambassador to Jordan
*Joseph C. Green (1952-1953)
*William B. Macomber Jr. (1961-1963)
*Robert G. Barnes (1964-1966)
*L. Dean Brown (1970-1974)
Thomas R. Pickering (1974-1978)
Nicholas A. Veliotes (1978-1981)
Richard Noyes Viets (1981-1984)
*Paul H. Boeker (1984-1987)
William J. Burns (1998-2001)

U.S. Ambassador to Israel
*James G. McDonald (1949-1950)
Ogden R. Reid (1959-1961)
*Samuel W. Lewis (1977-1985)
Thomas R. Pickering (1985-1988)
Edward P. Djerejian (1993-1994)
Martin S. Indyk (1995-1997, 2000-2001)
Daniel C. Kurtzer (2001-2005)
James B. Cunningham (2008-2011)

U.S. Ambassador to Azerbaijan
Richard L. Morningstar (2012-present)
U.S. Ambassador to Saudi Arabia
*William A. Eddy (1944-1946)
*Raymond A. Hare (1950-1953)
*Donald R. Heath (1958-1961)
*Parker T. Hart (1961-1965)
*Hermann F. Eilts (1965-1970)
*James E. Akins (1973-1975)
Richard W. Murphy (1981-1983)
Walter L. Cutler (1984-1987, 1988-1989)
C. David Welch (1992-1994) [Charge d’Affaires ad interim]
Raymond E. Mabus (1994-1996)
Wyche Fowler Jr. (1996-2001)
Robert W. Jordan (2002-2003)

U.S. Ambassador to Iraq
*Loy W. Henderson (1943-1945) [Minister]
*Waldemar J. Gallman (1954-1958)
L. Paul Bremer (2003-2004) [Pro-Consul]
John D. Negroponte (2004-2005)
Zalmay Khalilzad (2005-2007)
Ryan C. Crocker (2007-2009)
James Franklin Jeffrey (2010-2012)

U.S. Ambassador to Syria
*Charles W. Yost (1957-1958)
Richard W. Murphy (1974-1978)
Edward P. Djerejian (1988-1991)
Christopher W. S. Ross (1991-1998)
Ryan C. Crocker (1999-2001)

U.S. Ambassador to Lebanon
*Harold B. Minor (1951-1953)
*Raymond A. Hare (1953-1954)
*Donald R. Heath (1955-1958)
*Robert M. McClintock (1958-1961)
*Richard B. Parker (1977-1978)
Reginald Bartholomew (1983-1986)
John Hubert Kelly (1986-1988)
Ryan C. Crocker (1990-1993)
*Jeffrey D. Feltman (2004-2009)

U.S. Ambassador to Northern Yemen (1967-1990) and Yemen
*Raymond A. Hare (1950-1953) [Minister]
*Donald R. Heath (1958-1959) [Minister]
*Raymond A. Hare (1959-1960) [Minister]
*G. Frederick Reinhardt (1960-1961) [Minister]
*Parker T. Hart (1961-1962) [Minister]
William A. Rugh (1984-1987) (Northern Yemen)
Charles F. Dunbar (1988-1991) (Northern Yemen)
Edmund J. Hull (2001-2004)

U.S. Ambassador to Oman
George Cranwell Montgomery (1985-1989)
Frances D. Cook (1996-1999)

U.S. Ambassador to United Arab Emirates
Michael E. Sterner (1974-1975)
Patrick N. Theros (1981-1982) [Charge d’Affaires ad interim]
William A. Rugh (1992-1994)
Marcelle M. Wahba (2001-2004)

U.S. Ambassador to Kuwait
*Parker T. Hart (1962-1963)
Anthony C.E. Quainton (1984-1987)
Ryan C. Crocker (1994-1997) U.S. Ambassador to Iran
*Hoffman Philip (1926-1928) [Minister]
*George V. Allen (1946-1948)
*John C. Wiley (1948-1950)
*Loy W. Henderson (1951-1954)
*Selden Chapin (1955-1958)
*Julius C. Holmes (1961-1965)
*Douglas MacArthur II (1969-1972)
*Richard Helms (1973-1977)
*William H. Sullivan (1977-1979)

U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan
*Henry A. Byroade (1973-1977)
*Arthur W. Hummel Jr. (1977-1981)
Ronald I. Spiers (1981-1983)
Deane R. Hinton (1983-1986)
*Robert B. Oakley (1988-1991)
Nicholas Platt (1991-1992)
Nancy Jo Powell (2002-2004)
Ryan C. Crocker (2004-2007)

U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan
*Henry A. Byroade (1959-1962)
*Theodore L. Eliot Jr. (1973-1978)
Charles F. Dunbar (1982-1983) (Charge d’Affaires ad interim)
Zalmay Khalilzad (2003-2005)
Karl W. Eikenberry (2009-2011)
Ryan C. Crocker (2011-2012)
James B. Cunningham (2012-present)

U.S. Ambassador to Morocco
Consul:
*John Campbell White (1940-1941)
*Joseph Satterthwaite (1953-1955)
*Julius C. Holmes (1955-1956)
Ambassador:
*Charles W. Yost (1958-1961)
*Philip W. Bonsal (1961-1962)
*John H. Ferguson (1962-1964)
*Robert Anderson (1976-1978)
*Richard B. Parker (1978-1979)
*Angier Biddle Duke (1979-1981)
Joseph Verner Reed Jr. (1981-1985)
Marc Charles Ginsberg (1993-1997)

U.S. Ambassador to Tunisia
*Walter N. Walmsley (1959-1962)
Stephen W. Bosworth (1979-1981)
Walter L. Cutler (1982-1984)
Robert H. Pelletreau Jr. (1987-1991)
Robin Lynn Raphel (1997-2000)
Rust Macpherson Deming (2001-2003)

U.S. Ambassador to Algeria
*Richard B. Parker (1975-1977)
Ulric St. Clair Haynes Jr. (1977-1981)
Christopher W.S. Ross (1988-1991)
Cameron R. Hume (1997-2000)

U.S. Ambassador to Libya
*David D. Newsom (1965-1969)

U.S. Ambassador to Bahrain
Robert H. Pelletreau Jr. (1979-1980)

U.S. Ambassador to Qatar
Charles F. Dunbar (1983-1985)
Patrick N. Theros (1995-1998)
Charles G. Untermeyer (2004-2007)

Ambassadors to Asian and Pacific countries
U.S. Ambassador to Communist China
Liaison Officers:
*David K.E. Bruce (1973-1974)
*George H.W. Bush (1974-1975)
*Thomas S. Gates Jr. (1976-1977)
*Leonard Woodcock (1977-1979)

Ambassadors:
*Leonard Woodcock (1979-1981)
*Arthur W. Hummel Jr. (1981-1985)
Winston Lord (1985-1989)
*James R. Lilley (1989-1991)
J. Stapleton Roy (1991-1995)
(Sen.) James R. Sasser (1995-1999)
(Adm.) Joseph W. Prueher (1999-2001)
Clark T. Randt Jr. (2001-2009)
*Jon M. Huntsman Jr. (2009-2011)

U.S. Ambassador to Japan
*Roland S. Morris (1917-1920)
*W. Cameron Forbes (1930-1932)
*Joseph C. Grew (1932-1941)
*Robert D. Murphy (1952-1953)
*Douglas MacArthur II (1957-1961)
*Edwin O. Reischauer (1961-1966)
*Robert S. Ingersoll (1972-1973)
*James D. Hodgson (1974-1976)
Michael H. Armacost (1989-1993)
(Sen.) Walter F. Mondale (1993-1996)
(Rep.) Thomas S. Foley (1997-2001)
(Sen.) Howard H. Baker Jr. (2001-2005)

U.S. Ambassador to South Korea
*Ellis O. Briggs (1952-1955)
*Walter C. Dowling (1956-1959)
*Winthrop G. Brown (1964-1967)
*Philip C. Habib (1971-1974)
*Richard L. Sneider (1974-1978)
*William H. Gleysteen Jr. (1978-1981)
*James R. Lilley (1986-1988)
Donald P. Gregg (1989-1993)
James T. Laney (1993-1997)
Stephen W. Bosworth (1997-2001)
*Alexander Vershbow (2006-2009)

U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of China (moved to the island of Taiwan in 1949)
*Charles R. Crane (1920-1921) [Minister]
*John Van A. MacMurray (1925-1929) [Min.]
*Nelson T. Johnson (1930-1941)
*(Adm.) Alan G. Kirk (1962-1963)
*(Adm.) Jerauld Wright (1963-1965)
*Leonard Unger (1974-1979)

U.S. Ambassador to Australia
*Nelson T. Johnson (1941-1945) [Minister]
*Myron M. Cowen (1948-1949)
*Amos J. Peaslee (1953-1956)
*Douglas M. Moffat (1956)
*William H. Crook (1968-1969)
Edward J. Perkins (1993-1996)
Jeffrey L. Bleich (2009-present)

U.S. Ambassador to New Zealand
*Anthony Akers (1961-1963) U.S. Ambassador to India
*Loy W. Henderson (1948-1951)
*Chester Bowles (1951-1953)
*George V. Allen (1953-1954)
*John Sherman Cooper (1955-1956)
*Ellsworth Bunker (1956-1961)
*John Kenneth Galbraith (1961-1963)
*Chester Bowles (1963-1969)
*Daniel Patrick Moynihan (1973-1975)
*Robert F. Goheen (1977-1980)
Harry G. Barnes Jr. (1981-1985)
William Clark Jr. (1989-1992)
Thomas R. Pickering (1992-1993)
Frank G. Wisner II (1994-1997)
Richard F. Celeste (1997-2001)
Robert D. Blackwill (2001-2003)
David C. Mulford (2004-2009)
Nancy Jo Powell (2012-present)

U.S. Ambassador to Nepal
*Loy W. Henderson (1948-1951) [Minister]
*Chester Bowles (1951-1953)
*George V. Allen (1953-1954)
*John Sherman Cooper (1955-1956)
*Ellsworth Bunker (1956-1959)
*Carol C. Laise (1966-1973)
Julia Chang Bloch (1989-1993)
Sandra Louise Vogelgesang (1994-1997)
Nancy Jo Powell (2007-2009)

U.S. Ambassador to Bangladesh
Jane Abell Coon (1981-1984)
Howard B. Schaffer (1984-1987)
Mary Ann Peters (2000-2003)

U.S. Ambassador to Sri Lanka
(known as Ceylon from 1949-1971)
*Joseph C. Satterthwaite (1949-1953)
*Phillip K. Crowe (1953-1957)
*Robert Strausz-Hupe (1970-1971)
W. Howard Wriggins (1977-1979)
James W. Spain (1985-1989)
Marion V. Creekmore Jr. (1989-1992)
Teresita C. Schaffer (1992-1995)

U.S. Ambassador to Maldives Island
*Robert Strausz-Hupe (1970-1971)
W. Howard Wriggins (1977-1979)
James W. Spain (1985-1989)
Marion V. Creekmore Jr. (1989-1992)
Teresita C. Schaffer (1992-1995)

U.S. Ambassador to Burma
*Joseph C. Satterthwaite (1955-1957)
*John Scott Everton (1961-1963)
*Henry A. Byroade (1963-1968)
*Arthur W. Hummel Jr. (1968-1971)

U.S. Ambassador to Singapore
J. Stapleton Roy (1984-1986)
*Jon M. Huntsman Jr. (1992-1993)
*Franklin L. Lavin (2001-2005)

U.S. Ambassador to Malaysia
Ronald D. Palmer (1981-1982)
U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines
*Paul V. McNutt (1946-1947)
*Myron M. Cowen (1949-1951)
*Charles E. Bohlen (1957-1959)
*William E. Stevenson (1962-1964)
*Henry A. Byroade (1969-1973)
*William H. Sullivan (1973-1977)
*David D. Newsom (1977-1978)
Richard W. Murphy (1978-1981)
Michael H. Armacost (1982-1984)
Stephen W. Bosworth (1984-1987)
Nicholas Platt (1987-1991)
Frank G. Wisner II (1991-1992)
Richard H. Solomon (1992-1993)
John D. Negroponte (1993-1996)

U.S. Ambassador to Thailand
*Edwin F. Stanton (1946-1953)
*William J. “Wild Bill” Donovan (1953-1954)
*Kenneth T. Young Jr. (1961-1963)
*Leonard Unger (1967-1973)
*William R. Kintner (1973-1975)
*Charles S. Whitehouse (1975-1978)
Morton I. Abramowitz (1978-1981)
William H. Itoh (1995-1999)
Eric G. John (2008-2010)

U.S. Ambassador to Cambodia
*Donald R. Heath (1950-1954)
*Robert M. McClintock (1954-1956)
*Emory C. Swank (1970-1973)

U.S. Ambassador to Laos
*Donald R. Heath (1950-1954) [Minister]
*Charles W. Yost (1954-1956)
*Horace H. Smith (1958-1960)
*Winthrop G. Brown (1960-1962)
*Leonard Unger (1962-1964)
*William H. Sullivan (1964-1969)
*Charles S. Whitehouse (1973-1975)

U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam
*Donald R. Heath (1950-1954) [Minister]
*G. Frederick Reinhardt (1955-1957)
*Frederick E. Nolting Jr. (1961-1963)
*Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (1963-1964)
*(Gen.) Maxwell D. Taylor (1964-1965)
*Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (1965-1967)
*Ellsworth Bunker (1967-1973)

U.S. Ambassador to Indonesia
*David D. Newsom (1974-1977)
Paul D. Wolfowitz (1986-1989)
J. Stapleton Roy (1996-1999)
Cameron R. Hume (2007-2010)

U.S. Ambassador to Kazakhstan
William H. Courtney (1992-1995)
John M. Ordway (2004-2008)

Other Countries
Christopher H. Phillips – Brunei (1989-1991)
Aurelia E. Brazeal – Micronesia (1990-1993)
William H. Courtney – Georgia (1995-1997)
John M. Ordway – Armenia (2001-2004)
Tatiana C. Gfoeller – Kyrgyzstan (2008-2011)
Desaix Anderson – Red Vietnam (1995-1997) [charge d’Affaires ad interim]
Note: Philippines President Ferdinand Marcos resigned from office and fled the Philippines on February 25, 1986; Indonesia’s President Suharto resigned from office on May 21, 1998.
Ambassadors to Latin American & Caribbean countries

U.S. Ambassador to Mexico
*Henry P. Fletcher (1917-1919)
*Dwight W. Morrow (1927-1930)
*George S. Messersmith (1942-1946)
*Francis White (1953-1957)
*Thomas Clifton Mann (1961-1963)
*Charles J. Pilliod Jr. (1986-1989)
John D. Negroponte (1989-1993)
James R. Jones (1993-1997)
Antonio Oscar Garza Jr. (2002-2009)
Carlos E. Pascual (2009-2011)

U.S. Ambassador to Cuba
*Harry F. Guggenheim (1929-1933)
*Sumner Welles (1933)
*George S. Messersmith (1940-1942)
*Spruille Braden (1942-1945)
*Philip W. Bonsal (1959-1960)

U.S. Ambassador to Panama
*John C. Wiley (1951-1953)
*Selden Chapin (1953-1955)
*William J. Jorden (1974-1978)
Ambler H. Moss Jr. (1978-1982)
*Everett Ellis Briggs (1982-1986)
Deane R. Hinton (1990-1994)
Linda E. Watt (2002-2005)

U.S. Ambassador to Nicaragua
*Arthur Bliss Lane (1933-1936)
*Lawrence A. Pezzullo (1979-1981)
Anthony C.E. Quainton (1982-1984)
*Harry E. Bergold Jr. (1984-1987)

U.S. Ambassador to Honduras
*Philip M. Brown (1909-1910)
*Hewson A. Ryan (1969-1973)
John D. Negroponte (1981-1985)
*Everett Ellis Briggs (1986-1989)
Cresencio S. Arcos Jr. (1990-1993)
*William T. Pryce (1993-1996)

U.S. Ambassador to El Salvador
*Angier Biddle Duke (1952-1953)
*Thomas Clifton Mann (1955-1957)
Henry E. Catto Jr. (1971-1973)
Ignacio E. Lozano Jr. (1976-1977)
Deane R. Hinton (1981-1983)
Thomas R. Pickering (1983-1985)
Mari Carmen Aponte (2010-present)

U.S. Ambassador to Guatemala
*Sheldon Whitehouse (1930-1933)
*Richard C. Patterson Jr. (1948-1950)
*Norman Armour (1954-1955)
*Nathaniel Davis (1968-1971)
Alberto M. Piedra (1984-1987)
*Thomas F. Stroock (1989-1992)

U.S. Ambassador to Costa Rica
*Arthur Bliss Lane (1941-1942)
Viron P. Vaky (1972-1973)
Terence A. Todman (1975-1977)
Deane R. Hinton (1987-1990)
*Thomas J. Dodd (1997-2001) (not a Congressman)
John J. Danilovich (2001-2004) U.S. Ambassador to Brazil
*Hugh S. Gibson (1933-1936)
*Adolf A. Berle Jr. (1945-1946)
*Herschel V. Johnson (1948-1953)
*James Clement Dunn (1955-1956)
*Ellis O. Briggs (1956-1959)
*John M. Cabot (1959-1961)
*Lincoln Gordon (1961-1966)
*John W. Tuthill (1966-1969)
*Diego C. Asencio (1983-1986)
Donna J. Hrinak (2002-2004)
John J. Danilovich (2004-2005)
Clifford M. Sobel (2006-2009)

U.S. Ambassador to Argentina
*John W. Garrett (1912-1913) [Minister]
*John W. Riddle (1922-1925)
*Robert Woods Bliss (1927-1933)
*Alexander W. Weddell (1933-1938)
*Norman Armour (1939-1944)
*Spruille Braden (1945)
*George S. Messersmith (1946-1947)
*James Bruce (1947-1949)
*Ellsworth Bunker (1951-1952)
*Robert M. McClintock (1962-1964)
*Edwin M. Martin (1964-1968)
*Carter L. Burgess (1968-1969)
Terence A. Todman (1989-1993)
*Vilma S. Martinez (2009-present)

U.S. Ambassador to Colombia
*Hoffman Philip (1919-1922)
*Sheldon Whitehouse (1933-1934)
*Spruille Braden (1939-1942)
*Arthur Bliss Lane (1942-1944)
*John C. Wiley (1944-1947)
*Philip W. Bonsal (1955-1957)
*John M. Cabot (1957-1959)
*Covey T. Oliver (1964-1966)
Viron P. Vaky (1974-1976)
*Diego C. Asencio (1977-1980)
Thomas E. McNamara (1988-1991)

U.S. Ambassador to Chile
*Henry P. Fletcher (1910-1916)
*William S. Culbertson (1928-1933)
*Hoffman Philip (1935-1937)
*Norman Armour (1938-1939)
*Claude G. Bowers (1939-1953)
*Walter Howe (1958-1961)
*Charles W. Cole (1961-1964)
*Ralph A. Dungan (1964-1967)
*Edward M. Korry (1967-1971)
*Nathaniel Davis (1971-1973)
George W. Landau (1977-1982)
Harry G. Barnes Jr. (1985-1988)
*Gabriel Guerra-Mondragon (1994-1998)
*John O’Leary (1998-2001)

U.S. Ambassador to Venezuela
*John W. Garrett (1911) [Minister]
*Norman Armour (1950-1951)
*Robert M. McClintock (1970-1975)
Viron P. Vaky (1976-1978)
William H. Luers (1978-1982)
George W. Landau (1982-1985)
Michael M. Skol (1990-1993)
Donna J. Hrinak (2000-2002) U.S. Ambassador to Peru
*Laurence A. Steinhardt (1937-1939)
*John Campbell White (1944-1945)
*Ellis O. Briggs (1955-1956)
*Theodore Achilles (1956-1960)
*Selden Chapin (1960-1961)
Robert W. Dean (1974-1977)
Alexander F. Watson (1986-1989)
Anthony C.E. Quainton (1989-1992)
Dennis C. Jett (1996-1999)

U.S. Ambassador to Bolivia
*Edward F. Feely (1930-1933) [Minister]
*Robert G. Caldwell (1937-1939)
*Philip W. Bonsal (1957-1959)
*Paul H. Boeker (1977-1980)
Donna J. Hrinak (1998-2000)
V. Manuel Rocha (2000-2002)

U.S. Ambassador to Uruguay
*Hoffman Philip (1922-1925)
*U. Grant-Smith (1925-1929)
*Leland Harrison (1930)
*Ellis O. Briggs (1947-1949)
*Lawrence A. Pezzullo (1977-1979)
*Thomas J. Dodd (1993-1997)

U.S. Ambassador to Dominican Republic
*Ellis O. Briggs (1944-1945)
*W. Tapley Bennett Jr. (1964-1966)
*Robert Anderson (1982-1985)
Donna J. Hrinak (1994-1997)
Charles T. Manatt (1999-2001)
Raul H. Yzaguirre (2010-present)

U.S. Ambassador to Bahamas
Ronald I. Spiers (1973-1974)
*Seymour Weiss (1974-1976)

U.S. Ambassador to Jamaica
*William C. Doherty (1962-1964)
*William A. Hewitt (1982-1985)
Sue McCourt Cobb (2001-2005)

U.S. Ambassador to Trinidad & Tobago
*William A. Costello (1967-1969)
*Anthony D. Marshall (1972-1973)
Sally G. Cowal (1991-1994)

U.S. Ambassador to Haiti
*Dana G. Munro (1930-1932) [Minister]
*Norman Armour (1932-1935) [Minister]
*Ferdinand L. Mayer (1937-1940) [Minister]
*John Campbell White (1941-1944)
*Orme Wilson (1944-1946)

Other Ambassadors
George W. Landau – Paraguay (1972-1977)
*Richard J. Bloomfield – Ecuador (1976-1978)
Sally A. Shelton-Colby – Barbados (1979-1981);
Grenada (1979-1981); Dominica (1979-1981); St. Lucia (1979-1981, as Minister)

Ambassadors to African countries

U.S. Ambassador to South Africa
(Apartheid regime, 1948-1990)
*Lincoln MacVeagh (1942-1943) [Minister]
*Waldemar J. Gallman (1951-1954) [Minister]
*Henry A. Byroade (1956-1959)
*Philip K. Crowe (1959-1961)
*Joseph C. Satterthwaite (1961-1965)
Edward J. Perkins (1986-1989)
Princeton N. Lyman (1992-1995)
James A. Joseph (1996-1999)
Cameron R. Hume (2001-2004)
Jendayi Frazer (2004-2005)

U.S. Ambassador to Senegal
*Philip M. Kaiser (1961-1964)
*William Rivkin (1966-1967)
*L. Dean Brown (1967-1969)
Herman J. Cohen (1977-1980)
Walter C. Carrington (1980-1981)
*Charles W. Bray III (1981-1985)
George E. Moose (1988-1991)
Dane F. Smith Jr. (1996-1999)

U.S. Ambassador to Nigeria
John E. Reinhardt (1971-1975)
Donald B. Easum (1975-1979)
Stephen Low (1979-1981)
Thomas R. Pickering (1981-1983)
Princeton N. Lyman (1986-1989)
Walter C. Carrington (1993-1997)
Howard F. Jeter (2001-2003)
*Robin Renee Sanders (2007-2010)

U.S. Ambassador to Kenya
*William Attwood (1964-1965)
*Glenn W. Ferguson (1966-1969)
*Anthony D. Marshall (1973-1977)
*Wilbert J. LeMelle (1977-1980)
Aurelia E. Brazeal (1993-1996)
Johnnie Carson (1999-2003)

U.S. Ambassador to Congo (Kinshasa) (known as Zaire from 1974-1998)
*Clare H. Timberlake (1960-1961)
*Edmund A. Gullion (1961-1964)
Deane R. Hinton (1974-1975)
Walter L. Cutler (1975-1979)
*Robert B. Oakley (1979-1982)
*Brandon H. Grove Jr. (1984-1987)

U.S. Ambassador to Ethiopia
(formerly Abyssinia)
*Hoffman Philip (1909-1910) [Consul]
*Edward M. Korry (1963-1967)
*Arthur W. Hummel Jr. (1975-1976)
Irvin Hicks (1994-1996)
Aurelia E. Brazeal (2002-2005)

U.S. Ambassador to Zimbabwe
(formerly Rhodesia)
David Charles Miller Jr. (1984-1986)
Johnnie Carson (1995-1997)
Tom McDonald (1997-2000) U.S. Ambassador to Tanzania
James W. Spain (1976-1979)
Richard Noyes Viets (1979-1981)
David Charles Miller Jr. (1981-1984)
Charles R. Stith (1998-2001)

U.S. Ambassador to Mozambique
Dennis C. Jett (1993-1996)
Sharon P. Wilkinson (2000-2003)

U.S. Ambassador to Zambia
*Robert C. Good (1965-1968)
Stephen Low (1976-1979)
Frank Wisner II (1979-1982)
Nicholas Platt (1982-1984)
Gordon L. Streeb (1990-1993)

U.S. Ambassador to Uganda
*Clarence Clyde Ferguson Jr. (1970-1972)
Johnnie Carson (1991-1994)
Nancy Jo Powell (1997-1999)

U.S. Ambassador to Burundi
*David E. Mark (1974-1978)
Frances D. Cook (1980-1983)

U.S. Ambassador to Ghana
*Franklin Hall Williams (1966-1968)
Shirley Temple Black (1974-1976)
Nancy Jo Powell (2001-2002)

U.S. Ambassador to Cameroon
*Leland Barrows (1960-1966)
Herbert J. Spiro (1975-1977)
*Mabel M. Smythe (1977-1980)
Frances D. Cook (1989-1993)

U.S. Ambassador to Guinea
*William Attwood (1961-1963)
Terence A. Todman (1972-1975)
Dane F. Smith Jr. (1990-1993)

U.S. Ambassador to Gambia
*William Rivkin (1966-1967)
*L. Dean Brown (1967-1970)
Herman J. Cohen (1977-1980)

U.S. Ambassador to Burkina Faso
(formerly Upper Volta, 1960-1984)
Elliott P. Skinner (1966-1969)
*William E. Schaufele Jr. (1969-1971)
Donald B. Easum (1971-1974)
Sharon P. Wilkinson (1996-1999)

U.S. Ambassador to Somalia
*Robert B. Oakley (1983-1984)
John L. Hirsch (1986) [Charge d’Affaires]

U.S. Ambassador to Mauritania
*Philip M. Kaiser (1961-1964)
Richard W. Murphy (1971-1974)

U.S. Ambassador to Central African Republic
Anthony C.E. Quainton (1976-1978)
Goodwin Cooke (1978-1980)
Robert C. Perry (1999-2001)

U.S. Ambassador to Mali
Robert O. Blake (1970-1973)
*Anne Forrester Holloway (1980-1981)

U.S. Ambassador to Sierra Leone
Michael A. Samuels (1975-1977)
John L. Hirsch (1995-1998)

U.S. Ambassador to Togo
*Leland Barrows (1960-1961)
Ronald D. Palmer (1976-1978)

U.S. Ambassador to Benin
(formerly Dahomey)
*Robert Anderson (1972-1974)
George E. Moose (1983-1986)

U.S. Ambassador to Equatorial Guinea
Herbert J. Spiro (1975-1976)
*Mabel M. Smythe (1979-1980)

U.S. Ambassador to Seychelles
*Anthony D. Marshall (1976-1977)
*Wilbert J. LeMelle 1977-1980)
*David Joseph Fischer (1982-1985)
Irvin Hicks (1985-1987)

other African nations
Edward J. Perkins – Liberia (1985-1986)
*Charles F. Darlington – Gabon (1961-1964)
Horace G. Dawson Jr. – Botswana (1979-1982)
*Michelle D. Gavin – Botswana (2011-present)
John F. Hicks – Eritrea (1996-1997)
*George A. Morgan – Ivory Coast (1965-1969)
Dennis Kux – Cote d’Ivoire (formerly Ivory Coast) (1986-1989)
Terence A. Todman – Chad (1969-1972)
Jennifer C. Ward – Niger (1991-1993)
Ronald D. Palmer – Mauritius (1986-1989)
*Anthony D. Marshall – Malagasy Republic (now known as Madagascar) (1969-1971)
*Robin Renee Sanders – Congo [Brazzaville] (2002-2005)
Cameron R. Hume – Sudan (2006) [as Charge d’Affaires]
Jeffrey A. Bader – Namibia (1999-2001)

Ambassadors to International Organizations
U.S. Representative to the United Nations
*Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (1946)
*Herschel V. Johnson (1946) [acting]
*Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (1953-1960)
*James J. Wadsworth (1960-1961)
*Adlai E. Stevenson Jr. (1961-1965)
*Arthur J. Goldberg (1965-1968)
*George W. Ball (1968)
*Charles W. Yost (1969-1971 )
*George H.W. Bush (1971-1973)
*John A. Scali (1973-1975)
*Daniel P. Moynihan (1975-1976)
*William W. Scranton (1976-1977)
Andrew J. Young (1977-1979)
Donald McHenry (1979-1981)
*Jeane J. Kirkpatrick (1981-1985)
Thomas R. Pickering (1989-1992)
Edward J. Perkins (1992-1993)
Madeleine K. Albright (1993-1997)
Bill Richardson (1997-1998)
*Richard C. Holbrooke (1999-2001)
James B. Cunningham (2001) [acting]
John D. Negroponte (2001-2004)
John R. Bolton (2005-2006)
Zalmay Khalilzad (2007-2009)
Susan E. Rice (2009-2013)

U.S. Representative to the UN European Office
Henry E. Catto Jr. (1976-1977)
William J. Vanden Heuvel (1979)
*Morris B. Abram (1989-1993)
Daniel L. Spiegel (1993-1997)
George E. Moose (1997-2001)

U.S. Representative to UN Vienna Office
Richard S. Williamson (1983-1985)
John B. Ritch III (1993-2001) U.S. Representative to NATO
*John C. Hughes (1953-1955)
*George W. Perkins Jr. (1955-1957)
*W. Randolph Burgess (1957-1961)
*Thomas K. Finletter (1961-1965)
*Harlan B. Cleveland (1965-1969)
*Robert F. Ellsworth (1969-1971)
*David M. Kennedy (1972-1973)
*Donald Rumsfeld (1973-1974)
*David K.E. Bruce (1974-1976)
*Robert Strausz-Hupe (1976-1977)
*W. Tapley Bennett Jr. (1977-1983)
David Abshire (1983-1987)
*Alton G. Keel Jr. (1987-1989)
William Howard Taft IV (1989-1992)
Reginald Bartholomew (1992-1993)
Robert E. Hunter (1993-1997)
*Alexander Vershbow (1997-2001)
R. Nicholas Burns (2001-2005)
Ivo H. Daalder (2009-present)

U.S. Representative to the European Communities/ European Union
*W. Walton Butterworth (1961-1962)
*John W. Tuthill (1962-1966)
*J. Robert Schaetzel (1966-1972)
*Joseph A. Greenwald (1972-1976)
Deane R. Hinton (1976-1979)
*Thomas O. Enders (1979-1981)
*George S. Vest (1981-1985)
James F. Dobbins (1991-1993)
Stuart E. Eizenstat (1993-1996)
Richard L. Morningstar (1999-2001)
Rockwell A. Schnabel (2001-2005)
C. Boyden Gray (2006-2007)
Kristen Silverberg (2008-2009)

U.S. Representative to UNESCO
*Esteban Edward Torres (1978-1979)
Barbara W. Newell (1979-1981) U.S. Representative to OECD
(Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)
*John M. Leddy (1962-1965)
*Philip H. Trezise (1965-1969)
*Joseph A. Greenwald (1969-1972)
*William C. Turner (1974-1977)
*Herbert Salzman (1977-1981)
Abraham Katz (1981-1984)
Denis D. Lamb (1987-1990)
David L. Aaron (1993-1997)
Amy L. Bondurant (1997-2001)
Jeanne L. Phillips (2001-2003)

U.S. Representative to the Organization of American States (OAS)
*John C. Dreier (1951-1960)
*Ellsworth Bunker (1964-1966)
*Sol M. Linowitz (1966-1969)
*Gale W. McGee (1977-1981)
Richard T. F. McCormack (1985-1989)
Luigi R. Einaudi (1989-1993)
Harriet C. Babbitt (1993-1997)

U.S. Ambassador to the U.S. Office for Arms Reductions in Geneva
Max M. Kampelman (1985-1989)
Richard R. Burt (1989-1991)

U.S. Representative to the International Atomic Energy Agency
*Robert M. McKinney (1957-1958)
*Henry DeWolf Smyth (1961-1970)
*T. Keith Glennan (1970-1973)
*Gerard C. Smith (1977-1980)

Other CFR International Officials
*Philip C. Jessup Sr. – Judge of the International Court of Justice (1961-1970)
*Richard R. Baxter – Judge of the International Court of Justice (1978-1980)
Stephen M. Schwebel – Judge of the International Court of Justice (1981-2000); President of ICJ (1997-2000)
Thomas Buergenthal – Judge of the International Court of Justice (2000-2010)
*Oscar Schachter – United Nations Director General of Legal Division (1952-1966)
*Ralph J. Bunche – Under Secretary-General of the United Nations (1968-1971)
*F. Bradford Morse – Under Secretary-General of the United Nations for Political and General Assembly Affairs (1972-1976); Administrator of United Nations Development Programme (1976-1986)
Ronald I. Spiers – Under Secretary General of the United Nations for Political Affairs (1989-1992)
Dick Thornburgh – Under Secretary-General of the United Nations for Administration (1992-1993)
Catherine Ann Bertini – Under Secretary-General of the United Nations for Management (2003-2005)
Gillian Martin Sorensen – Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations for External Relations (1997-2003)
Robert C. Orr – Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations for Policy Coordination and Strategic Planning (2004-present)
D. Stephen Mathias – Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations for Legal Affairs (2010-present)
Michael A. Sheehan – Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations for Peacekeeping Operations (2001-2003)
John G. Ruggie – Assistant UN Secretary-General and Chief Advisor for Strategic Planning to the UN Secretary-General (1997-2001)
Michael W. Doyle – Assistant UN Secretary-General and Special Adviser to the UN Secretary General (2001-2003)
*Rudolph A. Peterson – Administrator of United Nations Development Programme (1972-1976)
William H. Draper III – Administrator of United Nations Development Programme (1986-1993)
*James G. Speth – Administrator of United Nations Development Programme (1993-1999)
*Henry R. Labouisse – Executive Director of UNICEF (1965-1979)
*James P. Grant – Executive Director of UNICEF (1980-1995)
Carol Bellamy – Executive Director of UNICEF (1995-2005)
Ann M. Veneman – Executive Director of UNICEF (2005-2010)
Natalie D. Hahn – Deputy Director of the Programme Funding Office of UNICEF
George H. Aldrich – Judge, Iran-United States Claims Tribunal at The Hague, Netherlands; U.S. representative at the United Nations’ Law of the Sea Conference (1977-1981)
*George S. McGovern – Ambassador to United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (1998-2001)

Council on Foreign Relations: Career Military Officers

Secretary of the Army
*Gordon Gray (1949-1950)
*Frank Pace Jr. (1950-1953)
*Cyrus R. Vance (1962-1964)
Stanley R. Resor (1965-1971)
*Clifford L. Alexander Jr. (1977-1981)
*Michael P.W. Stone (1989-1993)
Togo West (1993-1997)
Louis E. Caldera (1998-2001)
Secretary of the Air Force
*W. Stuart Symington (1947-1950)
*Thomas K. Finletter (1950-1953)
Harold Brown (1965-1969)
*Robert C. Seamans Jr. (1969-1973)
Hans M. Mark (1979-1981)
*Donald B. Rice (1989-1993)
Gen. Merrill McPeak (1993) [acting]
James G. Roche (2001-2005)
Secretary of the Navy
*James V. Forrestal (1944-1947)
*Robert B. Anderson (1953-1954)
*Thomas S. Gates Jr. (1957-1959)
*Paul H. Nitze (1963-1967)
*Charles F. Baird (1967) [acting]
*John H. Chafee (1969-1972)
John W. Warner (1972-1974)
John F. Lehman Jr. (1981-1987)
*James H. Webb (1987-1988)
Raymond E. Mabus (2009-present)

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
*Gen. Lyman L. Lemnitzer (1960-1962)
*Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor (1962-1964)
*Gen. David C. Jones (AF) (1978-1982)
Gen. John W. Vessey Jr. (1982-1985)
*Adm. William Crowe Jr. (1985-1989)
Gen. Colin L. Powell (1989-1993)
Gen. John M. Shalikashvili (1993-1997)
*Gen. Henry H. Shelton 1997-2001)
Gen. Richard B. Myers (AF) (2001-2005)

Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff
Adm. William A. Owens (1994-1996)
*Gen. Joseph W. Ralston (1996-2000)
Gen. Richard B. Myers (2000-2001)
Adm. Edmund P. Giambastiani Jr. (2005-2007)
Air Force Chief of Staff
*Gen. Carl A. Spaatz (1947-1948)
*Gen. David C. Jones (1974-1978)
*Gen. Lew Allen Jr. (1978-1982)
*Gen. Charles A. Gabriel (1982-1986)
Gen. Larry D. Welch (1986-1990)
*Gen. Michael J. Dugan (July 1990-Sept. 1990)
Gen. Merrill A. McPeak (1990-1994)
Gen. Ronald R. Fogleman (1994-1997)
*Gen. Michael E. Ryan (1997-2001)
Gen. John P. Jumper (2001-2005)
Gen. T. Michael Moseley (2005-2008)
Gen. Norton A. Schwartz (2008-2012)

Army Chief of Staff
*Gen. Tasker H. Bliss (1917-1918)
*Gen. Dwight Eisenhower (1945-1948)
*Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway (1953-1955)
*Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor (1955-1959)
*Gen. Lyman L. Lemnitzer (1959-1960)
*Gen. Harold K. Johnson (1964-1968)
*Gen. William C. Westmoreland (1968-1972)
*Gen. Bernard W. Rogers (1976-1979)
Gen. Edward C. Meyer (1979-1983)
*Gen. John A. Wickham Jr. (1983-1987)
Gen. Carl E. Vuono (1987-1991)
Gen. Gordon R. Sullivan (1991-1995)
Gen. Dennis J. Reimer (1995-1999)
Gen. Eric K. Shinseki (1999-2003)

Chief of Naval Operations
*Adm. William V. Pratt (1930-1933)
*Adm. William H. Standley (1933-1937)
*Adm. George W. Anderson Jr. (1961-1963)
*Adm. Elmo Zumwalt Jr. (1970-1974)
Adm. Thomas B. Hayward (1978-1982)
*Adm. Carlisle A. H. Trost (1986-1990)
*Adm. Jeremy M. Boorda (1994-1996)
Adm. Jay L. Johnson (1996-2000)
*Adm. Vernon E. “Vern” Clark (2000-2005)
Adm. Gary Roughead (2007-2011) Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps
Gen. Paul X. Kelley (1983-1987)
*Gen. Carl E. Mundy Jr. (1991-1995)
Gen. Charles C. Krulak (1995-1999)
Gen. James L. Jones Jr. (1999-2003)

Commandant of the Coast Guard
Adm. Robert E. Kramek (1994-1998)
*Adm. James M. Loy (1998-2002)
Adm. Thad W. Allen (2006-2010)
Commander of NORAD
*Gen. John K. Gerhart (1962-1965)
Gen. Richard B. Myers (1998-2000)
Gen. Ralph E. Eberhart (2000-2004)
Adm. Timothy J. Keating (2004-2007)
Gen. Victor E. Renuart Jr. (2007-2010)
Gen. Charles H. Jacoby Jr., Army (2011-present)

Note: *= former Council on Foreign Relations member; name does not appear on 2012 Council on Foreign Relations membership roster.

Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (NATO), SHAPE and Commander of U.S. European Command
*Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, Army (1951-1952)
*Gen. Matthew Ridgway, Army (1952-1953)
*Gen. Alfred Gruenther, Army (1953-1956)
*Gen. Lauris Norstad, Air Force (1956-1963)
*Gen. Lyman L. Lemnitzer, Army (1963-1969)
*Gen. Andrew J. Goodpaster, Army (1969-1974)
*Gen. Alexander M. Haig Jr., Army (1974-1979)
*Gen. Bernard W. Rogers, Army (1979-1987)
*Gen. John R. Galvin, Army (1987-1992)
Gen. John M. Shalikashvili, Army (1992-1993)
Gen. George A. Joulwan, Army (1993-1997)
Gen. Wesley K. Clark, Army (1997-2000)
*Gen. Joseph W. Ralston, Air Force (2000-2003)
Gen. James L. Jones Jr., Marines (2003-2007)
Gen. Bantz J. Craddock, Army (2007-2009)
Adm. James G. Stavridis, Navy (2009-2013)

Commander of U.S. Southern Command
*Gen. Paul F. Gorman, Army (1983-1985)
*Gen. John R. Galvin, Army (1985-1987)
Gen. Fred F. Woerner, Army (1987-1989)
*Gen. Maxwell R. Thurman, Army (1989-1990)
Gen. George A. Joulwan, Army (1990-1993)
Gen. Barry McCaffrey, Army (1994-1996)
Gen. Wesley K. Clark, Army (1996-1997)
Gen. James T. Hill, Army (2002-2004)
Gen. Bantz J. Craddock, Army (2004-2006)
Adm. James G. Stavridis, Navy (2006-2009)

Commander of U.S. Central Command
Gen. Joseph P. Hoar, Marines (1991-1994)
*Gen. Anthony Zinni, Marines (1997-2000)
Gen. John P. Abizaid, Army (2003-2007)
Gen. David H. Petraeus, Army (2008-2010)

Commander of U.S. Northern Command
Gen. Ralph E. Eberhart, Air Force (2002-2004)

Commanding Generals of U.S. Army Divisions
(MG) Maxwell D. Taylor – 82nd Airborne (1942-1944); 101st Airborne (1944)
(MG) James M. Gavin – 82nd Airborne (1944-1948)
(MG) Henry H. Shelton – 82nd Airborne (1991-1993)
(MG) William C. Westmoreland – 101st Airborne (1958-1960)
(MG) Sidney B. Berry – 101st Airborne (1973-1974)
(MG) John A. Wickham Jr. – 101st Airborne (1976-1978)
(MG) John M. Keane – 101st Airborne (1993-1996)
(MG) David H. Petraeus – 101st Airborne (2002-2004)
(MG) Richard G. Stilwell – 1st Armored Division (1967-1968)
Maj. Gen. William L. Nash – 1st Armored Division (1995-1997)
(MG) Wesley K. Clark – 1st Cavalry Division (1992-1994)
(MG) Eric K. Shinseki – 1st Cavalry Division (1994-1995)
(BG) Hugh A. Drum – 1st Infantry Division (1927-1930)
(MG) Gordon R. Sullivan – 1st Infantry Division (1988-1989)
(MG) Montgomery C. Meigs – 1st Infantry Division (1996-1997)
(MG) John P. Abizaid – 1st Infantry Division (1999-2000)
(MG) Bantz J. Craddock – 1st Infantry Division (2000-2002)
(MG) C. H. Bonesteel III – 2nd Infantry Division (1961-1962)
(MG) Edward C. Meyer – 3rd Infantry Division (1974-1975)
(MG) John W. Vessey Jr. – 4th Infantry Division (1974-1975)
(MG) Dennis J. Reimer – 4th Infantry Division (1988-1990)
(MG) Paul J. Kern – 4th Infantry Division (1996-1997)
(MG) Lyman L. Lemnitzer – 7th Infantry Division (1951-1952); 11th Airborne Division (1950-1951)
(MG) John M. Shalikashvili – 9th Infantry Division (1987-1989)
(MG) John R. Galvin – 24th Infantry Division (1981-1983)
(MG) Barry R. McCaffrey – 24th Infantry Division (1990-1992)
(MG) C.V.R. Schuyler – 28th Infantry Division (1953) Superintendent of U.S. Military Academy (West Point)
*Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor (1945-1949)
*Gen. William C. Westmoreland (1960-1963)
*Lt. Gen. James B. Lampert (1963-1966)
*Lt. Gen. Donald V. Bennett (1966-1969)
*Maj. Gen. William Allen Knowlton (1970-1974)
*Maj. Gen. Sidney B. Berry (1974-1977)
*Gen. Andrew J. Goodpaster (1977-1981)
*Lt. Gen. Howard D. Graves (1991-1996)
Lt. Gen. Daniel W. Christman (1996-2001)
Lt. Gen. William J. Lennox Jr. (2001-2006)

Superintendent of U.S. Naval Academy
Adm. Charles R. Larson (1983-1986, 1994-1998)
Vice Adm. Jeffrey L. Fowler (2007-2010)

Superintendent of U.S. Air Force Academy
Lt. Gen. Bradley C. Hosmer (1991-1994)
*Lt. Gen. Paul E. Stein (1994-1997)
Lt. Gen. Michelle D. Johnson (2013-present)

President of National Defense University
Lt. Gen. Robert G. Gard Jr., Army (1977-1981)
Lt. Gen. John S. Pustay, Air Force (1981-1983)
Lt. Gen. Bradley C. Hosmer, Air Force (1986-1989)
Lt. Gen. Paul G. Cerjan, Army (1989-1994)
Lt. Gen. Ervin J. Rokke, Air Force (1994-1997)
Lt. Gen. Michael M. Dunn, Air Force (2003-2006)
Vice Adm. Ann E. Rondeau, Navy (2009-2012)

Commander of U.S. Second Fleet
*Vice Adm. Charles Wellborn Jr. (1955-1957)
*Vice Adm. Bernard L. Austin (1958-1959)
(Vice Adm.) Stansfield Turner (1974-1975)
(Vice Adm.) Charles R. Larson (1986-1988)
*(Vice Adm.) Jerome L. Johnson (1988-1990)
(Vice Adm.) Jay L. Johnson (1994-1996)
*(Vice Adm.) Vern E. Clark (1996-1997)

Commander of U.S. Sixth Fleet
(Vice Adm.) Harry D. Train II (1976-1978)
(Vice Adm.) William A. Owens (1990-1992)
(Vice Adm.) Joseph W. Prueher (1993-1995)
*(Vice Adm.) Donald Pilling (1995-1996)
(Vice Adm.) Charles S. Abbot (1996-1998)

Commander of U.S. Seventh Fleet
*(Vice Adm.) Thomas C. Kinkaid (Nov. 26, 1943 – Nov. 19, 1945)
*(Vice Adm.) Oscar C. Badger (Feb. 24, 1948 – Aug. 28, 1949)
*(Vice Adm.) Arthur D. Struble (1950-1951)
(Vice Adm.) Thomas B. Hayward (1975-1976)
Vice Adm. Sylvester Robert Foley Jr. (1978-1980)
*(Vice Adm.) Carlisle A.H. Trost (1980-1981)

Commander of U.S. Pacific Command
*Adm. William J. Crowe Jr. (1983-1985)
Adm. Charles R. Larson (1991-1994)
Adm. Joseph W. Prueher (1996-1999)
Adm. Timothy J. Keating (2007-2009)

Commander of U.S. Transportation Command
*Gen. Walter Kross, Air Force (1996-1998)
Gen. Norton A. Schwartz, Air Force (2005-2008)

Commander of U.S. Strategic Command
*Gen. George Lee Butler (1992-1994)

Past and Present Council on Foreign Relations Military Officers

Air Force
*Gen. Lew Allen Jr.
*Lt. Gen. Marcus A. Anderson
*Gen. Samuel E. Anderson
Lt. Gen. John R. Baker
Maj. Gen. John L. Barry
Gen. Charles G. Boyd
*Gen. David A. Burchinal
Lt. Gen. Charles W. Carson Jr.
*Maj. Gen. John B. Cary
*Gen. John T. Chain Jr.
$ Col. John Stephen Clark Jr.
Gen. James E. Dalton
*Lt. Gen. Harold C. Donnelly
*Gen. James H. Doolittle
*Gen. Michael J. Dugan
Gen. Michael M. Dunn
Gen. Ralph E. Eberhart
*Gen. Richard H. Ellis
*Gen. Muir S. Fairchild
Gen. Ronald Fogleman
Gen. Robert H. Foglesong
*Gen. Charles A. Gabriel
*Gen. John K. Gerhart
*Brig. Gen. Sidney F. Giffin
*Maj. Gen. Robert N. Ginsburgh $ Maj. Gen. Walter D. Givhan
Gen. John A. Gordon
$ Col. Christopher Haave
Lt. Gen. Michael A. Hamel
*Maj. Gen. Haywood S. Hansell Jr.
Gen. Michael V. Hayden
*Maj. Gen. Frank B. Horton III
Lt. Gen. Bradley C. Hosmer
*Brig. Gen. Henry C. Huglin
$ Lt. Gen. Michelle D. Johnson
*Gen. David C. Jones
Gen. John P. Jumper
Gen. Raymond E. Johns Jr.
Lt. Gen. Frank G. Klotz
*Gen. Walter Kross
*Gen. Laurence S. Kuter
*Maj. Gen. Edward G. Lansdale
Col. Randall J. Larsen
*Lt. Gen. Richard C. Lindsay
Maj. Gen. Donald E. Loranger Jr.
*Maj. Gen. Harold Roth Maddux
Gen. James P. McCarthy
*Maj. Gen. James McCormack Jr.
Gen. Merrill A. McPeak
Lt. Gen. Christopher D. Miller
Gen. Thomas S. Moorman Jr. Gen. T. Michael Moseley
$ Col. Douglas J. Murray
Gen. Richard B. Myers
$ Maj. Gen. John F. Newell III
*Gen. Lauris Norstad
*Col. Henry W. Posvar
Lt. Gen. Robert E. Pursley
Lt. Gen. John S. Pustay
*Gen. Joseph W. Ralston
$ Lt. Col. Gregory J. Rattray
Gen. Victor E. Renuart Jr.
Maj. Gen. Frederick F. Roggero
Lt. Gen. Ervin J. Rokke
*Gen. Michael E. Ryan
Maj. Gen. Stephen T. Sargeant
Gen. Norton A. Schwartz
Lt. Gen. Brent Scowcroft
Maj. Gen. Perry M. Smith
Gen. William Y. Smith
*Gen. Carl A. Spaatz
*Lt. Gen. Paul E. Stein
*Maj. Gen. Karl Truesdell Jr.
Maj. Gen. William R. Usher
Gen. Henry Viccellio Jr.
Maj. Gen. Jasper A. Welch Jr.
Gen. Larry D. Welch
*Maj. Gen. Richard A. Yudkin

Navy
Adm. Charles S. Abbot
*Adm. George W. Anderson Jr.
*Vice Adm. Adolphus Andrews
*Vice Adm. Bernard L. Austin
*Adm. Oscar C. Badger
*Adm. William H. P. Blandy
*Adm. Jeremy M. Boorda
Adm. Frank Lee Bowman
*Rear Adm. Mark L. Bristol
*Vice Adm. Arthur Karl Cebrowski
*Adm. Vernon E. “Vern” Clark
*Adm. William J. Crowe Jr.
Vice Adm. Ralph E. Davison
$ Capt. David A. Duffie
Rear Adm. Philip A. Dur
$ Rear Adm. James G. Foggo III
Vice Adm. Sylvester Robert Foley Jr.
Vice Adm. Jeffrey L. Fowler
Adm. Edmund P. Giambastiani Jr.
*Vice Adm. Carl Thor Hanson
$ Rear Admiral Jeffrey A. Harley
Adm. Thomas B. Hayward
Adm. Arthur J. Hepburn
Vice Adm. James W. Houck
Adm. Bobby R. Inman
Adm. Jay L. Johnson
*Adm. Jerome L. Johnson
(Capt.) David L. Jones
Adm. Timothy J. Keating
*Adm. Thomas C. Kinkaid
Adm. Alan G. Kirk
Adm. Charles R. Larson
*Vice Adm. John M. Lee
Capt. L. David Marquet
Rear Adm. Max K. Morris
Adm. William A. Owens
*Adm. Donald L. Pilling
Commander Michael N. Pocalyko
*Adm. Wiliam V. Pratt
Adm. Joseph W. Prueher
Commander Lilia L. Ramirez
Capt. Arnold E. Resnicoff
Vice Adm. Ann E. Rondeau
Adm. Gary Roughead
Vice Adm. Ronald A. Route
*Adm. Harold Page Smith
*Adm. Leighton W. Smith Jr.
*Adm. William H. Standley
Adm. James G. Stavridis
*Adm. Arthur D. Struble
*Adm. William O. Studeman
Adm. Harry D. Train II
*Adm. Carlisle A.H. Trost
Adm. Stansfield Turner
Adm. Patrick M. Walsh
*Rear Adm. Chester Ward
Vice Adm. George Wauchope
Rear Adm. Robert O. Welander
Vice Adm. Charles Wellborn Jr.
*Vice Adm. Russell Willson
*Vice Adm. Clark H. Woodward
*Adm. Jerauld Wright
*Rear Adm. Harry E. Yarnell
*Adm. Elmo Zumwalt Jr. Marines
$ Brig. Gen. Ronald L. Bailey
Brig. Gen. Matthew P. Caulfield
Brig. Gen. Stephen A. Cheney
Maj. Gen. Christopher Cortez
Lt. Col. Jay C. Farrar
$ Lt. Gen. George J. Flynn
Lt. Gen. Wallace C. Gregson Jr.
*Brig. Gen. Samuel B. Griffith II
Gen. Earl B. Hailston
*Maj. Gen. Fred Haynes
*$ Lt. Gen. Dennis J. Hejlik
Gen. Joseph P. Hoar
Gen. James L. Jones Jr.
Gen. Paul X. Kelley
Lt. Gen. Jack W. Klimp
Gen. Charles C. Krulak
Maj. Gen. David M. Mize
*Gen. Carl E. Mundy Jr.
*Maj. Gen. Jonas M. Platt
$ (Col.) Philip C. Rudder
$ Col. James B. Seaton III
Lt. Gen. Bernard E. Trainor
Maj. Gen. Thomas L. Wilkerson
*Gen. Michael J. Williams
*Gen. Anthony Zinni

Coast Guard
Adm. Thad W. Allen
Adm. Robert E. Kramek
*Adm. James M. Loy
Com. Stephen E. Flynn
Com. Charley L. Diaz

Note: $ = active duty; *= former Council on Foreign Relations member; name does not appear on 2012 Council on Foreign Relations membership roster.
Note: Former Navy Rear Admiral Chester Ward withdrew from the Council on Foreign Relations and described the organization’s political agenda in his book Kissinger on the Couch.

Army
Gen. John P. Abizaid
Brig. Gen. Clara L. Adams-Ender
*Maj. Gen. Julius Ochs Adler
*Maj. Gen. Henry T. Allen
Lt. Gen. Edward G. Anderson III
*Brig. Gen. DeWitt C. Armstrong III
*Maj. Gen. C. Stanton Babcock
Lt. Gen. David William Barno
Gen. Burwell B. Bell
*Gen. Donald V. Bennett
*Maj. Gen. Sidney B. Berry
*Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Betts
*Brig. Gen. Edwin F. Black
*Gen. Tasker H. Bliss
*Gen. Charles H. Bonesteel III
Brig. Gen. Zeb B. Bradford Jr.
*Gen. David A. Bramlett
Lt. Gen. Frederic J. Brown
*Lt. Gen. Harold R. Bull
Maj. Gen. William F. Burns
*Gen. George Lee Butler
$ Lt. Gen. William B. Caldwell IV
Maj. Gen. Salvatore F. Cambria
*Lt. Gen. Paul V. Caraway
Lt. Gen. Paul G. Cerjan
Lt. Gen. Daniel W. Christman
*Lt. Gen. Marc A. Cisneros
*Brig. Gen. Edwin N. Clark
Gen. Wesley K. Clark
*Gen. Lucius D. Clay
*Brig. Gen. Bryan Conrad
Gen. Bantz J. Craddock
*Maj. Gen. William Crozier
Brig. Gen. Peter M. Dawkins
*Maj. Gen. William J. “Wild Bill” Donovan
Lt. Col. Grant R. Doty
*Lt. Gen. Hugh A. Drum
Lt. Gen. James Michael Dubik
Lt. Gen. Karl W. Eikenberry
*Gen. of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower
Lt. Col. Francis A. Finelli
*Gen. John R. Galvin
Lt. Gen. Robert G. Gard Jr.
*Maj. Gen. James M. Gavin
*Maj. Gen. H. A. Gerhardt
Col. Daniel M. Gerstein
Brig. Gen. James R. Golden
*Gen. Andrew J. Goodpaster
*Gen. Paul F. Gorman
*Maj. Gen. U. S. Grant III
*Lt. Gen. Howard D. Graves
*Brig. Gen. Michael J. L. Greene
*Gen. Alfred Gruenther
*Lt. Gen. George Grunert
Maj. Gen. Craig D. Hackett
*Gen. Alexander M. Haig Jr.
*Maj. Gen. James G. Harbord
Col. Peter A. Henry
Gen. James T. Hill
$ Gen. Charles H. Jacoby Jr.
$ Col. Cindy R. Jebb
*Gen. Harold K. Johnson
*Brig. Gen. Amos A. Jordan
Gen. George A. Joulwan
Gen. John M. Keane
Gen. Paul J. Kern
Brig. Gen. Mark Kimmitt
*Maj. Gen. William Allen Knowlton
*Lt. Col. Robert W. Komer
Lt. Col. Andrew F. Krepinevich
*Lt. Gen. James B. Lampert
* Maj. Gen. Charles T. Lanham
*Gen. Lyman L. Lemnitzer
Lt. Gen. William J. Lennox Jr.
*Brig. Gen. George A. Lincoln
$ Lt. Gen. Douglas E. Lute
Col. Thomas F. Lynch III
*Brig. Gen. John Magruder
*Gen. Fred K. Mahaffey
Col. Peter R. Mansoor
Gen. Barry McCaffrey
Gen. Stanley A. McChrystal
Col. Robert L. McClure
*Maj. Gen. Frank R. McCoy
$ Maj. Gen. Herbert R. McMaster
$ Col. Michael J. Meese
Gen. Montgomery C. Meigs
Gen. Jack Neil Merritt
Gen. Edward C. Meyer
*Maj. Gen. Sherman Miles Lt. Col. John A. Nagl
Maj. Gen. William L. Nash
*Maj. Gen. Dennis E. Nolan
$ Lt. Col. Douglas A. Ollivant
Gen. David H. Petraeus
*Col. Kerry K. Pierce
Gen. Colin L. Powell
Gen. Dennis J. Reimer
Brig. Gen. John C. Reppert
*Lt. Gen. Robert C. Richardson Jr.
Gen. William R. Richardson
*Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway
*Gen. Bernard W. Rogers
Lt. Gen. Edward L. Rowny
*Gen. C. V. R. Schuyler
*Maj. Gen. John W. Seigle
*Lt. Gen. George M. Seignious II
Maj. Gen. John O.B. Sewall
Gen. John M. Shalikashvili
Lt. Col. Michael A. Sheehan
*Gen. Henry H. Shelton
Gen. Eric K. Shinseki
*Gen. George S. Simonds
*Gen. Walter Bedell Smith
*Lt. Gen. DeWitt C. Smith Jr.
*Maj. Gen. Richard G. Stilwell
*Maj. Gen. William Stofft
Gen. Gordon R. Sullivan
*Col. Harry G. Summers Jr.
Lt. Gen. Guy C. Swan III
*Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor
*Col. William J. Taylor Jr.
*Gen. Maxwell R. Thurman
$ Col. John K. Tien, Jr.
*Gen. Lucian K. Truscott Jr.
Gen. John W. Vessey Jr.
Gen. Carl E. Vuono
Gen. William E. Ward
$ Brig. Gen. Volney J. Warner Jr.
*Lt. Gen. Albert C. Wedemeyer
*Gen. William C. Westmoreland
*Brig. Gen. William Whipple
*Gen. John A. Wickham Jr.
$ Maj. Gen. W. Montague Winfield
*Gen. Fred F. Woerner
Col. Larry M. Wortzel

Council on Foreign Relations: Government Commissions

Roberts Commission (Pearl Harbor, 1941-1942) – CFR Members
*Admiral William H. Standley
*Maj. Gen. Frank R. McCoy

Warren Commission (JFK Tragedy, 1963-1964) – CFR Members
*Allen W. Dulles
*John J. McCloy
*John Sherman Cooper (U.S. Senator)
*Gerald R. Ford (Congressman)

Kean Commission (9/11 Tragedy, 2002-2004) – CFR Members
Thomas H. Kean, Chairman
(Rep.) Lee H. Hamilton, Vice Chairman
Jamie S. Gorelick
(Sen.) J. Robert “Bob” Kerrey
John F. Lehman Jr.
Philip D. Zelikow, Executive Director
Rockefeller Commission (CIA Abuses, 1975) – CFR Members
*Nelson A. Rockefeller (U.S. Vice President)
*C. Douglas Dillon
*Gen. Lyman L. Lemnitzer
*Lane Kirkland
*John T. Connor Sr.

Tower Commission (Iran-Contra) – CFR Members
*(Sen.) John G. Tower (Chairman)
*Edmund S. Muskie
Brent Scowcroft

Aspin-Brown Commission (National Security, 1996) – CFR Members
*Les Aspin
Warren B. Rudman
*(Gen.) Lew Allen
Zoe Baird
Stephen Friedman
Paul D. Wolfwoitz
Rep. Norman D. Dicks
Wyche Fowler
*Rep. Porter Goss
Lt. Gen. Robert E. Pursley
Sen. John Warner

Hart-Rudman Commission (U.S. Commission on National Security/21st Century , 1998-2001) – CFR Members
Gary Hart, Co-Chairman
Warren B. Rudman, Co-Chairman
Anne Armstrong
Norman R. Augustine
*John Dancy
*(Gen.) John R. Galvin
Leslie H. Gelb
(Rep.) Newt Gingrich
(Rep.) Lee H. Hamilton
*Lionel H. Olmer
*Donald B. Rice
James R. Schlesinger
(Adm.) Harry D. Train II
Andrew J. Young
(Gen.) Charles G. Boyd, Executive Director

Bremer Commission (National Commission on Terrorism. 1999-2001) – CFR Members
L. Paul Bremer, Chairman
Maurice Sonnenberg, Vice Chairman
Rickard K. Betts
Jane Harman
Fred C. Ikle
Juliette N. Kayyem
*Gardner Peckham
R. James Woolsey

Gilmore Commission (National Security, 1999) – CFR Members
James S. Gilmore
L. Paul Bremer

Prominent Past and Present Members of the Council on Foreign Relations

Name CFR Membership (Year) Primary Occupation
David Rockefeller 1942-present Chairman and CEO of Chase Manhattan Bank (1969-1981)
Richard N. Gardner 1956-present U.S. Ambassador to Spain (1993-1997)
Zbigniew Brzezinski 1961-present National Security Advisor (1977-1981)
Daniel Ellsberg 1969-present Pentagon Paper leaker
Harold Brown 1969-present Secretary of Defense (1977-1981)
Richard C. Holbrooke 1970-2010 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1999-2001)
Joseph S. Nye Jr. 1970-present North American Chairman of the Trilateral Commission (2008-pres.)
Paul A. Volcker 1970-present Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1979-1987)
Peter G. Peterson 1971-present Chairman and CEO, Lehman Brothers
Winston Lord 1973-present U.S. Ambassador to Communist China
Walter F. Mondale 1973-present Vice President of the United States (1977-1981)
William H. “Bill” Donaldson 1974-present Chairman of New York Stock Exchange (1991-1995)
Brent Scowcroft 1974-present National Security Advisor (1975-1977, 1989-1993)
George P. Shultz 1974-present Secretary of State (1982-1989); Sec. of the Treasury (1972-1974)
William J. McDonough 1975-present President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1993-2003)
Thomas R. Pickering 1975-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1989-1992)
Strobe Talbott 1975-present President of The Brookings Institution (2002-present)
R. James Woolsey 1975-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1993-1995)
John M. Deutch 1976-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1995-1996)
Frank C. Carlucci 1976-present Secretary of Defense (1987-1989); National Security Advisor
Madeleine K. Albright 1976-present U.S. Secretary of State (1997-2001)
Maurice R. Greenberg 1977-present Chairman and CEO of American International Group (1989-2005)
Alan Greenspan 1978-present Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1987-2006)
Vernon E. Jordan Jr. 1978-present Senior Managing Director of Lazard Freres
John D. Rockefeller IV 1978-present U.S. Senator (1985-present)
John C. Whitehead 1978-present Partner of Goldman Sachs; Deputy Secretary of State
Martin S. Feldstein 1980-present Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers
Bruce Babbitt 1981-present Secretary of the Interior (1993-2001); Governor of Arizona
John D. Negroponte 1981-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (2001-2004)
James D. Wolfensohn 1981-present President of The World Bank (1995-2005)
Paul D. Wolfowitz 1974-1979, 1981-present President of The World Bank (2005-2007)
Jessica Tuchman Mathews 1978-1980, 1983-present President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Richard B. “Dick” Cheney 1982-present Vice President of the U.S. (2001-2009); Secretary of Defense
Kenneth W. Dam 1982-present Deputy Secretary of State
Louis V. Gerstner Jr. 1982-present Chairman of the Carlyle Group; Chairman and CEO of IBM
Donna E. Shalala 1982-present Secretary of Health and Human Services (1993-2001)
Jimmy Carter 1983-present President of the United States (1977-1981)
Robert M. Gates 1983-present Secretary of Defense (2006-2011); CIA Director (1991-1993)
Thomas S. Foley 1984-present Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (1989-1995)
Condoleezza Rice 1984-present Secretary of State (2005-2009); National Security Advisor
Laura D’Andrea Tyson 1987-present Dean of London Business School of Economics (2002-2006)
George Soros 1988-present Chairman, Soros Fund Management
David R. Gergen 1988-present Counselor to the President of the U.S.
Mortimer B. Zuckerman 1988-present Editor-in-Chief, U.S. News and World Report (1984-present)
Bill Clinton 1989-present President of the United States (1993-2001)
Paul A. Allaire 1989-present Chairman and CEO of Xerox Corp. (1991-2001)
Richard D. Parsons 1990-present Chairman and CEO of Time Warner, Inc. (2003-2008)
Lawrence H. Summers 1990-present Secretary of the Treasury; President of Harvard University
Robert B. Zoellick 1991-present President of The World Bank (2007-2012)
Henry R. Kravis 1992-present Founding Partner of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.
Carla A. Hills 1993-present U.S. Trade Representative (1989-1993)
Robert E. Rubin 1994-present Secretary of the Treasury (1995-1999)
Stanley Fischer 1994-present Governor of the Bank of Israel (2005-2013)
Rupert Murdoch 1994-present Chairman and CEO of News Corp. (Fox News) (1991-present)
James A. Johnson 1994-present Chairman and CEO of Fannie Mae (1991-1998)
Richard N. Haass 1980-1985, 1994-present President of the Council on Foreign Relations (2003-present)
Timothy F. Geithner 1996-present Secretary of the Treasury (2009-2013)
Michael H. Moskow 1996-present President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (1994-2007)
Marie-Josee Kravis 2005-present Senior Fellow of the Hudson Institute

Prominent Government Officials:
Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
Gen. Walter Bedell Smith 1953-1960 Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1950-1953)
Allen W. Dulles 1927-1969 Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1953-1961)
John Alex McCone 1958-1977 Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1961-1965)
Richard Helms 1973-2002 Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1966-1973)
James R. Schlesinger 1986-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1973)
William E. Colby 1975-1995 Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1973-1976)
George H.W. Bush 1971-1978 Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1976-1977)
Stansfield Turner 1973-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1977-1981)
William J. Casey 1973-1987 Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1981-1987)
William H. Webster 1987-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1987-1991)
Robert M. Gates 1983-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1991-1993)
R. James Woolsey 1975-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1993-1995)
John M. Deutch 1976-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1995-1996)
George J. Tenet 1998-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1997-2004)
Porter J. Goss 1999-2004 Director of Central Intelligence Agency (2004-2006)
Gen. Michael V. Hayden 2003-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (2006-2009)
(Gen.) David H. Petraeus 1986-1991, 1998-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (2011-2012)

Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
Dillon Anderson 1959-1973 National Security Advisor (1955-1956)
Gordon Gray 1951-1980 National Security Advisor (1958-1961)
McGeorge Bundy 1947-1995 National Security Advisor (1961-1966)
Walt W. Rostow 1955-2002 National Security Advisor (1966-1969)
Henry A. Kissinger 1956-2009 National Security Advisor (1969-1975)
Zbigniew Brzezinski 1961-present National Security Advisor (1977-1981)
Richard V. Allen 1999-present National Security Advisor (1981-1982)
Robert C. McFarlane 1983-present National Security Advisor (1983-1985)
Frank C. Carlucci 1976-present National Security Advisor (1986-1987)
(Gen.) Colin L. Powell 1986-present National Security Advisor (1987-1989)
Brent Scowcroft 1974-present National Security Advisor (1975-1977, 1989-1993)
W. Anthony Lake 1976-2002 National Security Advisor (1993-1997)
Samuel R. “Sandy” Berger 1985-present National Security Advisor (1997-2001)
Condoleezza Rice 1984-present National Security Advisor (2001-2005)
Stephen J. Hadley 1976-1981, 1993-present National Security Advisor (2005-2009)
(Gen.) James L. Jones Jr. 2000, 2003-2005, 2011-present National Security Advisor (2009-2010)
Thomas E. Donilon 1996-present National Security Advisor (2010-2013)
Susan E. Rice 1992-1997, 1999-present National Security Advisor (2013-present)

Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
Elihu Root 1921-1936 Secretary of War (1899-1904)
Newton D. Baker 1927-1936 Secretary of War (1916-1921)
Dwight F. Davis 1933-1945 Secretary of War (1925-1929)
Henry L. Stimson 1924-1929, 1934-1950 Secretary of War (1911-1913, 1940-1945)
Robert P. Patterson Sr. 1948-1951 Secretary of War (1945-1947)
James V. Forrestal 1926-1931 Secretary of Defense (1947-1949)
Robert A. Lovett 1927-1931, 1938-1940 Secretary of Defense (1951-1953)
Neil H. McElroy 1955-1956 Secretary of Defense (1957-1959)
Thomas S. Gates Jr. 1961-1982 Secretary of Defense (1959-1961)
Robert S. McNamara 1968-2009 Secretary of Defense (1961-1968)
Melvin R. Laird 1974-1978 Secretary of Defense (1969-1973)
Elliot L. Richardson 1969-1999 Secretary of Defense (1973)
James R. Schlesinger 1986-present Secretary of Defense (1973-1975)
Donald H. Rumsfeld 1974-1980 Secretary of Defense (1975-1977, 2001-2006)
Harold Brown 1969-present Secretary of Defense (1977-1981)
Caspar W. Weinberger 1981-2005 Secretary of Defense (1981-1987)
Frank C. Carlucci 1976-present Secretary of Defense (1987-1989)
Richard B. “Dick” Cheney 1982-present Secretary of Defense (1989-1993)
Les Aspin 1973-1994 Secretary of Defense (1993-1994)
William J. Perry 1999-present Secretary of Defense (1994-1997)
William S. Cohen 1981-present Secretary of Defense (1997-2001)
Robert M. Gates 1983-present Secretary of Defense (2006-2011)
Chuck Hagel 1999-present Secretary of Defense (2013-present)

Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
Elihu Root 1921-1936 U.S. Secretary of State (1905-1909)
Charles Evans Hughes 1930-1946 U.S. Secretary of State (1921-1925)
Frank B. Kellogg 1930-1936 U.S. Secretary of State (1925-1929)
Henry L. Stimson 1924-1929, 1934-1950 U.S. Secretary of State (1929-1933)
Edward R. Stettinius Jr. 1939-1940, 1946-1949 U.S. Secretary of State (1944-1945)
Dean G. Acheson 1948-1953, 1960-1971 U.S. Secretary of State (1949-1953)
John Foster Dulles 1921-1959 U.S. Secretary of State (1953-1959)
Christian A. Herter 1930-1933, 1938-1942, 1946-1966 U.S. Secretary of State (1959-1961)
Dean Rusk 1952-1994 U.S. Secretary of State (1961-1969)
William P. Rogers 1975-2000 U.S. Secretary of State (1969-1973)
Henry A. Kissinger 1956-2009 U.S. Secretary of State (1973-1977)
Cyrus R. Vance 1968-2001 U.S. Secretary of State (1977-1980)
Edmund S. Muskie 1973-1974, 1984-1995 U.S. Secretary of State (1980-1981)
Alexander M. Haig Jr. 1973-2009 U.S. Secretary of State (1981-1982)
George P. Shultz 1974-present U.S. Secretary of State (1982-1989)
James A. Baker III 1998-present U.S. Secretary of State (1989-1992)
Lawrence S. Eagleburger 1974-2010 U.S. Secretary of State (1992-1993)
Warren Christopher 1973-2010 U.S. Secretary of State (1993-1997)
Madeleine K. Albright 1976-present U.S. Secretary of State (1997-2001)
Colin L. Powell 1986-present U.S. Secretary of State (2001-2005)
Condoleezza Rice 1984-present U.S. Secretary of State (2005-2009)
John Forbes Kerry 1992-present U.S. Secretary of State (2013-present)

Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
Edward R. Stettinius Jr. 1939-1940, 1946-1949 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1946)
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. 1961-1981 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1953-1960)
James J. Wadsworth 1961-1964 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1960-1961)
Adlai E. Stevenson Jr. 1955, 1957-1964 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1961-1965)
Arthur J. Goldberg 1961-1962, 1966-1989 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1965-1968)
George W. Ball 1949-1993 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1968)
Charles W. Yost 1957-1980 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1969-1971)
George H.W. Bush 1971-1978 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1971-1973)
John A. Scali 1973-1994 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1973-1975)
Daniel P. Moynihan 1975-2002 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1975-1976)
William W. Scranton 1977-2009 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1976-1977)
Andrew J. Young 1977-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1977-1979)
Donald F. McHenry 1970-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1979-1981)
Jeane J. Kirkpatrick 1981-2006 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1981-1985)
Thomas R. Pickering 1975-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1989-1992)
Edward J. Perkins 1988-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1992-1993)
Madeleine K. Albright 1976-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1993-1997)
William B. “Bill” Richardson 1985-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1997-1998)
Richard Holbrooke 1970-2010 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1999-2001)
John D. Negroponte 1981-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (2001-2004)
John R. Bolton 2000-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (2005-2006)
Zalmay Khalilzad 1986-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (2007-2009)
Susan E. Rice 1992-1997, 1999-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (2009-2013)


David F. Houston 1921-1928 Secretary of the Treasury (1920-1921)
Andrew W. Mellon 1933-1936 Secretary of the Treasury (1921-1932)
Ogden L. Mills 1924-1936 Secretary of the Treasury (1932-1933)
William H. Woodin 1921-1929 Secretary of the Treasury (1933)
Robert B. Anderson 1954-1986 Secretary of the Treasury (1957-1961)
C. Douglas Dillon 1940-2002 Secretary of the Treasury (1961-1965)
Henry H. Fowler 1950-1997 Secretary of the Treasury (1965-1968)
David M. Kennedy 1977-1992 Secretary of the Treasury (1969-1971)
George P. Shultz 1974-present Secretary of the Treasury (1972-1974)
William E. Simon 1974-1998 Secretary of the Treasury (1974-1977)
W. Michael Blumenthal 1963-present Secretary of the Treasury (1977-1979)
G. William Miller 1981-1984 Secretary of the Treasury (1979-1981)
Donald T. Regan 1973-1980 Secretary of the Treasury (1981-1985)
James A. Baker III 1998-present Secretary of the Treasury (1985-1988)
Nicholas F. Brady 1983-present Secretary of the Treasury (1988-1993)
Lloyd M. Bentsen Jr. 1973-1975 Secretary of the Treasury (1993-1994)
Robert E. Rubin 1994-present Secretary of the Treasury (1995-1999)
Lawrence H. Summers 1990-present Secretary of the Treasury (1999-2001)
Henry M. Paulson Jr. 2001-present Secretary of the Treasury (2006-2009)
Timothy F. Geithner 1996-present Secretary of the Treasury (2009-2013)
Jacob J. Lew 2006-present Secretary of the Treasury (2013-present)

Herbert Hoover 1938-1962 Secretary of Commerce (1921-1928)
W. Averell Harriman 1923-1986 Secretary of Commerce (1946-1948)
Lewis L. Strauss 1931-1969 Secretary of Commerce (1958-1959)
John T. Connor Sr. 1962-1992 Secretary of Commerce (1965-1967)
Alexander B. Trowbridge Jr. 1954-2004 Secretary of Commerce (1967-1968)
Peter G. Peterson 1971-present Secretary of Commerce (1972-1973)
Elliot L. Richardson 1969-1999 Secretary of Commerce (1976-1977)
Juanita Morris Kreps 1979-2002 Secretary of Commerce (1977-1979)
Malcolm Baldrige 1974-1986 Secretary of Commerce (1981-1987)
Robert A. Mosbacher 1995-present Secretary of Commerce (1989-1992)
Barbara Hackman Franklin 1992-present Secretary of Commerce (1992-1993)
Ron Brown 1993-1996 Secretary of Commerce (1993-1996)
Mickey Kantor 1999-present Secretary of Commerce (1996-1997)
William M. Daley 2002-present Secretary of Commerce (1997-2000)
John E. Bryson 1985-present Secretary of Commerce (2011-2012)
Penny S. Pritzker 1994-1998, 2004-present Secretary of Commerce (2013-present)

Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
Herbert Hoover 1938-1962 President of the United States (1929-1933)
(Gen.) Dwight D. Eisenhower 1949-1968 President of the United States (1953-1961)
Richard M. Nixon 1961-1964 President of the United States (1969-1974)
Gerald R. Ford 1982-2006 President of the United States (1974-1977)
Jimmy Carter 1983-present President of the United States (1977-1981)
George H.W. Bush 1971-1978 President of the United States (1989-1993)
Bill Clinton 1989-present President of the United States (1993-2001)
Charles G. Dawes 1928-1950 Vice President of the United States (1925-1929)
Hubert H. Humphrey 1959-1977 Vice President of the United States (1965-1969)
Nelson A. Rockefeller 1938-1978 Vice President of the United States (1974-1977)
Walter F. Mondale 1973-present Vice President of the United States (1977-1981)
Richard B. “Dick” Cheney 1982-present Vice President of the United States (2001-2009)
Charles Evans Hughes 1930-1946 Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1930-1941)
Felix Frankfurter 1932-1964 Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1939-1962)
Arthur J. Goldberg 1961-1962, 1966-1989 Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1962-1965)
Sandra Day O’Connor 1991-1998 Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1981-2006)
Ruth Bader Ginsburg 1973-present Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1993-present)
Stephen G. Breyer 1983-present Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1994-present)
Howard H. Baker Jr. 1974-present U.S. Senate Majority Leader (1981-1985)
George J. Mitchell 1990-present U.S. Senate Majority Leader (1989-1995)
Thomas A. “Tom” Daschle 2006-present U.S. Senate Majority Leader (2001-2003)
William H. “Bill” Frist 2002-present U.S. Senate Majority Leader (2003-2007)
Thomas S. Foley 1984-present Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (1989-1995)
Newton L. Gingrich 1990-present Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives (1995-1999)

Military Officers:
Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
Gen. Lyman L. Lemnitzer 1946-1987 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1960-1962)
Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor 1946-1985 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1962-1964)
Gen. David C. Jones (AF) 1980-2007 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1978-1982)
Gen. John W. Vessey Jr. 1982-present Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1982-1985)
Adm. William J. Crowe 1979-2007 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1985-1989)
Gen. Colin L. Powell 1986-present Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1989-1993)
Gen. John M. Shalikashvili 1995-present Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1993-1997)
Gen. Henry H. Shelton 1998-2002 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1997-2001)
Gen. Richard B. Myers (AF) 2002-present Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (2001-2005)

Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower 1949-1968 Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1951-1952)
Gen. Matthew Ridgway 1954-1973 Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1952-1953)
Gen. Alfred Gruenther 1953-1972 Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1953-1956)
Gen. Lauris Norstad, Air Force 1963-1988 Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1956-1963)
Gen. Lyman L. Lemnitzer 1946-1987 Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1963-1969)
Gen. Andrew J. Goodpaster 1956-2004 Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1969-1974)
Gen. Alexander M. Haig Jr. 1973-2009 Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1974-1979)
Gen. Bernard W. Rogers 1983-1994 Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1979-1987)
Gen. John R. Galvin 1988-2002 Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1987-1992)
Gen. John M. Shalikashvili 1995-present Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1992-1993)
Gen. George A. Joulwan 2008-present Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1993-1997)
Gen. Wesley K. Clark 1975-1979, 1983-present Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1997-2000)
Gen. Joseph W. Ralston, Air Force 1995-1999 Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (2000-2003)
Gen. James L. Jones Jr., Marines 2000, 2003-2005, 2011-present Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (2003-2007)

Gen. Tasker H. Bliss 1921-1930 U.S. Army Chief of Staff (1917-1918)
Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower 1949-1968 U.S. Army Chief of Staff (1945-1948)
Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway 1954-1973 U.S. Army Chief of Staff (1953-1955)
Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor 1946-1985 U.S. Army Chief of Staff (1955-1959)
Gen. Lyman L. Lemnitzer 1946-1987 U.S. Army Chief of Staff (1959-1960)
Gen. Harold K. Johnson 1967-1983 U.S. Army Chief of Staff (1964-1968)
Gen. William C. Westmoreland 1961-1973 U.S. Army Chief of Staff (1968-1972)
Gen. Bernard W. Rogers 1983-1994 U.S. Army Chief of Staff (1976-1979)
Gen. Edward C. Meyer 1979-present U.S. Army Chief of Staff (1979-1983)
Gen. John A. Wickham Jr. 1980-1993 U.S. Army Chief of Staff (1983-1987)
Gen. Carl E. Vuono 1988-present U.S. Army Chief of Staff (1987-1991)
Gen. Gordon R. Sullivan 1992-present U.S. Army Chief of Staff (1991-1995)
Gen. Dennis J. Reimer 1996-present U.S. Army Chief of Staff (1995-1999)
Gen. Eric K. Shinseki 2000-present U.S. Army Chief of Staff (1999-2003)

Gen. Joseph P. Hoar, Marines 1994-present Commander, U.S. Central Command (1991-1994)
Gen. Anthony Zinni, Marines 1999-2006 Commander, U.S. Central Command (1997-2000)
Gen. John P. Abizaid, Army 1985-1990, 2004-present Commander, U.S. Central Command (2003-2007)
Gen. David H. Petraeus, Army 1986-1991, 1998-present Commander, U.S. Central Command (2008-2010)
Gen. Richard B. Myers, USAF 2002-present Commander, NORAD (1998-2000)
Gen. Ralph E. Eberhart, USAF 1995-present Commander, NORAD (2000-2004)

(Maj.) Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor 1946-1985 Superintendent of U.S. Military Academy (1945-1949)
(Maj.) Gen. William C. Westmoreland 1961-1973 Superintendent of U.S. Military Academy (1960-1963)
Lt. Gen. James B. Lampert 1966-1978 Superintendent of U.S. Military Academy (1963-1966)
Lt. Gen. Donald V. Bennett 1967-1994 Superintendent of U.S. Military Academy (1966-1969)
Maj. Gen. William Allen Knowlton 1971-2007 Superintendent of U.S. Military Academy (1970-1974)
Maj. Gen. Sidney B. Berry 1970-1990 Superintendent of U.S. Military Academy (1974-1977)
Gen. Andrew J. Goodpaster 1956-2004 Superintendent of U.S. Military Academy (1977-1981)
Lt. Gen. Howard D. Graves 1994-2003 Superintendent of U.S. Military Academy (1991-1996)
Lt. Gen. Daniel W. Christman 1990-present Superintendent of U.S. Military Academy (1996-2001)
Lt. Gen. William J. Lennox Jr. 2001-present Superintendent of U.S. Military Academy (2001-2006)
Vice Adm. Jeffrey L. Fowler 2003-present Superintendent of U.S. Naval Academy (2007-2010)

Ambassadors:
Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
John W. Davis 1921-1955 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1918-1921)
Frank B. Kellogg 1930-1936 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1924-1925)
Alanson B. Houghton 1930-1940 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1925-1929)
Charles G. Dawes 1928-1950 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1929-1931)
Andrew W. Mellon 1933-1936 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1932-1933)
W. Averell Harriman 1923-1986 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1946)
Lewis W. Douglas 1935-1973 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1947-1950)
Walter S. Gifford 1928-1965 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1950-1953)
Winthrop W. Aldrich 1927-1973 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1953-1957)
John Hay Whitney 1946-1981 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1957-1961)
David K.E. Bruce 1946-1977 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1961-1969)
Elliot L. Richardson 1969-1999 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1975-1976)
Anne L. Armstrong 1977-2008 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1976-1977)
Kingman Brewster Jr. 1956-1987 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1977-1981)
Henry E. Catto Jr. 1973-present U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1989-1991)
(Adm.) William J. Crowe Jr. 1979-2007 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1994-1997)
Philip J. Lader 1996-present U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (1997-2001)

Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
Jesse Isidor Straus 1924-1936 U.S. Ambassador to France (1933-1936)
William C. Bullitt 1936-1954 U.S. Ambassador to France (1936-1940)
David K.E. Bruce 1946-1977 U.S. Ambassador to France (1949-1952)
James Clement Dunn 1938-1939 U.S. Ambassador to France (1952-1953)
C. Douglas Dillon 1940-2002 U.S. Ambassador to France (1953-1957)
Amory Houghton 1955-1980 U.S. Ambassador to France (1957-1961)
(Maj. Gen.) James M. Gavin 1957-1962 U.S. Ambassador to France (1961-1962)
Charles E. Bohlen 1953-1973 U.S. Ambassador to France (1962-1968)
R. Sargent Shriver Jr. 1972-1994 U.S. Ambassador to France (1968-1970)
Arthur K. Watson 1953-1973 U.S. Ambassador to France (1970-1972)
John N. Irwin II 1952-1999 U.S. Ambassador to France (1973-1974)
Kenneth Rush 1960-1994 U.S. Ambassador to France (1974-1977)
Arthur A. Hartman 1974-present U.S. Ambassador to France (1977-1981)
Evan Griffith Galbraith 1982-2007 U.S. Ambassador to France (1981-1985)
Walter J.P. Curley Jr. 1998-present U.S. Ambassador to France (1989-1993)
Pamela C. Harriman 1987-1996 U.S. Ambassador to France (1993-1997)
Felix G. Rohatyn 1984-present U.S. Ambassador to France (1997-2000)

Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
James W. Gerard 1924-1951 U.S. Ambassador to Imperial Germany (1913-1917)
Alanson B. Houghton 1930-1940 U.S. Ambassador to Germany [Weimar] (1922-1925)
Frederic M. Sackett 1934-1940 U.S. Ambassador to Germany [Weimar] (1930-1933)
William E. Dodd 1936-1939 U.S. Ambassador to Nazi Germany (1933-1937)
Hugh R. Wilson 1942-1946 U.S. Ambassador to Nazi Germany (1938)
James B. Conant 1934-1976 U.S. Ambassador to West Germany (1955-1957)
David K.E. Bruce 1946-1977 U.S. Ambassador to West Germany (1957-1959)
Walter C. Dowling 1963-1976 U.S. Ambassador to West Germany (1959-1963)
George C. McGhee 1954-1995 U.S. Ambassador to West Germany (1963-1968)
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. 1961-1981 U.S. Ambassador to West Germany (1968-1969)
Kenneth Rush 1960-1994 U.S. Ambassador to West Germany (1969-1972)
Martin J. Hillenbrand 1972-2004 U.S. Ambassador to West Germany (1972-1976)
Walter J. Stoessel Jr. 1977-1986 U.S. Ambassador to West Germany (1976-1981)
Arthur F. Burns 1960-1986 U.S. Ambassador to West Germany (1981-1985)
Richard R. Burt 1977-present U.S. Ambassador to West Germany (1985-1989)
Robert M. Kimmitt 1977-1982, 1985-present U.S. Ambassador to Germany (1991-1993)
Richard C. Holbrooke 1970-2010 U.S. Ambassador to Germany (1993-1994)
Charles E. Redman 1997-2010 U.S. Ambassador to Germany (1994-1996)
John C. Kornblum 1998-present U.S. Ambassador to Germany (1997-2001)


Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
William C. Bullitt 1936-1954 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1933-1936)
Laurence A. Steinhardt 1948-1949 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1939-1941)
William H. Standley 1938-1947 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1942-1943)
W. Averell Harriman 1923-1986 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1943-1946)
(Gen.) Walter Bedell Smith 1953-1960 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1946-1948)
(Adm.) Alan G. Kirk 1950-1962 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1949-1951)
George F. Kennan 1947-1973, 1977-2004 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1952)
Charles E. Bohlen 1953-1973 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1953-1957)
Llewellyn E. Thompson Jr. 1963-1971 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1957-1962, 1966-1969)
Foy D. Kohler 1950-1990 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1962-1966)
Jacob D. Beam 1962-1991 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1969-1973)
Walter J. Stoessel Jr. 1977-1986 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1974-1976)
Thomas J. Watson Jr. 1961-1993 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1979-1981)
Arthur A. Hartman 1974-present U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1981-1987)
Jack F. Matlock Jr. 1986-present U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1987-1991)
Robert S. Strauss 1981-present U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1991)

Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
David K.E. Bruce 1946-1977 U.S. Liaison Officer to Communist China (1973-1974)
George H.W. Bush 1971-1978 U.S. Liaison Officer to Communist China (1974-1975)
Thomas S. Gates Jr. 1961-1982 U.S. Liaison Officer to Communist China (1976-1977)
Leonard Woodcock 1973-1976 U.S. Liaison Officer to Communist China (1977-1979)
U.S. Ambassador to Communist China (1979-1981)
Arthur W. Hummel Jr. 1982-2000 U.S. Ambassador to Communist China (1981-1985)
Winston Lord 1973-present U.S. Ambassador to Communist China (1985-1989)
James R. Lilley 1997-2003 U.S. Ambassador to Communist China (1989-1991)
J. Stapleton Roy 2004-present U.S. Ambassador to Communist China (1991-1995)
(Sen.) James R. Sasser 2001-present U.S. Ambassador to Communist China (1995-1999)
(Adm.) Joseph W. Prueher 2003-present U.S. Ambassador to Communist China (1999-2001)
Clark T. Randt Jr. 2003-present U.S. Ambassador to Communist China (2001-2009)

Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
Roland S. Morris 1921-1932, 1938-1945 U.S. Ambassador to Imperial Japan (1917-1920)
W. Cameron Forbes 1930-1959 U.S. Ambassador to Imperial Japan (1930-1932)
Joseph C. Grew 1928-1959 U.S. Ambassador to Imperial Japan (1932-1941)
Robert D. Murphy 1959-1977 U.S. Ambassador to Japan (1952-1953)
Douglas MacArthur II 1954-1957, 1962-1994 U.S. Ambassador to Japan (1957-1961)
Edwin O. Reischauer 1958-1975 U.S. Ambassador to Japan (1961-1966)
Robert S. Ingersoll 1974-2010 U.S. Ambassador to Japan (1972-1973)
James D. Hodgson 1980-1994 U.S. Ambassador to Japan (1974-1976)
Michael H. Armacost 1977-present U.S. Ambassador to Japan (1989-1993)
Walter F. Mondale 1973-present U.S. Ambassador to Japan (1993-1996)
Thomas S. Foley 1984-present U.S. Ambassador to Japan (1997-2001)
Howard H. Baker Jr. 1974-present U.S. Ambassador to Japan (2001-2005)

Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
Henry A. Byroade 1953-1977 U.S. Ambassador to Egypt (1955-1956)
Raymond A. Hare 1964-1985 U.S. Ambassador to Egypt (1956-1959)
G. Frederick Reinhardt 1959-1970 U.S. Ambassador to Egypt (1960-1961)
John S. Badeau 1957-1975 U.S. Ambassador to Egypt (1961-1964)
Lucius D. Battle 1974-1995 U.S. Ambassador to Egypt (1964-1967)
Richard H. Nolte 1961-2001 U.S. Ambassador to Egypt (1967)
Hermann F. Eilts 1977-2006 U.S. Ambassador to Egypt (1974-1979)
Alfred L. Atherton Jr. 1975-2002 U.S. Ambassador to Egypt (1979-1983)
Nicholas A. Veliotes 1982-present U.S. Ambassador to Egypt (1983-1986)
Frank G. Wisner II 1975-present U.S. Ambassador to Egypt (1986-1991)
Robert H. Pelletreau Jr. 1989-present U.S. Ambassador to Egypt (1991-1993)
Daniel C. Kurtzer 1989-2002, 2006-present U.S. Ambassador to Egypt (1998-2001)
C. David Welch 1994-present U.S. Ambassador to Egypt (2001-2005)


Donald R. Heath 1962-1975 U.S. Minister to Indochina (1950-1954)
G. Frederick Reinhardt 1959-1970 U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam (1955-1957)
Frederick E. Nolting Jr. 1966-1973 U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam (1961-1963)
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. 1961-1981 U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam (1963-1964, 1965-1967)
(Gen.) Maxwell D. Taylor 1946-1985 U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam (1964-1965)
Ellsworth Bunker 1942-1984 U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam (1967-1973)
Edwin F. Stanton 1954-1967 U.S. Ambassador to Thailand (1946-1953)
William J. “Wild Bill” Donovan 1932-1957 U.S. Ambassador to Thailand (1953-1954)
Kenneth T. Young Jr. 1958-1971 U.S. Ambassador to Thailand (1961-1963)
Leonard Unger 1981-2001 U.S. Ambassador to Thailand (1967-1973); U.S. Ambassador to Laos (1962-1964)
William R. Kintner 1959-1996 U.S. Ambassador to Thailand (1973-1975)
Charles S. Whitehouse 1977-2001 U.S. Ambassador to Thailand (1975-1978); U.S. Ambassador to Laos (1973-1975)
Morton I. Abramowitz 1975-present U.S. Ambassador to Thailand (1978-1981)
Robert M. McClintock 1958-1976 U.S. Ambassador to Cambodia (1954-1956)
Emory C. Swank 1979-2009 U.S. Ambassador to Cambodia (1970-1973)
Charles W. Yost 1957-1980 U.S. Ambassador to Laos (1954-1956)
Horace H. Smith 1963-1976 U.S. Ambassador to Laos (1958-1960)
Winthrop G. Brown 1949-1956 U.S. Ambassador to Laos (1960-1962)
William H. Sullivan 1969-2001 U.S. Ambassador to Laos (1964-1969)

Roland S. Morris 1921-1932, 1938-1945 U.S. Ambassador to Imperial Japan (October 30, 1917-May 15, 1920)
W. Cameron Forbes 1930-1959 U.S. Ambassador to Imperial Japan (Sept. 15, 1930- March 22, 1932)
Joseph C. Grew 1928-1959 U.S. Ambassador to Imperial Japan (June 14, 1932-December 8, 1941)
Henry P. Fletcher 1930-1953 U.S. Ambassador to Fascist Italy (April 2, 1924-August 3, 1929)
John W. Garrett 1921-1940 U.S. Ambassador to Fascist Italy (November 20, 1929-May 22, 1933)
William Phillips 1931-1967 U.S. Ambassador to Fascist Italy (November 4, 1936-October 6, 1941)
James W. Gerard 1924-1951 U.S. Ambassador to Imperial Germany (1913-1917)
Alanson B. Houghton 1930-1940 U.S. Ambassador to Germany [Weimar] (1922-1925)
Frederic M. Sackett 1934-1940 U.S. Ambassador to Germany [Weimar] (1930-1933)
William E. Dodd 1936-1939 U.S. Ambassador to Nazi Germany (1933-1937)
Hugh R. Wilson 1942-1946 U.S. Ambassador to Nazi Germany (1938)

Waldemar J. Gallman 1950-1960 U.S. Minister to Apartheid South Africa (1951-1954)
U.S. Ambassador to Iraq (1954-1958)
Henry A. Byroade 1953-1977 U.S. Ambassador to Apartheid South Africa (1956-1959)
U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines (1969-1973)
Philip K. Crowe 1956-1976 U.S. Ambassador to Apartheid South Africa (1959-1961)
Joseph C. Satterthwaite 1959-1971 U.S. Ambassador to Apartheid South Africa (1961-1965)
John Sherman Cooper 1968-1978 U.S. Ambassador to East Germany (1974-1976)
Rozanne L. Ridgway 1980-present U.S. Ambassador to East Germany (1983-1985)
Jacob D. Beam 1962-1991 U.S. Ambassador to Czechoslovakia (1966-1969)
Lincoln MacVeagh 1935-1971 U.S. Ambassador to Fascist Spain (1952-1953)
Angier Biddle Duke 1953-1994 U.S. Ambassador to Fascist Spain (1965-1968)
Henry R. Labouisse Jr. 1949-1986 U.S. Ambassador to Greece (1962-1965)
Phillips Talbot 1951-2010 U.S. Ambassador to Greece (1965-1969)
Selden Chapin 1948-1962 U.S. Ambassador to Iran (1955-1958)
Julius C. Holmes 1947-1967 U.S. Ambassador to Iran (1961-1965)
Douglas MacArthur II 1954-1957, 1962-1994 U.S. Ambassador to Iran (1969-1972)
Richard Helms 1973-2002 U.S. Ambassador to Iran (1973-1977)
William H. Sullivan 1969-2001 U.S. Ambassador to Iran (1977-1979)
U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines (1973-1977)
David D. Newsom 1975-2007 U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines (1977-1978)
Paul D. Wolfowitz 1974-1979, 1981-present U.S. Ambassador to Indonesia (1986-1989)
Theodore L. Eliot Jr. 1971-1994 U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (1973-1978)
Norman Armour 1938-1977 U.S. Ambassador to Guatemala (1954-1955)
Harry E. Bergold Jr. 1979-1994 U.S. Ambassador to Nicaragua (1984-1987)
Ronald I. Spiers 1975-present U.S. Ambassador to Turkey (1977-1980)
U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan (1981-1983)
Thomas R. Pickering 1975-present U.S. Ambassador to El Salvador (1983-1985)
U.S. Ambassador to Israel (1985-1988)
John D. Negroponte 1981-present U.S. Ambassador to Honduras (1981-1985)
U.S. Ambassador to Mexico (1989-1993)
U.S. Ambassador to Iraq (2004-2005)
Zalmay Khalilzad 1986-present U.S. Ambassador to Afghanistan (2003-2005)
U.S. Ambassador to Iraq (2005-2007)

Federal Reserve:
Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
Eugene Meyer 1930-1958 Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1930-1933)
Thomas B. McCabe 1955-1981 Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1948-1951)
William McC. Martin Jr. 1947-1995 Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1951-1970)
Arthur F. Burns 1960-1986 Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1970-1978)
G. William Miller 1981-1984 Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1978-1979)
Paul A. Volcker 1970-present Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1979-1987)
Alan Greenspan 1978-present Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1987-2006)

Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
Benjamin Strong 1928 President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1914-1928)
George L. Harrison 1929-1953 President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1928-1940)
Allan Sproul 1935-1955 President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1941-1956)
Alfred Hayes 1948-1985 President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1956-1975)
Paul A. Volcker 1970-present President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1975-1979)
Anthony M. Solomon 1966-2007 President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1980-1984)
E. Gerald Corrigan 1986-1997 President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1985-1993)
William J. McDonough 1975-present President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1993-2003)
Timothy F. Geithner 1996-present President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2003-2009)
William C. Dudley 2011-present President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (2009-present)

World Bank:
Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
Eugene Meyer 1930-1958 President of The World Bank (1946)
John J. McCloy 1940-1989 President of The World Bank (1947-1949)
Eugene R. Black 1950-1963 President of The World Bank (1949-1962)
Robert S. McNamara 1968-2009 President of The World Bank (1968-1981)
Barber B. Conable 1973-1974 President of The World Bank (1986-1991)
Lewis T. Preston 1974-1995 President of The World Bank (1991-1995)
James D. Wolfensohn 1981-present President of The World Bank (1995-2005)
Paul D. Wolfowitz 1974-1979, 1981-present President of The World Bank (2005-2007)
Robert B. Zoellick 1991-present President of The World Bank (2007-2012)

Heads of Corporate [Tax-Exempt] Foundations
Name Year of CFR Membership Occupation
Elihu Root 1921-1936 President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1910-1925)
Alger Hiss 1946-1949 President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1946-1949)
James T. Shotwell 1924-1960 President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1949-1950)
Joseph E. Johnson 1948-1990 President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1950-1971)
Thomas L. Hughes 1967-present President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1971-1991)
Morton I. Abramowitz 1975-present President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1991-1997)
Jessica Tuchman Mathews 1978-1980, 1983-present President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1997-present)
Raymond B. Fosdick 1921-1971 President of The Rockefeller Foundation (1936-1948)
Chester I. Barnard 1947-1955 President of The Rockefeller Foundation (1948-1952)
Dean Rusk 1952-1994 President of The Rockefeller Foundation (1952-1961)
J. George Harrar 1961-1977 President of The Rockefeller Foundation (1961-1972)
John H. Knowles 1973-1978 President of The Rockefeller Foundation (1972-1979)
Richard W. Lyman 1980-present President of The Rockefeller Foundation (1980-1988)
Peter C. Goldmark Jr. 1979-present President of The Rockefeller Foundation (1988-1997)
Judith Rodin 2006-present President of The Rockefeller Foundation (2005-present)
Paul G. Hoffman 1942-1972 President of Ford Foundation (1950-1953)
H. Rowan Gaither 1955-1960 President of Ford Foundation (1953-1956)
Henry T. Heald 1955-1970 President of Ford Foundation (1956-1965)
McGeorge Bundy 1947-1995 President of Ford Foundation (1966-1979)
Franklin A. Thomas 1978-present President of Ford Foundation (1979-1996)
Susan V. Berresford 1989-present President of Ford Foundation (1996-2008)
Luis A. Ubinas 2011-present President of Ford Foundation (2008-present)

International Bankers:
David Rockefeller 1942-present Chairman and CEO of Chase Manhattan Bank (1969-1981)
John J. McCloy 1940-1989 Chairman of the board of Chase Manhattan Bank (1955-1961)
Thomas W. Lamont 1921-1947 Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1943-1948)
Russell C. Leffingwell 1921-1959 Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1948-1950)
Walter B. Wriston 1955-1990 Chairman of Citibank (1970-1984)
John S. Reed 1984-1996 Chairman and CEO of Citibank (1984-1998)
Peter G. Peterson 1971-present Chairman and CEO of Lehman Brothers (1973-1984)
Richard S. Fuld Jr. 1996-2009 Chairman and CEO of Lehman Brothers (1994-2008)
Paul M. Warburg 1921-1932 Vice Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1916-1918)
John M. Schiff 1938-1986 Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1931-1977)
C. Douglas Dillon 1940-2002 Chairman of the board of Dillon, Read & Co. (1946-1953)
Winthrop W. Aldrich 1927-1973 Chairman of Chase National Bank (1934-1953)
W. Averell Harriman 1923-1986 Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1946)
Harold Stanley 1925-1959 Partner of Morgan Stanley & Co. (1941-1955)
Henry S. Morgan 1928-1981 Partner of Morgan Stanley & Co.
John C. Whitehead 1978-present Co-Chairman of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1976-1984)
Lewis W. Douglas 1935-1973 Chairman of Mutual Life Insurance Co. of New York [MONY] (1950-1959)
Maurice R. Greenberg 1977-present Chairman and CEO of American International Group (1989-2005)
James D. Robinson III 1973-present Chairman and CEO of American Express Co. (1977-1993)

Heads of Corporate Media:
William S. Paley 1936-1989 Chairman of the board of Columbia Broadcasting System [CBS] (1946-1983)
David Sarnoff 1947-1969 Chairman of the board of RCA (1947-1966)
Arthur Hays Sulzberger 1927-1968 Chairman of the board of The New York Times Co. (1957-1968)
Eugene Meyer 1930-1958 Chairman of the board of The Washington Post Co. (1947-1959)
Katharine Graham 1970-2000 Chairman of the board of The Washington Post Co. (1973-1993)
Rupert Murdoch 1994-present Chairman and CEO of News Corp. (Fox News) (1991-present)
Gerald M. Levin 1994-2007 Chairman and CEO of Time Warner, Inc. (1993-2002)
Richard D. Parsons 1990-present Chairman and CEO of Time Warner, Inc. (2003-2008)
Mortimer B. Zuckerman 1988-present Chairman and Editor-in-Chief, U.S. News and World Report (1984-present)
Peter R. Kann 1985-present Chairman of Dow Jones & Co. (1991-2007)
Michael Eisner 1999-2003 Chairman and CEO of The Walt Disney Co. (1984-2004)
Owen D. Young 1921-1940 Chairman of the board of Radio Corporation of America [RCA] (1919-1929)
Howard Stringer 2001-present Chairman and CEO, Sony Corporation (2005-present)
Eric Schmidt 2008-present Chairman and CEO of Google Inc. (2001-present)

Corporate Businessmen:
David J. O’Reilly 2008-present Chairman and CEO of ChevronTexaco (2000-2009)
Lee R. Raymond 1988-present Chairman and CEO of ExxonMobil (1999-2006)
J.K. Jamieson 1967-1994 Chairman and CEO of Exxon (1969-1975)
Clifton C. Garvin Jr. 1971-1992 Chairman and CEO of Exxon (1975-1986)
Lawrence G. Rawl 1986-1993 Chairman and CEO of Exxon (1986-1993)
Rawleigh Warner Jr. 1968-1990 Chairman and CEO of Mobil Oil Corp. (1969-1986)
Allen E. Murray 1981-2002 Chairman and CEO of Mobil Oil Corp. (1986-1994)
Lucio A. Noto 1994-present Chairman and CEO of Mobil Oil Corp. (1994-1999)
George M. Keller 1978-1991 Chairman and CEO of Chevron (1981-1988)
Kenneth T. Derr 1997-2009 Chairman and CEO of Chevron (1989-1999)
Amos L. Beaty 1921-1936 Chairman of the board of Texaco (1926-1927)
W.S.S. Rodgers 1945-1953 Chairman of the board of Texaco (1944-1953)
Maurice F. Granville 1971-1993 Chairman and CEO of Texaco (1972-c. 1980)
Alfred C. DeCrane Jr. 1988-present Chairman of Texaco (1987-1996)
C.J. Silas 1988-present Chairman and CEO of Phillips Petroleum Co. (1985-1994)
Robert O. Anderson 1971-2005 Chairman and CEO of Atlantic Richfield Co. (ARCO) (1964-1985)
Armand Hammer 1988-1990 Chairman and CEO of Occidental Petroleum Corp. (1957-1991)
Owen D. Young 1921-1940 Chairman of the board of General Electric Co. (1922-1939, 1942-1944)
Philip D. Reed 1942-1988 Chairman of the board of General Electric Co. (1940-1942, 1945-1958)
Thomas J. Watson 1924-1955 President of International Business Machines Corp. [IBM] (1914-1949)
Thomas J. Watson Jr. 1961-1993 Chairman and CEO of IBM (1961-1971)
Louis V. Gerstner Jr. 1982-present Chairman and CEO of IBM (1993-2002)
C. Peter McColough 1969-1994 Chairman and CEO of Xerox Corp. (1971-1982)
Paul A. Allaire 1989-present Chairman and CEO of Xerox Corp. (1991-2001)
Alfred P. Sloan Jr. 1933-1965 Chairman of the board of General Motors Corp. (1937-1956)
Charles J. Pilliod Jr. 1975-2005 Chairman and CEO of Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. (1974-1983)

College Presidents:
Name CFR Membership (Year) Occupation
A. Lawrence Lowell 1925-1942 President of Harvard University (1909-1933)
James B. Conant 1934-1976 President of Harvard University (1933-1953)
Nathan M. Pusey 1954-2001 President of Harvard University (1953-1971)
Neil L. Rudenstine 1988-present President of Harvard University (1991-2001)
Lawrence H. Summers 1990-present President of Harvard University (2001-2006)
John Grier Hibben 1924-1927 President of Princeton University (1912-1932)
Harold W. Dodds 1934-1968 President of Princeton University (1933-1957)
Robert F. Goheen 1959-2007 President of Princeton University (1957-1972)
William G. Bowen 1987-2007 President of Princeton University (1972-1988)
Harold T. Shapiro 1991-2007 President of Princeton University (1988-2001)
(Gen.) Dwight D. Eisenhower 1949-1968 President of Columbia University (1948-1953)
Grayson L. Kirk 1942-1997 President of Columbia University (1953-1968)
Andrew W. Cordier 1956-1974 President of Columbia University (1968-1970)
Michael I. Sovern 1977-present President of Columbia University (1980-1993)
George E. Rupp 1997-present President of Columbia University (1993-2002)
Lee C. Bollinger 2003-present President of Columbia University (2002-present)
James R. Angell 1928-1948 President of Yale University (1921-1936)
Charles Seymour 1921-1961 President of Yale University (1937-1950)
A. Whitney Griswold 1942-1962 President of Yale University (1950-1963)
Kingman Brewster Jr. 1956-1987 President of Yale University (1963-1977)
A. Bartlett Giamatti 1978-1986 President of Yale University (1979-1986)
Benno C. Schmidt Jr. 1986-present President of Yale University (1986-1992)
Richard C. Levin 2012-present President of Yale University (1993-present)

Edmund E. Day 1932-1944 President of Cornell University (1937-1949)
James A. Perkins 1951-1998 President of Cornell University (1963-1969)
Dale R. Corson 1966-1979 President of Cornell University (1969-1977)
Frank H.T. Rhodes 1985-1995 President of Cornell University (1977-1995)
David J. Skorton 2006-present President of Cornell University (2006-present)
William H.P. Faunce 1921-1929 President of Brown University (1899-1929)
Henry M. Wriston 1926-1978 President of Brown University (1937-1955)
Howard R. Swearer 1969-1991 President of Brown University (1977-1988)
Vartan Gregorian 1984-present President of Brown University (1989-1997)
Ruth J. Simmons 1997-present President of Brown University (2001-2012)
Christina H. Paxson 2012-present President of Brown University (2012-present)
Ernest M. Hopkins 1930-1953 President of Dartmouth College (1916-1945)
John Sloan Dickey 1946-1983 President of Dartmouth College (1945-1970)
David T. McLaughlin 1984-2004 President of Dartmouth College (1981-1987)
Frank J. Goodnow 1926-1932 President of Johns Hopkins University (1914-1929)
Isaiah Bowman 1921-1950 President of Johns Hopkins University (1935-1948)
Detlev Bronk 1954-1975 President of Johns Hopkins University (1949-1953)
Lincoln Gordon 1954-2008 President of Johns Hopkins University (1967-1971)
Steven Muller 1966-2012 President of Johns Hopkins University (1972-1990)
Henry S. Pritchett 1926-1936 President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1900-1907)
Karl T. Compton 1936-1953 President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1930-1948)
James R. Killian 1954-1972 President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1949-1959)
Julius A. Stratton 1965-1993 President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1959-1966)
Howard W. Johnson 1966-2009 President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1966-1971)
Jerome B. Wiesner 1960-1994 President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1971-1980)
Susan Hockfield 2008-present President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2004-2012)
Leo Rafael Reif 2012-present President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2012-present)
Robert G. Sproul 1945-1964 President of University of California at Berkeley (1930-1958)
Clark Kerr 1961-1969 President of University of California at Berkeley (1958-1967)
Charles J. Hitch 1957-1979 President of University of California at Berkeley (1967-1975)
Ray Lyman Wilbur 1929-1948 President of Stanford University (1916-1943)
J.E. Wallace Sterling 1946-1978 President of Stanford University (1949-1968)
Richard W. Lyman 1980-present President of Stanford University (1970-1980)
Donald Kennedy 1983-1993 President of Stanford University (1980-1992)
Gerhard Casper 1985-present President of Stanford University (1992-2000)
Hanna Holborn Gray 1983-present President of University of Chicago (1978-1993)
John J. DeGioia 2003-present President of Georgetown University (2001-present)

Journalists:
Name CFR Membership (Year) Occupation
Henry R. Luce 1934-1966 Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1923-1964)
Hedley Donovan 1949-1990 Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1964-1979)
Henry A. Grunwald 1979-2004 Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1979-1987)
Jason D. McManus 1988-present Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1987-1995)
Norman Pearlstine 1984-present Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1995-2005)
John W. Huey Jr. 2003-present Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (2006-present)
William F. Buckley Jr. 1974-2003 Editor-in-Chief of National Review (1955-1990)
Philip L. Graham 1948-1962 Publisher of The Washington Post (1946-1961)
Karen Elliott House 1978-present Publisher of The Wall Street Journal (2002-2005)
John B. Oakes 1949-2000 Editorial Page Editor of The New York Times (1961-1977)
Max Frankel 1966-1992 Editorial Page Editor of The New York Times (1977-1986)
Andrew M. Rosenthal 2007-present Editorial Page Editor of The New York Times (2007-present);
Robert H. Estabrook 1959-present Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post (1953-1962)
Philip L. Geyelin 1973-2003 Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post (1968-1979)
Meg Greenfield 1973-1998 Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post (1979-1999)
Fred Hiatt 1997-present Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post (2000-present)
Dan Rather 1980-present Anchor of CBS Evening News (1981-2005)
Tom Brokaw 1988-present Anchor of NBC Nightly News (1982-2004)
Brian D. Williams 2003-present Anchor of NBC Nightly News (2004-present)
Katie Couric 2004-present Anchor of CBS Evening News (2006-2011)
Charles C. Collingwood 1954-1985 Chief Foreign Correspondent for CBS (1966-1975)
Daniel L. Schorr 1960-2010 Washington Correspondent for CBS (1966-1976)
Edward R. Murrow 1934-1964 CBS journalist (1935-1961)
Judith Miller 1976-present New York Times Journalist
Barbara Walters 1978-present Co-Host and Chief Correspondent of ABC News’ 20/20 (1979-2004)
Diane Sawyer 1981-present Anchor of ABC World News Tonight (2010-present)
Thomas L. Friedman 1985-present Foreign Affairs Columnist of The New York Times (1995-present)
Andrea Mitchell 2004-present Chief Foreign Affairs Correspondent for NBC (1994-present)

Bilderberg Meetings participants (Attended the Bilderberg Meetings 10 times or more)
Name CFR Membership (Year) Occupation
Arthur H. Dean 1938-1987 Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell (1929-1976)
David Rockefeller 1942-present Chairman and CEO of Chase Manhattan Bank (1969-1981)
Shepard Stone 1947-1989 Director of International Affairs at Ford Foundation (1954-1968)
Emilio G. Collado 1948-1992 Executive Vice President of Exxon Corp. (1966-1975)
Joseph E. Johnson 1948-1990 President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1950-1971)
George W. Ball 1949-1993 Under Secretary of State (1961-1966)
Gabriel Hauge 1951-1981 Chairman of the board of Manufacturers Hanover Trust Co. (1971-1979)
James A. Perkins 1951-1998 President of Cornell University (1963-1969)
H.J. Heinz II 1953-1986 Chairman of the board of H.J. Heinz Company (1959-1987)
George C. McGhee 1954-1995 U.S. Ambassador to West Germany (1963-1968)
Henry A. Kissinger 1956-2009 Secretary of State (1973-1977); National Security Advisor (1969-1975)
William P. Bundy 1960-2000 Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs (1964-1969)
Jack F. Bennett 1965-1995 Senior Vice President of Exxon Corp. (1975-1989)
Richard C. Holbrooke 1970-2010 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1999-2001)
Theodore L. Eliot Jr. 1971-1994 Dean of Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University (1979-1985)
Charles McC. Mathias Jr. 1972-2009 U.S. Senator (1969-1987)
Murray H. Finley 1973-1991 President, Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union, AFL-CIO
John C. Whitehead 1978-present Co-Chairman of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1976-1984)
Vernon E. Jordan Jr. 1978-present Senior Managing Director of Lazard Freres (2000-present)
Richard N. Perle 1978-2003 Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy (1981-1987)
James D. Wolfensohn 1981-present President of the World Bank (1995-2005)
Paul D. Wolfowitz 1974-1979, 1981-pres. President of The World Bank (2005-2007)
Jessica Tuchman Mathews 1978-1980, 1983-pres. President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1997-present)
Kenneth W. Dam 1982-present Deputy Secretary of the Treasury (2001-2003)
Dwayne O. Andreas 1988-2005 Chairman of Archer-Daniels-Midland Co. (1979-1997)
Paul A. Allaire 1989-present Chairman and CEO of Xerox Corp. (1991-2001)
Henry R. Kravis 1992-present Senior Partner of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co. (1987-present)
James A. Johnson 1994-present Chairman and CEO of Fannie Mae (1991-1998)
Thomas E. Donilon 1996-present National Security Advisor (2010-2013)
Marie-Josee Kravis 2005-present Senior Fellow of the Hudson Institute

Prominent Rhodes Scholars:
Name CFR Membership (Year) Occupation
Whitney H. Shepardson 1921-1966 Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1966)
Bernadotte E. Schmitt 1927-1953 Professor of History at the University of Chicago (1925-1946)
Clarence H. Haring 1931-1954 Professor of Latin American History and Economics at Harvard Univ. (1923-1953)
Stanley K. Hornbeck 1932-1966 U.S. Ambassador to the Netherlands (1944-1947)
William Y. Elliott 1933-1938, 1940, 1946, 1954-1972 Professor of Government at Harvard University (1931-1963)
Felix M. Morley 1938-1947 President of Haverford College (1940-1945)
Frank Aydelotte 1938-1954 President of Swarthmore College (1921-1940)
Clyde Eagleton 1938-1957 Professor of International Law at New York University
Ralph M. Carson 1938-1969 Partner of Davis, Polk & Wardwell [law firm] (1935-1977)
William P. Maddox 1939-1972 U.S. Consul-General in Singapore (1959-1961)
John W. Nason 1942-1985 President of Swarthmore College (1940-1953)
Edward S. Mason 1945-1972 Dean of Graduate School of Public Administration at Harvard Univ. (1947-1958)
Oliver C. Carmichael 1945-1958 President of University of Alabama (1953-1957)
Charles G. Bolte 1946-1947, 1950-1973 Vice President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1966-1971)
Alan Valentine 1947-1973 President of University of Rochester (1935-1950)
John King Fairbank 1947-1985 Professor of History at Harvard University (1959-1972)
Charles E. Saltzman 1947-1953, 1961-1990 Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1956-1973)
Alfred Hayes 1948-1985 President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1956-1975)
Elmer H. Davis 1949-1957 Director of Office of War Information (1942-1945)
Malcolm A. MacIntyre 1949-1972 President of Chemical Division of Martin Marietta Corp. (1965-1972)
Hedley Donovan 1949-1990 Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1964-1979)
John B. Oakes 1949-2000 Editorial Page Editor of The New York Times (1961-1977)
Erwin D. Canham 1950-1952 Editor-in-Chief of Christian Science Monitor (1964-1974)
Crane Brinton 1952-1967 Professor of History at Harvard University (1942-c.1967)
Fowler Hamilton 1952-1983 Partner of Cleary, Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton [law firm] (1946-1961, 1963-1984)
Dean Rusk 1952-1994 Secretary of State (1961-1969); President of Rockefeller Foundation (1952-1960)
Harlan B. Cleveland 1953-2007 U.S. Representative to NATO (1965-1969)
Frederick L. Hovde 1954-1973 President of Purdue University (1946-1971)
Don K. Price Jr. 1954-1977 Dean of Graduate School of Public Administration at Harvard Univ. (1958-1977)
Charles C. Collingwood 1954-1985 Chief Foreign Correspondent for CBS (1966-1975)
George C. McGhee 1954-1995 U.S. Ambassador to West Germany (1963-1968)
Myres S. McDougal 1954-1997 Professor of Law at Yale University (1939-1975)
Lincoln Gordon 1954-2008 President of Johns Hopkins University (1967-1971)
Walt W. Rostow 1955-2002 National Security Advisor (1966-1969)
Philip M. Kaiser 1956-2006 U.S. Ambassador to Hungary (1977-1980)
Richard N. Gardner 1956-present U.S. Ambassador to Spain (1993-1997)
William E. Stevenson 1957-1975 U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines (1962-1964)
Charles J. Hitch 1957-1979 President of University of California at Berkeley (1967-1975)
Robert V. Roosa 1957-1993 Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1965-1993)
Charles F. Barber 1957-2010 Chairman of American Smelting and Refining Co. (1971-1982)
Waldemar A. Nielsen 1958-2002 President of African-American Institute (1961-1970)
Gen. Charles H. Bonesteel III 1960-1977 Commander of U.S. 8th Army [Korea] (1966-1969)
Ernest K. Lindley 1961-1979 Chief of Washington Bureau of Newsweek magazine (1937-1961)
James M. Hester 1962-1996 President of New York University (1962-1975)
Carl B. Spaeth 1963-1971 Dean of the Law School at Stanford University (1946-1962)
Morris B. Abram 1965-2000 Partner of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison (1962-1968, 1970-1989)
Stephen Stamas 1966-present Vice President of Public Affairs at Exxon (1973-1986)
Steven Muller 1966-2012 President of Johns Hopkins University (1972-1990)
Kermit Gordon 1967-1975 President of The Brookings Institution (1967-1977)
Nicholas deB. Katzenbach 1967-1994 General Counsel of International Business Machines Corp. [IBM] (1969-1985)
Wesley W. Posvar 1967-2001 Chancellor of University of Pittsburgh (1967-1991)
Thomas L. Hughes 1967-present President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1971-1991)
George B. Munroe 1967-present Chairman and CEO of Phelps Dodge Corp. (1975-1987)
W. Walton Butterworth 1970-1974 U.S. Ambassador to Canada (1962-1968)
Joseph S. Nye Jr. 1970-present North American Chairman of the Trilateral Commission (2008-present)
Tom Killefer 1971-1981 General Counsel of Chrysler Corp. (1966-1975)
Brig. Gen. Peter M. Dawkins 1971-present Retired U.S. Army Brigadier General; Heisman Trophy winner
John Brademas 1973-present U.S. Congressman (1959-1981); President of New York University (1981-1991)
Matthew Nimetz 1973-present Partner of Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton & Garrison (1974-1977, 1981-2000)
Walter B. Slocombe 1973-present Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (1994-2001)
Adm. Stansfield Turner 1973-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1977-1981)
Josiah Bunting 1974-1978 President of Hampden-Sydney College (1977-1987)
Edson W. Spencer 1974-2004, 2007-2011 Chairman of the board and CEO of Honeywell, Inc. (1978-1987)
Lt. Gen. Bradley C. Hosmer 1974-present Superintendent of U.S. Air Force Academy (1991-1994)
R. James Woolsey 1975-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1993-1995)
Strobe Talbott 1975-present President of The Brookings Institution (2002-present)
Gen. Wesley K. Clark 1975-1979, 1983-present Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1997-2000)
Charles W. Maynes 1976-2006 Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs (1977-1980)
Steven B. Pfeiffer 1976-1981, 1983-present Partner of Fulbright & Jaworski [law firm in Washington, D.C.] (1983-present)
Keith P. Ellison 1979-present Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Texas (1999-present)
Walter S. Isaacson 1979-1984, 1987-present President of Aspen Institute (2003-present)
Richard N. Haass 1980-1985, 1994-present President of the Council on Foreign Relations (2003-present)
James B. Hurlock 1980-present Partner of White & Case [law firm in New York City] (1967-2000)
Stephen A. Oxman 1980-present Senior Advisor at Morgan Stanley (1999-present)
Michael R. Gordon 1982-1987, 1990-present Chief Military Correspondent of The New York Times
Gen. Bernard W. Rogers 1983-1994 Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1979-1987)
Ashton B. Carter 1984-present Deputy Secretary of Defense (2011-present)
Larry Pressler 1986-present U.S. Senator (R-South Dakota, 1979-1997)
Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall 1986-present National Security Council Senior Director for European Affairs (2009-present)
Gordon Crovitz 1987-1992, 2008-present Publisher of The Wall Street Journal (2006-present)
Daniel C. Esty 1988-present Professor of Environmental Law and Policy at Yale University (2001-present)
Jason D. McManus 1988-present Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1987-1995)
Neil L. Rudenstine 1988-present President of Harvard University (1991-2001)
Bill Clinton 1989-present President of the United States (1993-2001)
David L. Boren 1989-present U.S. Senator (1979-1994); President of University of Oklahoma (1994-present)
Franklin D. Raines 1989-present Chairman and CEO of Fannie Mae (1999-2004)
Benjamin W. Heineman Jr. 1990-present General Counsel of General Electric Co. (1987-2004)
Lt. Gen. Christopher D. Miller 1991-1996, 2004-present Air Force Deputy Chief of Staff for Strategic Plans and Programs (2009-2013)
George Stephanopoulos 1991-1996, 2010-present White House Adviser on Policy and Strategy (1993-1995)
Richard F. Celeste 1992-present U.S. Ambassador to India (1997-2001); Governor of Ohio (1983-1991)
Kurt L. Schmoke 1992-present Mayor of Baltimore, Maryland (1987-1999)
Susan E. Rice 1992-1997, 1999-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (2009-2013)
Lt. Gen. Howard D. Graves 1994-2003 Superintendent of U.S. Military Academy (1991-1996)
James H.S. Cooper 1995-present U.S. Congressman (1983-1995, 2003-present)
Adm. Charles S. Abbot 1996-present Commander of U.S. Sixth Fleet (1996-1998)
Sylvia Mathews Burwell 1996-present Director of Office of Management and Budget (2013-present)
Bill Bradley 1997-present U.S. Senator (D-New Jersey, 1979-1997)
Alan D. Bersin 1999-present Commissioner of Customs and Border Protection (2010-2011)
Lt. Gen. Frank G. Klotz 1999-present Commander of Air Force Global Strike Command (2009-2011)
Christopher B. Howard 2000-2004, 2006-present President of Hampden-Sydney College [Virginia] (2009-present)
Michael McFaul 2001-present U.S. Ambassador to Russia (2012-present)
Nicholas D. Kristof 2003-present Columnist for the New York Times (2001-present)
Cory A. Booker 2005-2009 Mayor of Newark, New Jersey (2006-present)
Clark Kent Ervin 2005-present Inspector General of the Department of Homeland Security (2003-2004)
Lt. Gen. Michelle D. Johnson 2007-present Superintendent of U.S. Air Force Academy (2013-present)
Peter B. Henry 2008-present Dean of New York University Stern School of Business (2010-present)
Wendell L. Willkie II 2011-present General Counsel of MeadWestvaco (2002-present)
Gina Raimondo 2012-present General Treasurer of Rhode Island (2011-present)

Prominent members of Skull & Bones:
Name CFR Membership (Year) Occupation
Charles Seymour 1921-1961 President of Yale University (1937-1950)
Clive Day 1921-1951 Professor of Economic History at Yale University (1907-1936)
Henry Waters Taft 1921-1940 Corporate lawyer; Member of Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft (1899-1945)
F. Trubee Davison 1921-1932 Assistant Secretary of War for Air (1926-1933)
Henry L. Stimson 1924-1929, 1934-1950 Secretary of War (1911-1913, 1940-1945); Secretary of State (1929-1933)
W. Averell Harriman 1924-1986 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1943-1946)
Harold Stanley 1925-1959 Partner of Morgan Stanley & Co. (1941-1955)
Robert A. Lovett 1927-1931, 1938-1940 Secretary of Defense (1951-1953)
Henry de Forest Baldwin 1928-1947 Corporate lawyer; Member of Lord, Day & Lord (1900-1947)
George L. Harrison 1929-1953 President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1928-1940)
Lansing P. Reed 1930-1936 Corporate lawyer; Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner & Reed (1915-37)
Pierre Jay 1931-1940, 1945-1947 Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1914-1926)
E. Roland Harriman 1933-1969 Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1978)
Allen T. Klots 1934-1964 Corporate lawyer; Member of Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam & Roberts (1921-1965)
Henry R. Luce 1934-1966 Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1923-1964)
Thomas D. Thacher 1935-1950 Solicitor General of the U.S. (1930-1933)
Frederic C. Walcott 1938-1948 U.S. Senator (1929-1935)
Hugh R. Wilson 1942-1946 U.S. Ambassador to Nazi Germany (1938); U.S. Minister to Switzerland (1927-37)
S. Hazard Gillespie Jr. 1946-1985 Corporate lawyer; Member of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1948-present)
Ray Morris 1947-1956 Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1956)
Charles M. Spofford 1947-1990 Corporate lawyer; Member of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1940-1950, 1952-1973)
McGeorge Bundy 1947-1995 President of Ford Foundation (1966-1979); National Security Advisor (1961-1966)
William Eldred Jackson 1947-1999 Corporate lawyer; Partner of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy (1954-1999)
Alfred Ogden 1947-2002 Corporate lawyer; Partner of Alexander & Green (1955-1975)
Knight Woolley 1948-1977 Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1931-1982)
John A. Davenport 1951-1970 Editor of Barron’s Weekly (1949-1954)
Townsend W. Hoopes 1951-2004 Under Secretary of the Air Force (1967-1969)
Jonathan B. Bingham 1952-1986 U.S. Congressman (1965-1983)
H.J. Heinz II 1953-1986 Chairman of the board of H.J. Heinz Company (1959-1987)
J. Richardson Dilworth 1954-1992 Chairman of the board of Rockefeller Center, Inc. (1966-1982)
Morehead Patterson 1956-1961 Chairman of American Machine & Foundry Co. (1943-1962)
Robert G. Page 1956-1970 Chairman of the board of Phelps Dodge Corporation (1967-1970)
J. Quigg Newton Jr. 1956-2002 President of University of Colorado (1956-1963)
William P. Bundy 1960-2000 Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs (1964-1969)
James J. Wadsworth 1961-1964 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1960-1961)
Peter O. A. Solbert 1961-2001 Corporate lawyer; Partner of Davis, Polk & Wardwell (1957-1963, 1965-1989)
Daniel P. Davison 1967-1997 Chairman and CEO of U.S. Trust Co. [New York City] (1982-1989)
John Sherman Cooper 1968-1978 U.S. Senator (1946-1949, 1952-1955, 1956-1973)
George H.W. Bush 1971-1978 President of the United States (1989-1993); CIA Director (1976-1977)
John Carey 1973-present Partner of Coudert Brothers [law firm in New York City] (1961-1987)
Winston Lord 1973-present U.S. Ambassador to Communist China (1985-1989)
William H. “Bill” Donaldson 1974-present Chairman of U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (2003-2005)
William F. Buckley Jr. 1974-2003 Editor-in-Chief of National Review (1955-1990)
Harold H. Healy Jr. 1974-2006 Corporate lawyer; Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton (1959-1989)
Charles S. Whitehouse 1977-2001 U.S. Ambassador to Thailand (1975-1978); U.S. Ambassador to Laos (1973-1975)
John H. Chafee 1982-1999 U.S. Senator (1976-1999)
Evan Griffith Galbraith 1982-2007 U.S. Ambassador to France (1981-1985)
Robert W. Kagan 1985-1990, 1996-present Washington Post journalist
Alexander T. Ercklentz 1988-present Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. (1978-present)
William H. Draper III 1988-present Chairman and President of Export-Import Bank of the U.S. (1981-1986)
David L. Boren 1989-present U.S. Senator (1979-1994); President of University of Oklahoma (1994-present)
John Forbes Kerry 1992-present U.S. Secretary of State (2013-present); U.S. Senator (1985-2013)
Stephen A. Schwarzman 1992-present Chairman and CEO of The Blackstone Group
John H.F. Shattuck 1995-present U.S. Ambassador to Czech Republic (1998-2000)
Frederick W. Smith 2006-present Chairman and CEO of Federal Express [FedEx Corp.] (1975-present)

Prominent Jewish Members of the Council on Foreign Relations (Incomplete)
Name CFR Membership (Year) Primary Occupation
Frank Altschul 1921-1973 Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. [banking firm] (1916-1945)
George Blumenthal 1921-1940 Senior Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. [banking firm] (1904-1925)
Abram I. Elkus 1921-1947 U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1916-1917)
Otto H. Kahn 1921-1934 Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. [banking firm in New York City] (1897-1934)
Herbert H. Lehman 1921-1963 U.S. Senator (D-New York, 1949-1957); Governor of New York (1933-1942)
Henry Morgenthau 1921-1940 U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1913-1916)
Mortimer L. Schiff 1921-1931 Partner of Kuhn, Loeb, & Co. (1900-1931)
E.R.A. Seligman 1921-1939 Professor of Political Economy and Finance at Columbia University (1904-1931)
Oscar S. Straus 1921-1926 U.S. Secretary of Commerce and Labor (1906-1909)
Albert Strauss 1921-1929 Vice Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1918-1920)
Paul M. Warburg 1921-1932 Vice Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1916-1918)
Felix Warburg 1921-1937 Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1896-1937)
Jesse Isidor Straus 1924-1936 President of R.H. Macy & Co. [Macy’s department store] (1919-1933)
Eustace Seligman 1926-1976 Member of Sullivan & Cromwell [law firm] (1923-1976)
Julius Rosenwald 1927-1932 Chairman of Sears, Roebuck & Co. (1925-1932)
Arthur Hays Sulzberger 1927-1968 Chairman of the board of The New York Times Co. (1957-1968)
Solomon R. Guggenheim 1928-1949 Member of Guggenheim Brothers [mining company]; Director of Yukon Gold Co.
Eugene Meyer 1930-1958 Chairman of the board of The Washington Post Co. (1947-1959)
Felix Frankfurter 1932-1964 Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1939-1962)
Robert K. Straus 1933-1992 Deputy Administrator of National Recovery Administration (1933-1935)
Frederick M. Warburg 1933-1970 Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1931-1973)
Ralph I. Straus 1934-1992 Secretary of R.H. Macy & Co. [Macy’s department store] (1933-1941)
Harry F. Guggenheim 1935-1970 U.S. Ambassador to Cuba (1929-1933)
William S. Paley 1936-1989 Chairman of the board of Columbia Broadcasting System [CBS] (1946-1983)
John M. Schiff 1938-1986 Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. [bank] (1931-1977)
David Dubinsky 1939-1976 President of International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (1932-1966)
Benjamin Buttenwieser 1942-1991 Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1932-1977)
Jack I. Straus 1942-1985 Chairman and CEO of R.H. Macy & Co. [Macy’s department store] (1956-1968)
J. Robert Oppenheimer 1947-1966 Atomic bomb scientist
David Sarnoff 1947-1969 Chairman of the board of Radio Corporation of America [RCA] (1947-1966)
Cord Meyer Jr. 1947-2000 Assistant Deputy CIA Director of Plans (1967-1973)
(Rabbi) Julius Mark 1952-1977 Senior Rabbi of Congregation Emanu-El [in New York City] (1948-1968)
Meyer Kestnbaum 1954-1960 President of the Chicago Council on Foreign Relations (1947-1950)
Oskar Morgenstern 1955-1976 Professor of Economics at Princeton University (1944-1970)
Eugene V. Rostow 1955-1997 Dean of Yale Law School (1955-1965)
Walt W. Rostow 1955-2002 National Security Advisor (1966-1969)
Henry A. Kissinger 1956-2009 National Security Advisor (1969-1975); U.S. Secretary of State (1973-1977)
Hans J. Morgenthau 1958-1973 Professor of Political Science at University of Chicago (1949-1968)
Arthur F. Burns 1960-1986 Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1970-1978)
Jacob K. Javits 1960-1985 U.S. Senator (R-New York, 1957-1981)
Josef Korbel 1960-1976 Dean, Graduate School of International Studies at Univ. of Denver (1964-1969)
Arthur J. Goldberg 1961-1962, 1966-1989 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1965-1968)
Frank W. Notestein 1961-1982 President of Population Council (1959-1968)
W. Michael Blumenthal 1963-present Secretary of the Treasury (1977-1979)
A.M. Rosenthal 1963-2006 Columnist for The New York Times (1986-1999)
Max Frankel 1966-1992 Editorial Page Editor of The New York Times (1977-1986)
Anthony M. Solomon 1966-2007 President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1980-1984)
Fritz Stern 1966-present Provost of Columbia University (1980-1983)
Harold Brown 1969-present Secretary of Defense (1977-1981); Secretary of the Air Force (1965-1969)
Daniel Ellsberg 1969-present Pentagon Paper leaker
Katharine (Meyer) Graham 1970-2000 Chairman of the board of The Washington Post Co. (1973-1993)
Irving Kristol 1970-2004 former Publisher of The National Interest and The Public Interest magazines
Jessica P. Einhorn 1973-present Dean, School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins U. (2002-2012)
Leslie H. Gelb 1973-present President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1993-2003)
Ruth Bader Ginsburg 1973-present Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1993-present)
Meg Greenfield 1973-1998 Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post (1979-1999)
Abraham A. Ribicoff 1974-1997 U.S. Senator (D-Connecticut, 1963-1981)
Paul D. Wolfowitz 1974-1979, 1981-present President of The World Bank (2005-2007); Deputy Sec. of Defense (2001-2005)
Morton I. Abramowitz 1975-present President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1991-1997)
Robert I. Rotberg 1975-present President of World Peace Foundation (1993-present)
Madeleine Korbel Albright 1976-present Secretary of State (1997-2001)
Edgar M. Bronfman Sr. 1976-present President of World Jewish Congress (1981-2007)
John M. Deutch 1976-present Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1995-1996)
Maurice R. Greenberg 1977-present Chairman and CEO of American International Group (1989-2005)
Thomas A. Dine 1978-present Executive Director of American Israel Public Affairs Committee (1980-1993)
Alan Greenspan 1978-present Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1987-2006)
Jessica Tuchman Mathews 1978-1980, 1983-present President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1997-present)
Richard N. Perle 1978-2003 Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy (1981-1987)
Norman Podheretz 1978-2004 Member of the Project for the New American Century
Barbara Walters 1978-present Co-Host and Chief Correspondent of ABC News’ 20/20 (1979-2004)
Elliott Abrams 1979-present Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs (1981-1985)
Henry A. Grunwald 1979-2004 Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1979-1987)
Martin S. Feldstein 1980-present President of National Bureau of Economic Research (1977-1982, 1984-2008)
Peter E. Haas Sr. 1980-2005 Chairman of Levi Strauss & Co. (1981-1989)
Richard N. Haass 1980-1985, 1994-present President of the Council on Foreign Relations (2003-present)
Harold Tanner 1980-present President of American Jewish Committee (2001-2004)
William S. Cohen 1981-present Secretary of Defense (1997-2001); U.S. Senator (R-Maine, 1979-1997)
Douglas J. Feith 1981-1986, 1990-present Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (2001-2005)
Robert S. Strauss 1981-present U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union (1991)
Caspar W. Weinberger 1981-2005 Secretary of Defense (1981-1987); Publisher of Forbes magazine (1989-1993)
James D. Wolfensohn 1981-present President of The World Bank (1995-2005)
Stephen S. Rosenfeld 1982-2010 Deputy Editorial Page Editor of The Washington Post (1982-1999)
Stephen G. Breyer 1983-present Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1994-present)
Robert D. Haas 1983-present Chairman of Levi Strauss & Co. (1989-2008)
Peter Tarnoff 1983-present President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1986-1993)
Bruce Wasserstein 1983-2009 Chairman and CEO of Lazard Freres (2001-2009)
Dov S. Zakheim 1983-present Comptroller of the Department of Defense (2001-2005)
Kenneth J. Bialkin 1984-present National Chairman of the Anti-Defamation League (1982-1986)
Paula J. Dobriansky 1984-1989, 1994-present Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs (2001-2009)
Stephen Friedman 1984-present Partner (1973-1992) and Chairman (1990-1994) of Goldman Sachs & Co.
Norman Pearlstine 1984-present Editor-in-Chief of Time magazine (1995-2005)
John L. Weinberg 1984-2006 Senior Chairman of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1990-2001)
Thomas L. Friedman 1985-present Foreign Affairs Columnist of The New York Times (1995-present)
Robert W. Kagan 1985-1990, 1996-present Columnist for The Washington Post
Peter R. Kann 1985-present Chairman of Dow Jones & Co. (1991-2007)
Paul R. Krugman 1985-1988, 2007-2009 Professor of International Economics at Princeton University
Lewis “Scooter” Libby 1985-1990, 1992-present Chief of Staff to the Vice President of the U.S. (2001-2005)
Henry Siegman 1985-present Executive Director of American Jewish Congress (1978-1994)
Stephen J. Friedman 1986-present Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton [law firm] (1970-1977, 1981-1986, 1993-2004)
Malcolm Hoenlein 1986-present Member, Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations
Gordon Crovitz 1987-1992, 2008-present Publisher of The Wall Street Journal (2006-present)
Leonard A. Lauder 1988-present Chairman of Estee Lauder Companies (1999-present)
Neil L. Rudenstine 1988-present President of Harvard University (1991-2001)
James B. Steinberg 1988-present Deputy Secretary of State (2009-2011)
George Soros 1988-present Chairman of Soros Fund Management, LLC (1996-present)
Mortimer B. Zuckerman 1988-present Editor-in-Chief of U.S. News and World Report (1984-present)
Daniel C. Kurtzer 1989-2002, 2006-present U.S. Ambassador to Israel (July 18, 2001-July 17, 2005)
Charles Krauthammer 1990-present Syndicated Columnist for The Washington Post (1984-present)
Lawrence H. Summers 1990-present Secretary of the Treasury (1999-2001)
Stephen J. Trachtenberg 1990-present President of George Washington University (1988-2007)
Howard L. Berman 1991-present Member of the U.S. House of Representatives (D-California, 1983-2013)
Thomas Buergenthal 1991-present Judge of the International Court of Justice (2000-2010)
Joseph Lieberman 1991-present U.S. Senator (D-Connecticut, 1989-2013)
Stephen A. Schwarzman 1992-present Chairman and CEO of The Blackstone Group (1985-present)
Philip D. Zelikow 1992-present Counselor, State Dept. (2005-2006); Executive Director of the 9/11 Commission
Lee A. Feinstein 1994-present U.S. Ambassador to Poland (2009-2012)
Stanley Fischer 1994-present Governor of the Bank of Israel [central bank of Israel] (2005-2013)
Gerald M. Levin 1994-2007 Chairman and CEO of Time Warner, Inc. (1993-2002)
Rupert Murdoch 1994-present Chairman and CEO of News Corp. (Fox News) (1991-present)
Penny Pritzker 1994-1998, 2004-present U.S. Secretary of Commerce (2013-present)
Robert E. Rubin 1994-present Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1971-1992); Sec. of the Treasury (1995-1999)
Nadine Strossen 1994-present President of American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) (1991-2008)
Jane Harman 1995-present Member, U.S. House of Representatives (D-California, 1993-1999, 2001-2011)
Charles E. Schumer 1995-2004 U.S. Senator (D-New York, 1999-present)
Barney Frank 1996-2003 Member of the U.S. House of Representatives (D-Massachusetts, 1981-2013)
Michael H. Moskow 1996-present President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (1994-2007)
Ronald S. Lauder 1998-present President of World Jewish Congress (2007-present)
David J. Stern 1998-present Commissioner of National Basketball Association (NBA) (1984-present)
Charlene Barshefsky 1999-present U.S. Trade Representative (1997-2000)
Michael R. Bloomberg 1999-present Mayor of New York City (2002-present)
Michael Eisner 1999-2003 Chairman and CEO of The Walt Disney Co. (1984-2004)
Jehuda Reinharz 1999-present President of Brandeis University (1994-2010)
Martin S. Indyk 2002-present U.S. Ambassador to Israel (1995-1997, 2000-2001)
Dianne Feinstein 2003-present U.S. Senator (D-California, 1992-present)
Bernard L. Schwartz 2003-present Chairman and CEO of Loral Space & Communications (1996-2006)
Seymour “Sy” Sternberg 2003-present Chairman and CEO of New York Life Insurance Co. (1997-2008)
Robert J. Katz 2004-present General Counsel of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1988-2000)
James S. Tisch 2004-present President and CEO of Loews Corp. [Newport cigarettes] (1999-present)
Abraham H. Foxman 2006-present National Director of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) (1987-present)
Jacob J. Lew 2006-present Secretary of the Treasury (2013-present)
Judith Rodin 2006-present President of The Rockefeller Foundation (2005-present)
Edgar Bronfman Jr. 2007-present Chairman and CEO of Warner Music Group Corp. (2004-present)
Andrew M. Rosenthal 2007-present Editorial Page Editor of The New York Times (2007-present);
Lloyd C. Blankfein 2009-present Chairman and CEO of Goldman Sachs (2006-present)
Fred P. Hochberg 2012-present Chairman and President, Export-Import Bank of the United States (2009-present)
Donald L. Kohn 2012-present Vice Chairman of the Federal Reserve (2006-2010)
Richard C. Levin 2012-present President of Yale University (1993-present)
Gerald Rosenfeld 2012-present Deputy Chairman (2007-2011) & CEO (1999-2007) of Rothschild North America

Council on Foreign Relations – Longevity
Years Name Membership Occupation
71 David Rockefeller 1942-present Chairman and CEO of Chase Manhattan Bank (1969-1981)
66 Albert H. Gordon 1942-2008
63 W. Averell Harriman 1923-1986 U.S. Ambassador to Soviet Union (1943-1946)
63 Lawrence S. Finkelstein 1949-present Vice President, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1959-1965)
62 Cass Canfield 1923-1985 Honorary Chairman of Int’l Planned Parenthood Federation (1969-1986)
62 C. Douglas Dillon 1940-2002 Secretary of the Treasury (1961-1965)
61 Robert R. Bowie 1947-2008 Deputy Director of CIA for Intelligence (1977-1979)
59 James W. Angell 1926-1985
59 Robert K. Straus 1933-1992 Deputy Administrator of National Recovery Administration (1933-1935)
59 Arthur Schlesinger Jr. 1947-2006
59 Phillips Talbot 1951-2010 U.S. Ambassador to Greece (1965-1969)
58 Ralph I. Straus 1934-1992 Secretary of R.H. Macy & Co. [Macy’s department store] (1933-1941)
58 Oscar S. Straus II 1951-2009 Partner of Guggenheim Brothers (1959-1983)
58 Robert B. von Mehren 1954-present Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton [law firm] (1957-1993)
56 Richard N. Gardner 1956-present U.S. Ambassador to Spain (1993-1997)
56 Ogden R. Reid 1956-present U.S. Congressman (1963-1975)
56 Roswell B. Perkins 1956-present Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton [law firm] (1957-1996)
55 Grayson L. Kirk 1942-1997 President of Columbia University (1953-1968)
55 Caryl P. Haskins 1944-1999 President of Carnegie Institution of Washington (1956-1971)
55 Arthur G. Altschul 1946-2001 Partner of Goldman, Sachs & Co. (1959-1977)
55 Paul H. Nitze 1949-2004 Secretary of the Navy (1963-1967)
54 Eli Whitney Debevoise 1935-1989 Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton [law firm] (1931-1990)
54 Robert Strausz-Hupe 1947-2001 U.S. Ambassador to Turkey (1981-1989)
54 George F. Kennan 1947-1973, 1977-2004 U.S. Ambassador to Soviet Union (1952)
54 Harlan B. Cleveland 1953-2007 U.S. Representative to NATO (1965-1969)
54 Lincoln Gordon 1954-2008 President of Johns Hopkins University (1967-1971)
53 Henry S. Morgan 1928-1981 Partner of Morgan Stanley & Co.
53 Philip E. Jessup Sr. 1928-1981 Judge of the International Court of Justice (1961-1970)
53 William S. Paley 1936-1989 Chairman of the board of Columbia Broadcasting System (1946-1983)
53 Herman B. Wells 1946-1999 President of Indiana University (1938-1962)
53 Cord Meyer Jr. 1947-2000 Assistant Deputy CIA Director of Plans (1967-1973)
53 Townsend W. Hoopes 1951-2004 Under Secretary of the Air Force (1967-1969)
53 Henry A. Kissinger 1956-2009 Secretary of State (1973-1977); National Security Advisor (1969-1975)
53 Charles F. Barber 1957-2010 Chairman of American Smelting and Refining Co. (1971-1982)
52 Frank Altschul 1921-1973 Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. [banking firm] (1916-1945)
52 Henry M. Wriston 1926-1978 President of Brown University (1937-1955)
52 John N. Hazard 1942-1994 Professor of Public Law at Columbia University (1946-1977)
52 William Eldred Jackson 1947-1999 Partner of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley & McCloy [law firm] (1954-1999)
52 Lincoln P. Bloomfield 1960-present
51 Hamilton Fish Armstrong 1921-1972 Editor of Foreign Affairs magazine (1928-1972)
51 Walter H. Mallory 1928-1979 Executive Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1927-1959)
51 Joseph C. Harsch 1946-1997 Foreign Affairs Columnist for Christian Science Monitor (1952-1971)
51 John B. Oakes 1949-2000 Editor of the Editorial Page of The New York Times
51 Raymond L. Garthoff 1959-2010 U.S. Ambassador to Bulgaria (1977-1979)
51 Zbigniew Brzezinski 1961-present National Security Advisor (1977-1981)
50 Raymond B. Fosdick 1921-1971 President of The Rockefeller Foundation (1936-1948)
50 Eustace Seligman 1926-1976 Member of Sullivan & Cromwell [law firm] (1923-1976)
50 William L. Langer 1927-1977 Coolidge Professor of History at Harvard University (1936-1964)
50 Francis T.P. Plimpton 1933-1983 Partner of Debevoise & Plimpton [law firm] (1933-1961, 1965-1983)
50 Alexander B. Trowbridge 1954-2004 Secretary of Commerce (1967-1968)
50 Philip M. Kaiser 1956-2006 U.S. Ambassador to Hungary (1977-1980)
50 Daniel L. Schorr 1960-2010 Washington Correspondent for CBS (1966-1976)
49 Arthur H. Dean 1938-1987 Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell [law firm] (1929-1976)
49 John J. McCloy 1940-1989 Chairman of the board of Chase Manhattan Bank (1955-1961)
49 Benjamin Buttenwieser 1942-1991 Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1932-1977)
49 Amos A. Jordan 1956-2005 President of Center for Strategic and International Studies (1983-1988)
49 W. Michael Blumenthal 1963-present Secretary of the Treasury (1977-1979)
48 Clarence Dillon 1921-1936, 1942-1973 Founder of Dillon, Read & Co.
48 John M. Schiff 1938-1986 Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1931-1977)
48 Dudley B. Bonsal 1946-1994 U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York (1962-1976)
48 William McC. Martin Jr. 1947-1995 Chairman of the Federal Reserve System (1951-1970)
48 McGeorge Bundy 1947-1995 National Security Advisor (1961-1966)
48 Gen. Andrew Goodpaster 1956-2004 Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (1969-1974)
48 Robert F. Goheen 1959-2007 President of Princeton University (1957-1972)
47 John D. Rockefeller III 1931-1978 Chairman of The Rockefeller Foundation (1952-1971)
47 Charles F. Darlington 1938-1985 U.S. Ambassador to Gabon (1961-1964)
47 Henry B. Hyde 1948-1995 CIA Agent
47 George S. Franklin Jr. 1948-1995 Executive Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1953-1971)
47 John L. Loeb Sr. 1949-1996 Senior Partner of Loeb, Rhoades & Co. [brokerage firm] (1955-1977)
47 Henry H. Fowler 1950-1997 Secretary of the Treasury (1965-1968)
47 James A. Perkins 1951-1998 President of Cornell University (1963-1969)
47 John N. Irwin II 1952-1999 U.S. Ambassador to France (1973-1974)
47 Nathan M. Pusey 1954-2001 President of Harvard University (1953-1971)
47 Walt W. Rostow 1955-2002 National Security Advisor (1966-1969)
47 Louis W. Cabot 1961-2008 President of Cabot Corp. (1960-1969)
46 Winthrop W. Aldrich 1927-1973 Chairman of Chase National Bank (1934-1953)
46 William A.M. Burden 1938-1984 U.S. Ambassador to Belgium (1959-1961)
46 J. Quigg Newton Jr. 1956-2002 President of The Commonwealth Fund (1963-1975)
46 Theodore M. Hesburgh 1966-present President of University of Notre Dame (1952-1987)
46 Steven Muller 1966-2012 President of Johns Hopkins University (1972-1990)
46 Fritz Stern 1966-present Provost of Columbia University (1980-1983)
45 Whitney H. Shepardson 1921-1966 Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1966)
45 James B. Reston 1944-1989 Chief Washington Correspondent for The New York Times (1953-1964)
45 James W. Spain 1964-2009 U.S. Ambassador to Turkey (1980-1981)
45 Peter H. B. Frelinghuysen 1965-2010 U.S. Congressman (1953-1975)
45 Stanley R. Resor 1966-2011 Secretary of the Army (1965-1971)
45 Thomas L. Hughes 1967-present President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1971-1991)
44 Thomas K. Finletter 1935-1979 Secretary of the Air Force (1950-1953)
44 Philip D. Reed 1942-1988 Chairman of the board of General Electric Co. (1940-1942, 1945-1958)
44 Emilio G. Collado 1948-1992 Executive Vice President of Exxon Corp. (1966-1975)
44 George W. Ball 1949-1993 Under Secretary of State (1961-1966)
44 Nathaniel Samuels 1954-1998 Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. (1960-1966, 1972-1977)
44 Waldemar A. Nielsen 1958-2002 President of African-American Institute (1961-1970)
44 Calvin H. Plimpton 1962-2006 President of Amherst College (1960-1971)
44 C. Fred Bergsten 1968-present Under Secretary of the Treasury for Monetary Affairs (1980-1981)
44 Richard N. Cooper 1968-present Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs (1977-1981)
44 John P. Birkelund 1968-present Chairman and CEO of Dillon, Read & Co. (1988-1993)
43 Juan T. Trippe 1933-1976 Chairman and CEO of Pan American Airways (1964-1968)
43 Jack I. Straus 1942-1985 Chairman and CEO of R.H. Macy & Co. [Macy’s dept. store] (1956-1968)
43 Henry J. Friendly 1942-1985 U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit [New York City] (1959-1974)
43 Charles M. Spofford 1947-1990 Member of Davis, Polk & Wardwell [law firm] (1940-1950, 1952-1973)
43 Myres S. McDougal 1954-1997 Professor of Law at Yale University (1939-1975)
43 A.M. Rosenthal 1963-2006 New York Times journalist
43 Theodore C. Sorensen 1967-2010
43 Andrew F. Brimmer 1969-present Member of the Federal Reserve Board (1966-1974)
43 Harold Brown 1969-present Secretary of Defense (1977-1981)
43 Daniel Ellsberg 1969-present Pentagon Paper leaker
43 Harris L. Wofford 1969-present U.S. Senator (1991-1995)
42 Herbert H. Lehman 1921-1963 Governor of New York (1933-1942); U.S. Senator (1949-1957)
42 James G. McDonald 1921-1963 U.S. Ambassador to Israel (1949-1950)
42 Allen W. Dulles 1927-1969 Director of Central Intelligence Agency (1953-1961)
42 James B. Conant 1934-1976 President of Harvard University (1933-1953)
42 Brooks Emeny 1938-1980 President of Foreign Policy Association (1947-1953)
42 Ellsworth Bunker 1942-1984 U.S. Ambassador to South Vietnam (1966-1973)
42 Marquis W. Childs 1947-1989 Chief Washington Correspondent for St. Louis Post-Dispatch (1962-1968)
42 Joseph E. Johnson 1948-1990 President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1950-1971)
42 Dean Rusk 1952-1994 Secretary of State (1961-1969)
42 Thomas D. Cabot 1953-1995 Chairman of the board of Cabot Corp. (1960-1968)
42 Roswell L. Gilpatric 1953-1995 Partner of Cravath, Swaine & Moore [law firm]
42 Edmund A. Gullion 1955-1997 U.S. Ambassador to Congo [Zaire] (1961-1964)
42 Eugene V. Rostow 1955-1997 Dean of Yale Law School (1955-1965)
42 Claiborne Pell 1966-2008 U.S. Senator (Democrat-Rhode Island, 1961-1997)
42 Graham T. Allison 1970-present Dean, John F. Kennedy School of Gov’t at Harvard Univ. (1977-1989)
42 Robert H. Edwards 1970-present President of Bowdoin College (1990-2001)
42 Amory Houghton Jr. 1970-present U.S. Congressman (1987-2005)
42 Donald F. McHenry 1970-present U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1979-1981)
42 Joseph S. Nye Jr. 1970-present Dean of Kennedy School of Government at Harvard Univ. (1995-2004)
42 Gustav Ranis 1970-present Frank Altschul Professor of Int’l Economics at Yale Univ. (1982-2005)
42 Paul A. Volcker 1970-present Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1979-1987)
41 Roy E. Tomlinson 1921-1962 Chairman and President of Nabisco
41 Arthur Hays Sulzberger 1927-1968 Chairman of the board of The New York Times Co. (1957-1968)
41 Everett N. Case 1940-1981 President of Alfred P. Sloan Foundation (1962-1968)
41 Lammot du Pont Copeland 1942-1983 Chairman of the board of E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc. (1967-1971)
41 Gen. Lyman L. Lemnitzer 1946-1987 Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1960-1962)
41 Hedley Donovan 1949-1990 Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc. (1964-1979)
41 Frederick C. Barghoorn 1949-1990 Professor of Political Science at Yale University (1957-c.1976)
41 Taggart Whipple 1951-1992 Partner of Davis, Polk & Wardwell [law firm] (1950-1992)
41 John E. Sawyer 1953-1994 President of Williams College (1961-1973)
41 George C. McGhee 1954-1995 U.S. Ambassador to West Germany (1963-1968)
41 Frank Stanton 1965-2006 President of CBS (1946-1971); Vice Chairman of CBS (1971-1973)
41 Anthony M. Solomon 1966-2007 President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1980-1984)
41 Robert S. McNamara 1968-2009 Secretary of Defense (1961-1968); President of World Bank (1968-1981)
41 Donald B. Marron 1971-present Chairman and CEO of PaineWebber Inc. (1980-2000)
40 Charles Seymour 1921-1961 President of Yale University (1937-1950)
40 Nelson A. Rockefeller 1938-1978 Governor of New York (1959-1973); Vice President of U.S. (1974-1977)
40 Richard M. Bissell Jr. 1953-1993 Deputy CIA Director for Plans (1959-1962)
40 Douglas MacArthur II 1954-1994 U.S. Ambassador to Iran (1969-1972)
40 William P. Bundy 1960-2000 Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs (1964-1969)
40 Richard C. Holbrooke 1970-2010 U.S. Representative to the United Nations (1999-2001)

Council on Foreign Relations – Miscellaneous

Skull & Bones Members in the Council on Foreign Relations
Current CFR Bonesmen
David L. Boren (S&B 1963)
William H. “Bill” Donaldson (S&B 1953)
William H. Draper III (S&B 1950)
Alexander T. Ercklentz (S&B 1959)
Robert W. Kagan (S&B 1980)
John Forbes Kerry (S&B 1966)
Eric P. Liu (S&B 1990)
Winston Lord (S&B 1959)
Raymond K. Price Jr. (S&B 1951)
Stephen A. Schwarzman (S&B 1969)
John H.F. Shattuck (S&B 1965)
Frederick Wallace Smith (S&B 1966)
R. Keith Walton (S&B 1986)
William H. Wright II (S&B 1982)
Barry Zorthian (S&B 1941)

Former CFR Bonesmen
Charles E. Adams (S&B 1904)
Henry de Forest Baldwin (S&B 1885)
David George Ball (S&B 1960)
Otto T. Bannard (S&B 1876)
Dana T. Bartholomew (S&B 1928)
James Edward Bass (S&B 1982)
Samuel R. Bertron (S&B 1885)
Jonathan Brewster Bingham (S&B 1936)
Amory Howe Bradford (S&B 1934)
Walter Henderson Brown (S&B 1945W)
James L. Buckley (S&B 1944)
William F. Buckley Jr. (S&B 1950)
Harvey H. Bundy (S&B 1909)
McGeorge Bundy (S&B 1940)
William P. Bundy (S&B 1939)
George H.W. Bush (S&B 1948)
John Carey (S&B 1945W) John H. Chafee (S&B 1947)
Ward Cheney (S&B 1922)
George H. Chittenden (S&B 1939)
John Sherman Cooper (S&B 1923)
John A. Davenport (S&B 1926)
Russell W. Davenport (S&B 1923)
Daniel P. Davison (S&B 1949)
Frederick Trubee Davison (S&B 1918)
Henry (Harry) P. Davison Jr. (S&B 1920)
Clive Day (S&B 1892)
Joseph Richardson Dilworth (S&B 1938)
William S. Dodge (S&B 1986)
Sherman Ewing (S&B 1924)
Tali Farimah Farhadian (S&B 1997)
Joseph Carrere Fox (S&B 1938)
Evan Griffith Galbraith (S&B 1950)
Artemus L. Gates (S&B 1918)
S. Hazard Gillespie Jr. (S&B 1932)
George Winthrop Haight (S&B 1928)
Chauncey J. Hamlin (S&B 1903)
Harry H. Harper Jr. (S&B 1934)
Edward Roland Harriman (S&B 1917)
W. Averell Harriman (S&B 1913)
George L. Harrison (S&B 1910)
Harold H. Healy Jr. (S&B 1943)
Henry John Heinz II (S&B 1931)
Charles D. Hilles Jr. (S&B 1924)
Townsend Hoopes (S&B 1944)
William E. Jackson (S&B 1941)
Ellery S. James (S&B 1917)
Walter B. James (S&B 1879)
Pierre Jay (S&B 1892)
Allen T. Klots (S&B 1909)
David G. Litt (S&B 1984)
Charles Edwin Lord II (S&B 1949) Robert A. Lovett (S&B 1918)
Henry R. Luce (S&B 1920)
Archibald MacLeish (S&B 1915)
Ray Morris (S&B 1901)
J. Quigg Newton Jr. (S&B 1933)
John O’Leary (S&B 1969)
Alfred Ogden (S&B 1932)
Robert Gunthrie Page (S&B 1922)
Ralph D. Paine Jr. (S&B 1929)
Morehead Patterson (S&B 1920)
Lester W. Perrin (S&B 1908)
Lansing P. Reed (S&B 1904)
Thomas B. Ross (S&B 1951)
Frank F. Russell (S&B 1926)
Charles Seymour (S&B 1908)
Frank P. Shepard (S&B 1917)
Wallace D. Simmons (S&B 1890)
Peter O. A. Solbert (S&B 1941)
Charles M. Spofford (S&B 1924)
Elizabeth A. Stanley (S&B 1992)
Harold Stanley (S&B 1908)
Richard C. Steadman (S&B 1955)
Henry L. Stimson (S&B 1888)
Harold Phelps Stokes (S&B 1909)
Joseph R. Swan (S&B 1902)
Henry W. Taft (S&B 1880)
Thomas D. Thacher (S&B 1904)
DeForest Van Slyck (S&B 1920)
James J. Wadsworth (S&B 1927)
Frederic C. Walcott (S&B 1891)
Charles S. Whitehouse (S&B 1947)
E. Sheldon Whitehouse (S&B 1905)
Hugh R. Wilson (S&B 1906)
Knight Woolley (S&B 1917)
James Ting-Yeh Yang (S&B 1982)

Scroll & Key Members in the Council on Foreign Relations
*Robert Weeks de Forest (S&K 1870)
*Henry Wheeler de Forest (S&K 1876)
*William Adams Brown (S&K 1886)
*Herbert Parsons (S&K 1890)
*Frank Lyon Polk (S&K 1894)
*William Adams Delano (S&K 1895)
*Allen Wardwell (S&K 1895)
*Henry J. Fisher (S&K 1896)
*Walter Bruce Howe (S&K 1901)
*Gordon Auchincloss (S&K 1908)
*Francis Bayard Rives (S&K 1911)
*William Christian Bullitt (S&K 1912)
*William Vincent Griffin (S&K 1912)
*Vanderbilt Webb (S&K 1913) *Arnold Whitridge (S&K 1913)
*Dean G. Acheson (S&K 1915)
*Boylston Adams Tompkins (S&K 1915)
*Wayne Chatfield-Taylor (S&K 1916)
*Wilmarth Sheldon Lewis (S&K 1918)
*B. Brewster Jennings (S&K 1920)
*William D. Whitney (S&K 1920)
*Charles Shipman Payson (S&K 1921)
*Charles Albert Wight (S&K 1922)
*Frederick Sheffield (S&K 1924)
*John Hay Whitney (S&K 1926)
*Winthrop G. Brown (S&K 1929)
*James Ramsay Hunt, Jr. (S&K 1931)
*Joseph Peter Grace, Jr. (S&K 1936) *R. Sargent Shriver, Jr. (S&K 1938)
*Stanley R. Resor (S&K 1939)
*Cyrus R. Vance (S&K 1939)
*Joseph Walker, Jr. (S&K 1942)
*Cord Meyer, Jr. (S&K 1943)
*John V. Lindsay (S&K 1944)
*Thomas O. Enders (S&K 1953)
*James C. Thomson, Jr. (S&K 1953)
*Warren Zimmermann (S&K 1956)
*Roger Dennis Hansen (S&K 1957)
Hugh D.S. Greenway (S&K 1958)
*Angelo Bartlett Giamatti (S&K 1960)
Donaldson C. Pillsbury (S&K 1962)
Fareed Zakaria (S&K 1986)

Note: *= former Council on Foreign Relations member; name does not appear on 2012 Council on Foreign Relations membership roster.

Council on Foreign Relations Members who attended Bilderberg Meetings (incomplete)

(Note: Year indicates Bilderberg attendance)
20 or more appearances:
David Rockefeller (1954-1955, 1957-1958, 1961-1972, 1974-1975, 1977-1985, 1987-2006, 2008-2009, 2011)
*George W. Ball (1954, 1955, 1957-1958, 1960-1975, 1977-1993)
*Henry J. Heinz II (1954, 1955, 1957-1958, 1960-1975, 1977-1986)
*Joseph E. Johnson (1955, 1957-1958, 1960-1975, 1977, 1978, 1980)
Vernon E. Jordan Jr. (1969-1970, 1979-1985.1987, 1989-2009, 2011-2013)
Marie-Josee Kravis (1989-1996, 1998-2013)
*Henry A. Kissinger (1957, 1964, 1971, 1977, 1978, 1980-1992, 1994-2008, 2010-2013)
James D. Wolfensohn (1985, 1987-2000, 2002-2013)

10-19 appearances:
Paul Allaire (1991-2002)
*Dwayne O. Andreas (1982-1985, 1987-1990, 1992-1996)
*Jack F. Bennett (1977, 1978, 1980-1990)
*William P. Bundy (1973, 1977-1981, 1983-1985, 1990)
*Emilio G. Collado (1961-1975, 1977-1978, 1980)
Timothy C. Collins (2003-2012)
Kenneth W. Dam (1983, 1985-1997, 2001-2002)
*Arthur H. Dean (1957, 1963-1973, 1975)
Thomas E. Donilon (1998, 1999, 2001-2008, 2012)
*Theodore L. Eliot Jr. (1979-1993)
Martin S. Feldstein (1998-1999, 2001-2003, 2005-2008, 2010-2011, 2013)
*Murray H. Finley (1977, 1978, 1980-1987)
*Gabriel Hauge (1955, 1957-1958, 1961-1964, 1966, 1968-1972, 1974, 1978)
*Richard C. Holbrooke (1995-1999, 2004-2010)
James A. Johnson (1998, 2000-2003, 2005-2013)
Henry R. Kravis (1992-1993, 1996, 1998, 2000-2013)
Jessica T. Mathews (1998-2002, 2004-2008, 2010, 2012-2013)
Charles McC. Mathias Jr. (1967-1968, 1970, 1972, 1974-1975, 1981, 1984-1993)
*George C. McGhee (1954, 1955, 1957-1958, 1961, 1963-1967)
Craig J. Mundie (2003-2004, 2006-2013)
*Robert D. Murphy (1955, 1957, 1960, 1962-1964, 1966-1968, 1972)
*George Nebolsine (1954, 1955, 1957-1958, 1960-1964)
*James A. Perkins (1963, 1965, 1967-1968, 1971-1975, 1980)
*Richard N. Perle (1983, 1985, 2001-2013)
*Shepard Stone (1957, 1961, 1964-1975, 1980)
John C. Whitehead (1984-1987, 1989-1997)
Paul D. Wolfowitz (1990, 1994-1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2007-2009)

6-9 Appearances:
Roger C. Altman (2008-2013)
Zbigniew Brzezinski (1966, 1968, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1978, 1985)
*Walker L. Cisler (1954, 1955, 1957, 1961, 1963-1964)
*(Gen.) John R. Galvin (1988-1993)
*Paul A. Gigot (1996, 2002, 2003, 2006-2008)
Allan B. Hubbard (2002-2006, 2008)
*C. D. Jackson (1954, 1957, 1958, 1962-1964)
Winston Lord (1974, 1978, 1980, 1982-1985, 1987, 1996)
Bruce K. MacLaury (1977, 1980-1985)
William J. McDonough (1997-2000, 2002, 2004, 2008)
*Bill D. Moyers (1967-1971, 1973)
*Paul H. Nitze (1954, 1955, 1957-1958, 1961, 1963)
Rozanne L. Ridgway (1985, 1987-1989, 1991, 1992, 1994)
*Gen. Bernard W. Rogers (1981-1985, 1987)
Dennis B. Ross (2004-2006, 2008-2009, 2012)
Eric Schmidt (2007-2008, 2010-2013)
*Jack Sheinkman (1979, 1988-1990, 1992, 1994-1997)
James B. Steinberg (1994, 2000, 2002-2003, 2006, 2009-2011)
Lawrence H. Summers (1998, 2002, 2007-2010)
John L. Thornton (1999-2004)
Paul A. Volcker (1982-1983, 1986-1988, 1992, 1997, 2009-2010)
*J.D. Zellerbach (1954, 1955, 1957, 1958, 1960-1961)
Robert B. Zoellick (2003, 2006, 2008-2013) 5 appearances:
*Lloyd M. Bentsen Jr. (1989, 1992, 1995-1997)
C. Fred Bergsten (1972, 1974, 1984, 1997, 2002)
*John H. Ferguson (1954, 1955, 1957-1958)
*Paul B. Finney (1977, 1979-1982)
Timothy F. Geithner (2004-2008)
Richard N. Haass (1991, 2003-2005, 2007)
Kenneth M. Jacobs (2007-2008, 2011-2013)
*David T. Kearns (1983-1984, 1986, 1988, 1990)
Frank H. Pearl (2001-2002, 2005, 2008, 2010)
Steven L. Rattner (1999, 2001-2002, 2006, 2012)
Charlie Rose (2002, 2008, 2010-2012)
Josette M. Sheeran (2007, 2009-2012)
George Soros (1990, 1994, 1996, 2000, 2002)

4 appearances:
Graham T. Allison (1970-1971, 1974, 2007)
*Robert L. Bartley (1978, 1986, 1991, 1997)
Nicholas F. Brady (1984-1986, 1988)
Richard R. Burt (1984, 1986-1987, 1990)
*Louis W. Cabot (1962, 1964, 1984-1985)
*Sen. John H. Chafee (1979, 1986, 1991-1992)
Thomas S. Foley (1988, 1990, 1995, 2002)
*Katharine E. Graham (1988, 1990-1991, 1994)
Arthur A. Hartman (1975, 1979, 1983, 1986)
Jim Hoagland (1993, 1998-1999, 2002)
Robert D. Hormats (1983, 1985-1986, 2010)
*Walter J. Levy (1973, 1974, 1979-1980)
*John J. McCloy (1958, 1964-1966)
Norman Pearlstine (1989-1990, 2005-2006)
*Robert V. Roosa (1965, 1975, 1979, 1982)
Robert E. Rubin (2010-2013)
*Charles M. Spofford (1955, 1961, 1963, 1966)
Robert S. Strauss (1982, 1989-1990, 1992)
Arthur R. Taylor (1972, 1977, 1979, 1981)
Casimir A. Yost (1993, 1995, 1997-1998)

3 Appearances:
*Dean G. Acheson (1958, 1962, 1964)
Fouad Ajami (2006, 2008, 2012)
Robert O. Anderson (1963, 1971, 1973)
Hans H. Angermueller (1983-1985)
Charles G. Boyd (1999, 2002, 2007)
*McGeorge Bundy (1957, 1964, 1980)
John M. Deutch (1998, 2000, 2002)
Sen. Christopher J. Dodd (1999-2001)
Stanley Fischer (1996, 1998-1999)
*Lincoln Gordon (1957, 1957, 1961)
Maurice R. Greenberg (1989-1991)
*Henry A. Grunwald (1974, 1983, 1988)
Sen. Chuck Hagel (1999-2001)
*Paul G. Hoffman (1955, 1957, 1957)
Karen Elliott House (1982, 1988, 1992)
Gen. John M. Keane (2005, 2010-2011)
*Flora Lewis (1979, 1981, 1984)
Robert S. McNamara (1968-1969, 1975)
John Newhouse (1967, 1973, 1978)
Peter R. Orszag (2010-2012)
*Dean Rusk (1955, 1957, 1969)
Brent Scowcroft (1985, 1988, 1994)
Helmut Sonnenfeldt (1974, 1978, 1980)
G. Richard Thoman (1998-1999, 2002)
Stanley A. Weiss (1995-1997)
*Joseph H. Williams (1979-1980, 1982)
*Walter B. Wriston (1962, 1964, 1988)
Fareed Zakaria (2003, 2005, 2009)

Less than 3 appearances:
David Aaron (1977)
Kenneth L. Adelman (1984)
Michael H. Armacost (1997)
Reginald Bartholomew (1980)
Sen. Evan Bayh (1999)
*Frederick S. Beebe (1967)
*Elliott V. Bell (1962)
Douglas J. Bennet (1994)
Samuel R. “Sandy” Berger (1997)
Sweweryn Bialer (1983)
*John C. Bierwirth (1985)
James H. Billington (1992)
*Eugene R. Black (1957)
Shirley Temple Black (1988)
Robert D. Blackwill (1991)
Lloyd C. Blankfein (2007)
W. Michael Blumenthal (1972)
John R. Bolton (2003)
*Max Boot (2004, 2009)
Robert R. Bowie (1957, 1966)
Rep. John Brademas (1965)
Bill Bradley (1985)
Ian Bremmer (2007)
*Kingman Brewster (1965)
Andrew F. Brimmer (1972)
*Sen. Edward W. Brooke (1969)
*L. Dean Brown (1979)
*David K.E. Bruce (1965)
*William F. Buckley Jr. (1975, 1996)
*W. Randolph Burgess (1958)
*Willard C. Butcher (1989)
*Miriam Camps (1972, 1974)
*Frank T. Cary (1978)
*Sen. Clifford P. Case (1958)
*James Chace (1974)
*Harlan B. Cleveland (1967)
*Harold van B. Cleveland (1963, 1967)
Bill Clinton (1991)
*Barber B. Conable Jr. (1978)
Richard N. Cooper (1975, 1977)
*Lammot du Pont Copeland (1963)
*Andrew W. Cordier (1962)
*E. Gerald Corrigan (1994)
*Gardner Cowles (1954)
Chester A. Crocker (2008)
*Rep. John C. Culver (1970, 1972)
Gerald L. Curtis (1990)
Charles H. Dallara (1989)
*Richard G. Darman (1987)
(Sen.) Thomas A. Daschle (2008)
*Ralph P. Davidson (1978)
Lynn E. Davis (1995)
*Frederick L. Deming (1968)
Lynn Forester de Rothschild (1998)
*Thomas E. Dewey (1957)
William Diebold Jr. (1978)
*C. Douglas Dillon (1968)
*Viet D. Dinh (2002)
James Dobbins (1983, 1990)
Thomas R. Donahue (1980, 1983)
Hedley Donovan (1965, 1980)
Elizabeth Drew (1983)
Esther Dyson (2000, 2007)
Nicholas N. Eberstadt (2009, 2013)
*Hermann F. Eilts (1982)
Stuart E. Eizenstat (2002)
*Thomas O. Enders (1984)
*Rep. Dante B. Fascell (1970)
Dianne Feinstein (1991)
Douglas J. Feith (2004)
*Sen. Ralph E. Flanders (1955) *Gerald R. Ford (1962, 1964)
*Rep. Donald M. Fraser (1971)
*J. Wayne Fredericks (1979)
*Rep. Peter H.B. Frelinghuysen (1964, 1971)
Stephen Friedman (1993, 1994)
Thomas L. Friedman (1995, 2003)
Richard M. Furlaud (1992)
Orit B. Gadiesh (1997, 1998)
Evan G. Galbraith (1982)
*Thomas S. Gates Jr. (1968)
Richard A. “Dick” Gephardt (2012)
David Gergen (1992, 1995)
Louis V. Gerstner Jr. (1994, 1997)
*Roswell L. Gilpatric (1966)
Daniel R. Glickman (2001)
Marshall I. Goldman (1990)
*Gen. Andrew J. Goodpaster (1970, 1974)
*Meg Greenfield (1978, 1982)
Alan Greenspan (2002)
Donald Gregg (1985)
Marc Grossman (1998, 2007)
*Alfred M. Gruenther (1955)
*Philip C. Habib (1992)
*Patrick E. Haggerty (1978)
Alexander M. Haig Jr. (1978)
Edward K. Hamilton (1969)
Rep. Lee H. Hamilton (1997)
Robert A. Hanson (1982)
*Joseph C. Harsch (1958, 1962)
*Rep. Brooks Hays (1957)
*Michael A. Heilperin (1957, 1958)
*(Sen.) Henry J. Heinz III (1978)
*Christian A. Herter (1964)
Roger Hertog (2003)
Theodore M. Hesburgh (1975)
William A. Hewitt (1962)
Carla A. Hills (2002)
Stanley Hoffmann (1967, 1983)
James F. Hoge Jr. (1998)
John J. Horan (1984, 1985)
Arnold L. Horelick (1986)
Amory Houghton Jr. (1972)
R. Glenn Hubbard (2003)
Thomas L. Hughes (1971-1972)
Robert E. Hunter (1994)
William G. Hyland (1988)
Walter S. Isaacson (2004)
*William H. Jackson (1957)
Merit E. Janow (2004)
*Sen. Jacob K. Javits (1964)
*Nelson Dean Jay (1954)
Gen. James L. Jones Jr., USMC (2005, 2009)
(Rep.) James R. Jones (1985)
Thomas V. Jones (1966, 1987)
Robert Kagan (2004, 2009)
Peter R. Kann (1995)
Sen. Nancy Kassebaum [Baker] (1988)
Milton Katz (1962)
Thomas H. Kean (1989)
Donald M. Kendall (1992)
Muhtar Kent (2007, 2009)
Francis Keppel (1970)
Sen. John Forbes Kerry (2012)
Robert Kimmitt (1995)
James V. Kimsey (2006)
*Lane Kirkland (1988, 1993)
*Jeane J. Kirkpatrick (1981)
Bruce Kovner (2004, 2007)
Joseph Kraft (1967, 1980) Charles Krauthammer (2002)
Bernard Lewis (2001)
*Drew Lewis (1988)
*Samuel W. Lewis (1993)
Franklin A. Lindsay (1964)
*John V. Lindsay (1965)
Seymour M. Lipset (1970)
John P. Lipsky (2012)
*Bayless Manning (1972)
*Edward S. Mason (1963, 1966)
Jack F. Matlock Jr. (1991, 1996)
*C. Peter McColough (1981)
*James McCormack (1957, 1966)
Paul W. McCracken (1975)
Alonzo L. McDonald (1977)
*David E. McGiffert (1979)
Donald F. McHenry (1986, 1996)
*David T. McLaughlin (1994)
*John T. McNaughton (1967)
Mark C. Medish (2005, 2006)
Kenneth B. Mehlman (2005, 2012)
*Martin Meyerson (1970)
*Joseph Irwin Miller (1977)
Andrea Mitchell (2002)
(Sen.) Walter F. Mondale (1974, 1981)
*Philip E. Mosely (1958)
Michael H. Moskow (2001-2002)
Rupert Murdoch (1988)
*Frank C. Nash (1957)
*Alfred C. Neal (1958)
*David D. Newsom (1979)
Peggy Noonan (2012)
*(Gen.) Lauris Norstad (1967)
(Sen.) Sam Nunn (1996, 1997)
Joseph S. Nye Jr. (1994)
*William E. Odom (1993)
*Cola G. Parker (1954)
*Morehead Patterson (1957)
Henry M. Paulson Jr. (2008)
*Frederick B. Payne (1962)
(Sen.) Claiborne Pell (1992)
*George W. Perkins Jr. (1954, 1955)
George R. Perkovich (2003)
William J. Perry (1996)
Peter G. Peterson (1978)
*Rudolph A. Peterson (1966)
(Gen.) David H. Petraeus (2013)
Robert L. Pfaltzraff Jr. (1986)
Thomas R. Pickering (1994)
*Gerard Piel (1967)
Richard Pipes (1981, 1982)
*Norman Podhoretz (1996)
Colin L. Powell (1997)
Sen. Larry Pressler (1993)
*Don K. Price (1957)
William B. Quandt (1984, 1991)
Franklin D. Raines (2002)
Lee R. Raymond (1990)
William K. Reilly (1989)
*James Reston (1965)
*Rep. Henry S. Reuss (1965, 1971)
*Walter P. Reuther (1966)
William R. Rhodes (1998)
Condoleezza Rice (2008)
Bill Richardson (1999-2000)
Elliot L. Richardson (1969-1970)
Alice M. Rivlin (1984)
James D. Robinson III (1988)
James Roche (1982)
*John P. Roche (1983)
David Rockefeller Jr. (1989)
John D. “Jay” Rockefeller IV (1970-1971)
Nelson A. Rockefeller (1974)
Judith Rodin (2005)
Kenneth S. Rogoff (2012)
*Michael Ross (1958)
*Eugene V. Rostow (1967)
J. Stapleton Roy (2006)
Barnett R. Rubin (2008-2009)
John Ruggie (2003)
*Donald H. Rumsfeld (1975, 2002)
Jeffrey Sachs (1990)
*Charles S. Sanford Jr. (1988)
Robert A. Scalapino (1972, 1994)
*J. Robert Schaetzel (1972)
Richard Schifter (1990)
*Adolph W. Schmidt (1965)
Rockwell A. Schnabel (2004)
*Gen. C.V.R. Schuyler (1958)
David Shambaugh (2012)
Sally A. Shelton (1992)
*Marshall D. Shulman (1964, 1984)
George P. Shultz (2008)
Gary G. Sick (1988)
Henry Siegman (2002)
Kristen Silverberg (2007)
*William E. Simon (1982)
*Joseph J. Sisco (1984)
Anne-Marie Slaughter (2013)
*Gerard C. Smith (1973)
*Adm. Harold Page Smith (1964)
Nancy E. Soderberg (1995)
*Anthony M. Solomon (1978)
*Frank A. Southard Jr. (1961)
*Joseph P. Spang Jr. (1954)
Jerry I. Speyer (2012)
Lesley R. Stahl (1989, 1997)
*Howard Stein (1971)
George Stephanopoulos (1996-1997)
*Sen. Adlai E. Stevenson III (1971)
Marin J. Strmecki (2004)
*Arthur Hays Sulzberger (1957)
*Cyrus L. Sulzberger (1975)
Daniel K. Tarullo (2000)
Franklin A. Thomas (1980, 1990)
Gregory F. Treverton (1980)
*John W. Tuthill (1966, 1971)
Laura D’Andrea Tyson (1999)
*Cyrus R. Vance (1970)
Alice Victor (1991, 1994)
Ezra F. Vogel (1997)
George J. Vojta (1989)
(Gov.) Mark R. Warner (2005)
*Ben J. Wattenberg (1982)
Vin Weber (2007-2008)
Francis J. “Bing” West (2010)
Clifton R. Wharton Jr. (1978)
Christine Todd Whitman (1998)
Marina v.N. Whitman (1978)
*Brayton Wilbur Jr. (1991)
*Francis O. Wilcox (1962)
*Frazar B. Wilde (1957)
*George F. Will (1978, 1981)
*Franklin H. Williams (1979)
*Carroll L. Wilson (1973)
Frank G. Wisner (1986, 1994)
Daniel Yankelovich (1981)
Edwin H. Yeo III (1985)
Daniel Yergin (2004, 2012)
Philip Zelikow (2006-2007)
Mortimer Zuckerman (1994)
*Adm. Elmo Zumwalt Jr. (1972)
John Zysman (1978)

Council on Foreign Relations Members in the Trilateral Commission
(Note: Year indicates first appearance on Trilateral Commission rosters; those without years are charter members in 1973)
David M. Abshire
Madeleine K. Albright (2003)
Paul A. Allaire (1992)
Robert E. Allen (1990)
Graham Allison
Roger C. Altman (2010)
John B. Anderson
Dwayne O. Andreas (1985)
Rand V. Araskog (1992)
Michael Armacost (1998)
Anne Armstrong (1978)
C. Michael Armstrong (2001)
Bruce Babbitt (1981)
Zoe Baird (2009)
George W. Ball
Charlene Barshefsky (2003)
Robert L. Bartley (1985)
Alan R. Batkin (2005)
Lucy Wilson Benson
Doug Bereuter (2005)
C. Fred Bergsten (1985)
Susan V. Berresford (1998)
Catherine A. Bertini (2005)
Robert D. Blackwill (2007)
W. Michael Blumenthal
Stephen W. Bosworth (1995)
Robert R. Bowie
David G. Bradley (2008)
James E. Burke (1990)
R. Nicholas Burns (2009)
Sylvia Mathews Burwell (2007)
John Brademas (1975)
David G. Bradley (2005)
Tom Bradley (1985)
Lael Brainard (2007)
Andrew F. Brimmer (1978)
William E. Brock III (1978)
Harold Brown
Zbigniew Brzezinski
Arthur F. Burns (1978)
George H.W. Bush (1981)
Hugh Calkins (1978)
Kurt Campbell (2007)
Frank C. Carlucci (1985)
James E. “Jimmy” Carter
Gerhard Casper (2001)
John H. Chafee (1992)
Sol C. Chaikin (1978)
Richard B. Cheney (1998)
Warren Christopher
Henry G. Cisneros (1990)
Bill Clinton (1990)
Eliot Cohen (2009)
William S. Cohen (1978)
William T. Coleman Jr.
Timothy C. Collins (2003)
Barber B. Conable
Richard N. Cooper
E. Gerald Corrigan (1990)
John Cowles Jr. (1978)
Adm. William Crowe Jr. (1992)
Lee Cullum (2005)
John C. Culver
Gerald L. Curtis (1975)
Lloyd N. Cutler
Richard G. Darman (1990)
Lynn E. Davis (1990)
John M. Deutch (1992)
Jamie Dimon (2005)
Paula J. Dobriansky (2001)
Thomas Donahue (1981)
Thomas E. Donilon (2008) Hedley Donovan
Kenneth M. Duberstein (2003)
William C. Dudley (2009)
Peggy Rockefeller Dulany (2007)
Lawrence S. Eagleburger (1990)
Jessica P. Einhorn (1992)
Jeffrey E. Epstein (1995)
Robert F. Erburu (1993)
Dianne Feinstein (1990)
Sandra Feldman (2001)
Martin S. Feldstein (1985)
Roger W. Ferguson Jr. (2005)
Stanley Fischer (1998)
Richard W. Fisher (2003)
Michele Flournoy (2013)
Thomas S. Foley (1978)
Kristin J. Forbes (2007)
George S. Franklin
Donald M. Fraser (1975)
Stephen Friedman (1992)
Michael B. G. Froman (2006)
Glen S. Fukushima (2011)
Francis Fukuyama (2005)
Victor K. Fung (2001)
Timothy F. Geithner (2008)
Leslie H. Gelb (1995)
Richard A. Gephardt (2005)
David Gergen (1992)
Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. (1990)
Richard Gardner (1975)
Neil Goldschmidt (1990)
Roberto C. Goizueta (1985)
Jamie S. Gorelick (2013)
Joseph T. Gorman (1992)
Katharine Graham (1990)
Jeffrey W. Greenberg (2003)
Maurice R. Greenberg (1985)
Alan Greenspan (1981)
John H. Gutfreund (1992)
Robert D. Haas (1990)
Richard N. Haass (2001)
Alexander M. Haig Jr. (1982)
Lee H. Hamilton (1992)
John J. Hamre (2006)
Robert A. Hanson (1985)
Jane L. Harman (2003)
Sidney Harman (2003)
William A. Haseltine (2001)
Charles B. Heck (2003)
Theodore M. Hesburgh (1985)
John B. Hess (2010)
William A. Hewitt
Carla A. Hills (1978)
James F. Hoge Jr. (1978)
Richard C. Holbrooke (1975)
Robert D. Hormats (1990)
James R. Houghton (1990)
Karen Elliott House (2003)
Thomas L. Hughes
William G. Hyland (1985)
Robert S. Ingersoll (1978)
Bobby Ray Inman (1985)
Walter S. Isaacson (2009)
J.K. Jamieson (1975)
Merit E. Janow (2013)
Reuben Jeffery III (2009)
James A. Johnson (2001)
W. Thomas Johnson (1982)
(Gen.) James L. Jones Jr. (2008)
James R. Jones (1981)
Thomas V. Jones (1985)
Vernon E. Jordan Jr. (1990) Kenneth I. Juster (2013)
Robert Kagan (2005)
Arnold Kanter (2005)
Charles R. Kaye (2005)
George M. Keller (1985)
Donald M. Kendall (1982)
Nannerlo Keohane (1992)
Robert M. Kimmitt (2009)
James V. Kimsey (2008)
Lane Kirkland
Jeane J. Kirkpatrick (1990)
Henry A. Kissinger (1978)
Joseph Kraft (1981)
Maree-Josee Kravis (1990)
Juanita M. Kreps (1981)
Thomas G. Labrecque (1990)
Jim Leach (1985)
Gerald M. Levin (1995)
Flora Lewis (1990)
Sol M. Linowitz (1975)
Winston Lord (1978)
James T. Lynn (1985)
Bruce K. MacLaury
Jessica T. Mathews (1998)
Jay Mazur (1992)
David H. McCormick (2010)
Paul W. McCracken
William J. McDonough (2001)
Thomas F. McLarty III (2013)
Robert S. McNamara (1981)
Ruben F. Mettler (1982)
Walter F. Mondale
Lee L. Morgan
Anne M. Mulcahy (2003)
Allen E. Murray (1992)
John D. Negroponte (2009)
Lucio A. Noto (1998)
Joseph S. Nye (1981)
Michel Oksenberg (1992)
Meghan L. O’Sullivan (2009)
Henry D. Owen
Gerald L. Parsky (1978)
William R. Pearce (1978)
Richard Perle (2003)
William J. Perry (1998)
Peter G. Peterson
Thomas R. Pickering (2003)
Richard Plepler (2007)
Adam S. Posen (2009)
Robert D. Putnam (1992)
John A. Quelch (2013)
Franklin D. Raines (2001)
Joseph W. Ralston (2003)
Charles S. Rangel (1990)
Lee R. Raymond (1992)
Edwin O. Reischauer
Condoleezza Rice (2009)
Donald B. Rice (1990)
Susan E. Rice (2005)
Elliot L. Richardson (1975)
Rozanne Ridgway (1992)
John E. Rielly (1981)
Alice M. Rivlin (1985)
Charles S. Robb (1990)
Joseph E. Robert Jr. (2005)
Charles W. Robinson
David Rockefeller
John D. Rockefeller IV (1978)
Kenneth Rogoff (2003)
Felix G. Rohatyn (1985)
Robert V. Roosa
Charlie Rose (2005) Henry Rosovsky (1985)
Dennis B. Ross (2007)
William M. Roth
William V. Roth Jr.
David M. Rubenstein (2003)
William D. Ruckelshaus (1992)
Arthur F. Ryan (2001)
John C. Sawhill (1978)
Henry B. Schacht (1978)
J. Robert Schaetzel (1981)
Kurt L. Schmoke (1995)
Susan C. Schwab (2009)
Brent Scowcroft (1990)
William W. Scranton
Donna E. Shalala (1990)
Mark Shepherd Jr. (1978)
Walter V. Shipley (1995)
Susan L. Shirk (2009)
George P. Shultz (1992)
C.J. Silas (1995)
Joseph J. Sisco (1981)
Anne-Marie Slaughter (2003)
Edson W. Spencer (1978)
Gerard C. Smith
Anthony M. Solomon
Helmut Sonnenfeldt (1981)
George Soros (2001)
Joan Spero (1992)
S. Frederick Starr (1990)
James B. Steinberg (2003)
Fritz R. Stern (1985)
Jessica Stern (2006)
Paula Stern (1992)
David Stockman (1990)
Robert S. Strauss (1982)
Howard Stringer (2010)
Lawrence H. Summers (2003)
John J. Sweeney (2003)
Strobe Talbott (1990)
Peter Tarnoff (1990)
Ellen O. Tauscher (2013)
Arthur R. Taylor
George J. Tenet (2006)
G. Richard Thoman (2001)
Barbara S. Thomas (2007)
Russell E. Train (1978)
Philip H. Trezise (1978)
Ko-Yung Tung (1992)
Laura D’Andrea Tyson (1998)
Cyrus R. Vance
Ann M. Veneman (2010)
Paul A. Volcker (1978)
Martha R. Wallace (1978)
R. Keith Walton (2009)
Paul C. Warnke
Glenn E. Watts (1978)
William H. Webster (2003)
Caspar W. Weinberger (1978)
Clifton R. Wharton Jr. (1990)
John C. Whitehead (1982)
Marina von N. Whitman
George F. Will (1985)
Carroll L. Wilson
Paul D. Wolfowitz (1998)
Leonard Woodcock
Daniel H. Yergin (2010)
Andrew Young (1978)
Fareed Zakaria (2003)
Philip D. Zelikow (2009)
Robert Zoellick (1995)
Mortimer Zuckerman (1998)

Rhodes Scholars in the Council on Foreign Relations
Current CFR Rhodes Scholars
(Adm.) Charles S. Abbot (1967)
John Maxon Ackerly (1997)
William C. Altman (1980)
William G. Bardel (1961)
David O. Beim (1963)
Alan D. Bersin (1968)
Seth Andrew Bodnar (2001)
David L. Boren (1963)
John Brademas (1950)
(Sen.) Bill Bradley (1965)
Ralph C. Bryant (1960)
William D. Carmichael (1952)
Ashton B. Carter (1976)
Richard F. Celeste (1960)
(Gen.) Wesley K. Clark (1966)
Bill Clinton (1968)
Rep. James H.S. Cooper (1975)
Elizabeth M. Cousens (1987)
L. Gordon Crovitz (1980)
W. Bowman Cutter (1964)
Jerome Davis (1971)
(Brig. Gen.) Peter M. Dawkins (1959)
Keith Paty Ellison (1972)
Clark Kent Ervin (1980)
Daniel C. Esty (1981)
James M. Fallows (1970)
Jonathan J. Finer (1999)
M. Taylor Fravel, Jr. (1993)
Richard N. Gardner (1951)
Barton Gellman (1982)
Elliot F. Gerson (1974)
George J. W. Goodman (1952)
Michael R. Gordon (1961)
Richard N. Haass (1973)
Benjamin W. Heineman, Jr. (1965)
Alan Keith Henrikson (1962)
Peter B. Henry (1991)
Curtis Alan Hessler (1966)
Pamela Hill (1989)
(Lt. Gen.) Bradley C. Hosmer (1959)
A.E. Dick Howard (1958)
Christopher B. Howard (1991)
Thomas L. Hughes (1947)
James B. Hurlock (1955)
Walter S. Isaacson (1974)
Mark Weston Janis (1969)
Maj. Gen. Michelle D. Johnson (1981)
Robbin St. Clair Johnson (1968)
Richard Anthony Joseph (1966)
Erez C. Kalir (1993)
Susan L. Karamanian (1980)
Kenneth Keniston (1951)
Lt. Gen. Frank G. Klotz (1973)
Nicholas D. Kristof (1981)
William Walker Lewis (1963)
Francis D. Logan (1952)
Tom Malinowski (1989)
Sylvia M. Mathews [Burwell] (1987)
Michael McFaul (1986)
John Blythe McLin (1960) Jason D. McManus (1958)
Lawrence C. McQuade (1950)
Lt. Gen. Christopher D. Miller (1980)
Manuel-Julian R. Montoya (1999)
Craig M. Mullaney (2000)
Steven Muller (1949)
George B. Munroe (1949)
Capt. Stuart B. Munsch (1985)
Ewell E. Murphy Jr. (1948)
Lt. Col. John A. Nagl (1988)
Matthew Nimetz (1960)
Joseph S. Nye, Jr. (1958)
James Daniel O’Flaherty (1965)
Lee D. Olvey (1955)
Ebrahim Patel (1998)
Stewart M. Patrick (1988)
Steven B. Pfeiffer (1968)
Richard D. Portes (1962)
(Sen.) Larry Pressler (1964)
John R. Price, Jr. (1960)
Adeel Qalbani (1998)
Lois Quam (1983)
Robert W. Radtke (1987)
Gina Raimondo (1993)
Franklin D. Raines (1971)
Susan E. Rice (1986)
John B. Ritch III (1965)
Robert I. Rotberg (1957)
Neil L. Rudenstine (1956)
Carlisle F. Runge (1975)
Michael J. Sandel (1975)
Kurt L. Schmoke (1971)
(Maj. Gen.) John O.B. Sewall (1958)
Sarah B. Sewall (1984)
Benjamin B. Sherwood (1986)
Elizabeth D. Sherwood-Randall (1981)
Eugene B. Skolnikoff (1950)
Walter B. Slocombe (1963)
Stephen Stamas (1953)
Richard A. Stengel (1977)
George Stephanopoulos (1984)
Jane E. Stromseth (1978)
Strobe Talbott (1968)
Michael S. Teitelbaum (1966)
W. Scott Thompson (1963)
Col. John K. Tien Jr. (1987)
Basilios E. Tsingos (1990)
(Adm.) Stansfield Turner (1947)
Richard H. Ullman (1955)
Doron Weber (1978)
Jacob M. Weisberg (1987)
Wendell L. Willkie II (1973)
R. James Woolsey (1963)
Mark Wu (1996)

Former CFR Rhodes Scholars
Morris B. Abram (1939)
Frank Aydelotte (1905)
Kenneth W. Banta (1979)
Charles F. Barber (1939)
Frank R. Barnett (1947)
Michael S. Barr (1987)
Thomas A. Bartlett (1951)
Robert W. Barnett (1934) Atherton Bean (1932)
Samuel H. Beer (1932)
James H. Billington (1950)
Charles G. Bolte (1947)
(Gen.) Charles H. Bonesteel III (1931)
Cory A. Booker (1992)
Carter M. Braxton (1924)
Crane Brinton (1919)
Dyke Brown (1936)
Walter L. Brown (1926)
Josiah Bunting (1963)
W. Walton Butterworth (1924)
David A. Campbell (1990)
Erwin D. Canham (1926)
Oliver C. Carmichael (1913)
Ralph M. Carson (1918)
Thomas W. Childs (1928)
Harlan B. Cleveland (1938)
Charles C. Collingwood (1939)
Gordon A. Craig (1936)
Ralph K. Davidson (1948)
Elmer Davis (1910)
Hedley Donovan (1934)
Clyde Eagleton (1914)
William Y. Elliott (1919)
Alain C. Enthoven (1952)
John King Fairbank (1929)
Tali Farimah Farhadian (1997)
Noah R. Feldman (1992)
John Fischer (1933)
Mark Foulon (1978)
John Funari (1951)
Timothy J. Galpin (1982)
Albert H. Garretson (1932)
Michelle D. Gavin (1996)
Chadbourne Gilpatric (1938)
Donald Jay Gogel (1971)
Gerritt W. Gong (1977)
Kermit Gordon (1938)
Lincoln Gordon (1933)
(Gen.) Howard D. Graves (1961)
Bruns H. Grayson (1974)
Brian C. Griffin (1974)
Nikolas K. Gvosdev (1992)
M. Fowler Hamilton (1931)
Thomas J. Hamilton, Jr. (1928)
Roger D. Hansen (1957)
(Vice Adm.) Carl Thor Hanson (1951)
Clarence H. Haring (1907)
Robert W. Hartley (1907)
Alfred Hayes (1931)
John T. Hays (1935)
James M. Hester (1947)
Charles J. Hitch (1932)
Stanley K. Hornbeck (1904)
Frederick L. Hovde (1929)
(Brig. Gen.) Amos A. Jordan (1947)
Philip M. Kaiser (1936)
Ronald Stanley Katz (1967)
Nicholas deB. Katzenbach (1947)
Tom Killefer (1939)
James E. King (1937)
Catherine Kissee-Sandoval (1984)
Clyde Kluckhohn (1928) Jennie M. Koch (1990)
James G. LeMoyne (1975)
(Brig. Gen.) George A. Lincoln (1929)
Ernest K. Lindley (1920)
William E. Lingelbach (1926)
Timothy T. Lupfer (1973)
E. Wilson Lyon (1925)
Malcolm A. MacIntyre (1929)
William P. Maddox (1922)
Robert Malley (1984)
Edward S. Mason (1919)
Charles W. Maynes (1960)
(Maj. Gen.) James McCormack Jr. (1932)
Myres S. McDougal (1927)
George C. McGhee (1934)
Douglas McHendrie (1928)
John T. McNaughton (1948)
H.C.L. Merillat (1935)
(Col.) Francis P. Miller (1919)
Nancy-Ann Min [DeParle] (1979)
Hunter Monroe (1984)
Felix M. Morley (1917)
John W. Nason (1928)
William I. Nichols (1926)
Waldemar A. Nielsen (1939)
Richard H. Nolte (1947)
John B. Oakes (1934)
Arthur W. Packard (1925)
Edward S. Pallesen (1991)
(Col.) Kerry K. Pierce (1974)
(Col.) Henry W. Posvar (1948)
Don K. Price (1932)
Richard C. Pugh (1951)
Donald H. Rivkin (1948)
Henry L. Roberts (1939)
(Gen.) Bernard W. Rogers (1947)
Robert V. Roosa (1939)
Walt W. Rostow (1936)
Dean Rusk (1931)
Charles E. Saltzman (1925)
Joseph Stanley Sanders (1963)
(Sen.) Paul S. Sarbanes (1954)
Howland H. Sargeant (1932)
Bernadotte E. Schmitt (1905)
Whitney H. Shepardson (1910)
Carl B. Spaeth (1929)
Edson W. Spencer (1948)
James G. Speth (1964)
Dennis C. Stanfill (1950)
William E. Stevenson (1922)
Daniel D. Stid (1987)
Christopher D. Suits (1981)
Lawrence P. Tu (1976)
Albert E. Utton (1953)
Alan C. Valentine (1920)
Martina E. Vandenberg (1990)
Frank N. Von Hippel (1959)
Rick Waddell (1982)
(Brig. Gen.) William Whipple (1930)
Arthur P. Whitaker (1917)
William D. Whitney (1919)
Richard A. Wiley (1949)
Thomas S. Williamson Jr. (1968)
(Rep.) Heather A. Wilson (1982)
Herbert B. Woodman (1927)

Bohemian Grove Members in the Council on Foreign Relations (incomplete)

Michael H. Armacost – Mandalay
Norman R. Augustine – Pelican
James A. Baker III – Woof
John A. Bohn Jr. – Sempervirens
J. Dennis Bonney – Cave Man
Nicholas F. Brady – Mandalay
Harold Brown – Lost Angels
Charles E. Cobb Jr. – Owl’s Nest
Lewis W. Coleman – Isle of Aves
William H. Draper III – Hill Billies
Peter M. Flanigan – Mandalay
Adm. S. Robert Foley Jr. – Hillside
David Gergen – Owl’s Nest
Louis V. Gerstner Jr. – Midway
Maurice R. Greenberg – Cave Man
Robert D. Haas – Isle of Aves
John H. F. Haskell Jr. – Stowaway
Gen. Joseph P. Hoar – Wayside Log
Adm. Bobby R. Inman – Hillside
W. Thomas Johnson – Lost Angels
Thomas V. Jones – Lost Angels
Donald M. Kendall – Woof
Richard M. Krasno – Owl’s Nest
Adm. Charles R. Larson – Parsonage
Ignacio E. Lozano Jr. – Cuckoo’s Nest
Edward F. McCann II – Outpost
David C. Mulford – Mandalay
Edward N. Ney – Sleepy Hollow
David J. O’Reilly – Mandalay
Adm. William A. Owens – Silverado Squatters
Charles M. Pigott – Uplifters
Richard W. Pogue – Pelican
Frank Popoff – Sunshiners
Gen. Colin Powell – Mandalay
Thomas L. Pulling – Edgehill
David Rockefeller – Stowaway
David Rockefeller Jr. – Stowaway
Steven B. Sample – Mandalay
George P. Shultz – Mandalay
William H. Webster – Wayside Log
R. James Woolsey – Shoestring
*Stephen D. Bechtel Sr.
*James H. Billington – Hill Billies (former Bohemian)
*William F. Buckley Jr. – Hill Billies
*C. Charles Burlingame, M.D.
*George H.W. Bush – Hill Billies
*Edward William Carter
*John M. Cates Jr.
*Tom B. Coughran
*Christopher C. DeMuth – Uplifters
*Kenneth T. Derr – Mandalay
*John Diebold
*James C. Donnell II
*Lee A. DuBridge
*Dwight D. Eisenhower
*Gerald R. Ford
*Evan G. Galbraith – Hill Billies
*Peter Grimm
*Najeeb Halaby
*William A. Hewitt
*Charles J. Hitch
*Herbert C. Hoover
*Herbert Hoover Jr.
*Clark Kerr
*Grayson L. Kirk
*Henry A. Kissinger – Mandalay
*Drew Lewis – Mandalay
*Herbert S. Little
*John Alex McCone
*Neil H. McElroy
*Donald H. McLaughlin
*Ruben F. Mettler – Mandalay
*Henry S. Morgan
*Junius S. Morgan
*Henry T. Mudd
*Richard M. Nixon – Owl’s Nest
*Richard C. Patterson Jr.
*Paul G. Pennoyer
*Rudolph A. Peterson
*Herman Phleger
*Warren Lee Pierson
*L. Welch Pogue
*Allen E. Puckett – Whoo Cares
*Gen. Joseph W. Ralston – Stowaway
*Philip D. Reed
*G. Frederick Reinhardt
*Roger Revelle
*Joseph P. Ripley
William M. Roth
*Donald Rumsfeld – Hill Billies
Kurt L. Schmoke – Hill Billies (former Bohemian)
*Glenn T. Seaborg – Owl’s Nest
*Frederick Seitz – Hideaway
*Paul C. Smith
*Carl B. Spaeth
*Allan Sproul
*Robert G. Sproul
*J.E. Wallace Sterling
*J. Paul Sticht – Owl’s Nest
*Caspar W. Weinberger
*Brayton Wilbur Sr.
*Brayton Wilbur Jr. – Hill Billies
*Ray Lyman Wilbur
*Thomas S. Williamson Jr. – Jinks Band
*James Q. Wilson – Cave Man

Note: *= former Council on Foreign Relations member; does not appear on 2012 Council on Foreign Relations membership roster.

Council on Foreign Relations Members in The Bretton Woods Committee
(as of Winter 2006)
Morton Abramowitz
Vinod Aggarwal
Madeleine Albright
*Robert O. Anderson
John B. Anderson
*Dwayne O. Andreas
Michael H. Armacost
Norman Augustine
Pauline Baker
James A. Baker III
Nancy Berry
Peter D. Bell
Douglas J. Bennet
Lucy Wilson Benson
C. Fred Bergsten
Henry S. Bienen
John H. Biggs
Nancy M. Birdsall
John P. Birkelund
Alan S. Blinder
W. Michael Blumenthal
Lee C. Bollinger
Robert Bowie
John Brademas
Nicholas F. Brady
Lael Brainard
Andrew F. Brimmer
Carole L. Brookins
Harold Brown
John E. Bryson
Zbigniew Brzezinski
*George Bush
*Willard C. Butcher
Louis W. Cabot
Kent Calder
Sarah C. Carey
Frank C. Carlucci
Ashton B. Carter
Jimmy Carter
Henry E. Catto Jr.
Richard E. Cavanagh
Kenneth Chenault
William S. Cohen
William T. Coleman Jr.
Julius E. Coles
Mark M. Collins Jr.
*Joseph E. Connor
Jill M. Considine
Richard N. Cooper
*E. Gerald Corrigan
Sam Y. Cross
Kenneth A. Cutshaw
W. Bowman Cutter
William B. Dale
Charles H. Dallara
Whitney Debevoise
Richard A. Debs
Vivian L. Derryck
John M. Deutch
Rimmer de Vries
Robert L. Dilenschneider
Thomas J. Donohue Sr.
Lawrence Eagleburger
William D. Eberle
*MIckey Edwards
Stuart E. Eizenstat
Richard Erb
Richard M. Fairbanks III
Thomas L. Farmer
Martin S. Feldstein
Gerald R. Ford
Gail Fosler
*Donald M. Fraser
Edward R. Fried
Bart Friedman
*Richard S. Fuld Jr.
Richard N. Gardner
Jeffrey E. Garten
Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Leslie Gelb
Jeffrey A. Goldstein
David L. Goldwyn
Evan G. Greenberg
(Gen.) Alexander M. Haig Jr.
David D. Hale
John Maxwell Hamilton
Lee H. Hamilton
William B. Harrison Jr.
Jon K. Hartzell
John G. Heimann
Robert E. Herzstein
Carla A. Hills
Richard C. Holbrooke
Matina S. Horner
Gary C. Hufbauer
Thomas L. Hughes
Robert E. Hunter
Mansoor Ijaz
Yves-Andre Istel
L. Oakley Johnson
*Amos A. Jordan
Vernon E. Jordan Jr.
Abraham Katz
Sherman Katz
Henry Kaufman
Thomas H. Kean
Peter B. Kenen
Henry A. Kissinger
Henry R. Kravis
Charles A. Kupchan
*Anthony Lake
Noel V. Lateef
Eugene K. Lawson
Mildred Robbins Leet
Marc E. Leland
John P. Lipsky
C. Payne Lucas
Bruce K. MacLaury
John D. Macomber
J. Eugene Marans
Donald B. Marron
Carlton A. Masters
Jessica T. Mathews
Charles McC. Mathias
Alonzo L. McDonald
Robert C. McFarlane
Robert B. McKeon
Thomas F. McLarty III
Robert S. McNamara
Peter McPherson
Mark Medish
(Gen.) Edward C. Meyer
Gwendolyn Mikell
*G. William Miller
Helen V. Milner
George J. Mitchell
Walter Mondale
Theodore H. Moran
Robert Mosbacher Sr.
Alfred H. Moses
Ambler H. Moss Jr.
William A. Nitze
Henry Owen
Frank H. Pearl
Peter G. Peterson
Jan Piercy
Rutherford Poats
John Edward Porter
*Hugh B. Price
Donald J. Puchala
Claire Reade
Peter A. Reiling
William R. Rhodes
Joseph L. Rice III
Bill Richardson
Joseph E. Robert Jr.
Davis R. Robinson
David Rockefeller
Riordan Roett
Kenneth Rogoff Felix G. Rohatyn
Marshall Rose
Ronald W. Roskens
*William D. Ruckelshaus
George E. Rupp
Jeffrey D. Sachs
Paul Sacks
Michael A. Samuels
Ralph S. Saul
Stephen Schlesinger
*Patricia S. Schroder
Bernard L. Schwartz
Brent Scowcroft
John W. Sewell
Jeffrey Shafer
Harold T. Shapiro
Wendy Sherman
George P. Shultz
Muriel F. Siebert
Robert Solomon
George Soros
Gene B. Sperling
J. Andrew Spindler
Paula Stern
Paul G. Stern
Joseph Stiglitz
Robert Strauss
Lawrence H. Summers
Strobe Talbott
Robert L. Thompson
Stephen J. Trachtenberg
Edwin M. Truman
Laura D’Andrea Tyson
Paul Volcker
Jane Wales
Charls E. Walker
John L. Walker
(Gov.) Mark R. Warner
Murray L. Weidenbaum
Frank A. Weil
Sidney Weintraub
Anne Wexler
John C. Whitehead
Marina v.N. Whitman
Robert G. Wilmers
Margaret S. Wilson
Timothy E. Wirth
James D. Wolfensohn
Alan W. Wolff
Joseph R. Wright Jr.
Daniel Yergin
Andrew Young
Mortimer B. Zuckerman

Council on Foreign Relations Genealogical List
*Nelson A. Rockefeller – David Rockefeller’s brother
*John D. Rockefeller III – David Rockefeller’s brother
*Winthrop W. Aldrich – David Rockefeller’s uncle
*Rodman Rockefeller – David Rockefeller’s nephew; Nelson A. Rockefeller’s son
John D. “Jay” Rockefeller IV – David Rockefeller’s nephew
David Rockefeller Jr. – David Rockefeller’s son
Peggy Rockefeller Dulany – David Rockefeller’s daughter
Miranda Margaret [Duncan] Kaiser – David Rockefeller’s granddaughter
*(Sen.) Charles H. Percy – John D. “Jay” Rockefeller IV’s father-in-law

*Felix Warburg – Paul Warburg’s brother
*James P. “Jimmy” Warburg – Paul Warburg’s son
*Frederick M. Warburg – Paul Warburg’s nephew; Felix Warburg’s son
*Paul Felix “Piggy” Warburg – Paul Warburg’s nephew; Felix Warburg’s son
*Eric M. Warburg – Paul Warburg’s nephew; Max Warburg’s son
*Mortimer L. Schiff – Felix Warburg’s brother-in-law; Jacob Schiff’s son
*John M. Schiff – Mortimer Schiff’s son
*Charles E. Wyzanski Jr. – Max Warburg’s son-in-law (Wyzanski married to Gisela Warburg)
*Amory Howe Bradford – Carol Warburg Rothschild’s husband (her grandfather is Felix Warburg)

*Junius S. Morgan – grandson of John Pierpont Morgan Sr.
*Henry S. Morgan – grandson of John Pierpont Morgan Sr.
*E. Roland Harriman – brother of W. Averell Harriman
David H. Mortimer – grandson of W. Averell Harriman
John J. McCloy II – son of former Chase Manhattan Bank Chairman John J. McCloy
Jonathan Soros – son of Wall Street financier George Soro
Evan G. Greenberg – son of former AIG Chairman Maurice R. Greenberg
Jeffrey W. Greenberg – son of former AIG Chairman Maurice R. Greenberg
Lawrence Scott Greenberg – son of former AIG Chairman Maurice R. Greenberg
Holly Peterson – daughter of former Council on Foreign Relations Chairman Peter G. Peterson
Ronald S. Lauder – son of Estee Lauder (Founder and former Chairman and CEO of Estee Lauder Co.); Leonard A. Lauder’s brother
William P. Lauder – son of Leonard A. Lauder; Estee Lauder’s grandson
*Anthony D. Marshall – son of socialite Brooke Astor
*Grinnell Morris – son of former Brown Brothers Harriman & Co. partner Ray Morris
*Walter B. Wriston – son of former Brown University President Henry M. Wriston
Lynn Forester de Rothschild – Evelyn de Rothschild’s wife (Evelyn de Rothschild is the former Chairman of N.M. Rothschild & Sons.)
*William H. Vanderbilt III – grandson of railroad baron Cornelius Vanderbilt
*Clarence Dillon – father of former Secretary of the Treasury C. Douglas Dillon
*Philip Young – son of General Electric Co. chairman Owen D. Young

*Robert F. Kennedy – former President John F. Kenndy’s brother
Caroline Bouvier Kennedy – former President John F. Kennedy’s daughter
Jean Kennedy Smith – former President John F. Kennedy’s sister; Caroline Kennedy’s aunt
Kathleen Kennedy Townsend – former President John F. Kennedy’s niece; Robert F. Kennedy’s daughter
*R. Sargent Shriver Jr. – former President John F. Kennedy’s brother-in-law

*Pierre Jay – great-great-grandson of former U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Jay
*Henry DeForest Baldwin – great-great-grandson of former U.S. Senator and Constitution signer Roger Sherman
*Archibald Cary Coolidge – great-great-grandson of former President Thomas Jefferson
*Brig. Gen. U.S. Grant, 3rd – grandson of former President Ulysses S. Grant; former Secretary of State Elihu Root’s son-in-law
*Harry Garfield – son of former President James A. Garfield
*Theodore Roosevelt Jr. – son of former President Theodore Roosevelt
*Kermit Roosevelt – grandson of former President Theodore Roosevelt
Susan Roosevelt Weld – great-granddaughter of former President Theodore Roosevelt; Theodore Roosevelt Jr.’s granddaughter
*Henry Waters Taft – brother of former President William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft IV – great-grandson of former President William Howard Taft; former Senator Robert A. Taft’s grandson
*George H. Walker – grandfather of former President George H.W. Bush; great-grandfather of former President George W. Bush
*Karenna Gore Schiff – daughter of former Vice President Al Gore
(Sen.) Charles S. Robb – former President Lyndon B. Johnson’s son-in-law; married to Lynda Bird Johnson
Edward F. Cox – former President Richard Nixon’s son-in-law; married to Patricia Nixon

*Gordon Auchincloss – Edward M. House’s son-in-law; married Edward M. House’s daughter Janet House Auchincloss
*Najeeb E. Halaby – Queen Noor’s father [a.k.a. Lisa Halaby, former Queen of Jordan]
Jeffrey H. Bunzell – former U.S. Ambassador to Hungary George Herbert Walker III’s son-in-law [G.H. Walker III is not a CFR member.]
George Cabot Lodge – son of former Ambassador and U.S. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.
*(Amb.) Lewis W. Douglas – John McCloy’s brother-in-law
*Allen Dulles – brother of former Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
*William P. Bundy – brother of former National Security Advisor McGeorge Bundy; former Sec. of State Dean Acheson’s son-in-law
*Whitelaw Reid – brother of former U.S. Congressman Ogden Rogers Reid
*Philip L. Graham – brother of former U.S. Senator Bob Graham
*Herbert P. Patterson – son of businessman Morehead Patterson and grandson of former U.S. Congressman Herbert Parsons
*Josef Korbel – father of former Secretary of State Madeleine Albright
*Harvey H. Bundy – father of former National Security Advisor McGeorge Bundy and former Asst. Secretary of State William P. Bundy
*Henry J. Heinz II – father of former U.S. Senator Henry J. Heinz III
John T. Connor Jr. – son of former Secretary of Commerce John T. Connor
Sen. Evan Bayh – son of former U.S. Senator Birch E. Bayh Jr.
William A. Nitze – son of former Secretary of the Navy Paul H. Nitze
(Amb.) Avis T. Bohlen – daughter of former Ambassador Charles E. Bohlen
Nancy Landon Kassebaum Baker – daughter of former Kansas Governor Alfred M. Landon
Peggy Kerry – sister of U.S. Senator John Forbes Kerry
W. Scott Thompson – former Secretary of the Navy Paul H. Nitze’s former son-in-law; married to Paul H. Nitze’s daughter Phyllis Arina Nitze (later divorced)
William M. Daley – son of former Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley and brother of Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley
*Eugene Meyer – father of former Washington Post Chairman Katherine Graham
Elizabeth “Lally” Weymouth – daughter of former Washington Post Chairman Katharine Graham
*Gardner Cowles – former Des Moines Register and Tribune Co. Chairman John Cowles’s brother
*John Cowles, Jr. – former Des Moines Register and Tribune Co. Chairman John Cowles’s son
Marvin Kalb – Bernard Kalb’s brother
Joy Alexandra de Menil – daughter of Lois Pattison de Menil
Jessica T. Mathews – daughter of Barbara Tuchman
Susan E. Rice – daughter of Emmett J. Rice, former Member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
Nina L. Khrushcheva – great-granddaughter of former Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev

Council on Foreign Relations Husbands and Wives (incomplete)
Howard H. Baker Jr. & Nancy Kassebaum Baker
Michael P. Behringer & Nisha Kumar
(Gen.) Charles G. Boyd & Jessica Tuchman Mathews
Charles E. Cobb Jr. & Sue McCourt Cobb
Kenneth W. Dam & Marcia Wachs Dam
Jack David & Melanie Kirkpatrick
Richard A. Debs & Barbara Knowles Debs
George de Menil & Lois Pattison de Menil
Alan Greenspan & Andrea Mitchell
Marshall I. Goldman & Merle Goldman
James A. Johnson & Maxine Isaacs
Peter R. Kann & Karen Elliott House
John Forbes Kerry & Teresa Heinz Kerry
Henry R. Kravis & Marie-Josee Kravis
Winston Lord & Bette Bao Lord
William H. Luers & Wendy W. Luers
Andrew Moravcsik & Anne-Marie Slaughter
John Negroponte & Diana V. Negroponte
John M. Niehuss & Rosemary Neaher Niehuss
Eli M. Noam & Nadine Strossen
Robert C. Orr & Audrey Choi
Robert Oxnam & Vishaka Desai
Peter G. Peterson & Joan Ganz Cooney
Nicholas Platt & Sheila Maynard Platt
John H.F. Shattuck & Ellen H. Hume
Theodore C. Sorensen & Gillian Martin Sorensen
Fritz Stern & Elisabeth N. Sifton
Seymour Topping & Audrey Ronning Topping
R. James Woolsey & Suzanne H. Woolsey
*Abram Chayes & Antonia Handler Chayes (she is a widow)
*Angier Biddle Duke & Robin Chandler Duke (she is a widow)
*Philip L. Graham & Katherine Meyer Graham (both are deceased)
*Peter E. Haas Sr. & Mimi Haas (she is a widow)
*Averell Harriman & Pamela C. Harriman (both are deceased)
*Henry J. Heinz III & Teresa Heinz Kerry (she is a widow; married to Sen. John Forbes Kerry)
*Richard C. Holbrooke & Kati Marton (she is a widow; previously married to ABC anchor Peter Jennings)
*Henry R. Luce & Clare Boothe Luce (both are deceased)
*Norman Podhortez & Midge Decter (both dropped out of CFR)
*Walt Whitman Rostow & Elspeth Davies Rostow (both are deceased)
David F. Stein & Susan Vail Berresford (divorced)
William Howard Taft IV (he is a widower) & Julia V. Taft
William F. Weld & Susan Roosevelt Weld (divorced)
*Albert Wohlstetter & Roberta Wohlstetter (she is a widow)

Foreign-Born Council on Foreign Relations Members (incomplete)
Elie Abel – Canada
Madeleine K. Albright – Czechoslovakia
Max Ascoli – Italy
Boris A. Bakhmeteff – Russia (served as Russian Ambassador to the U.S. from 1917 to 1922)
Adriaan J. Barnouw – Netherlands
Francis M. Bator – Hungary
Julia Chang Bloch – Republic of China (mainland China)
W. Michael Blumenthal – Germany
Edgar Bronfman Sr. – Canada
Zbigniew Brzezinski – Poland
Arthur F. Burns – Russia
Elaine Chao – Republic of China (mainland China)
Cornelis Willem de Kiewiet – Netherlands
Francis Deng – Sudan (served as Sudanese Ambassador to the United States)
John M. Deutch – Belgium
Claude E. Erbsen – Italy
Amitai Etzoni – Poland
Stanley Fischer – Northern Rhodesia (Zambia)
Abraham H. Foxman – Poland
Felix Frankfurter – Austria
J. Kenneth Galbraith – Canada
Vartan Gregorian – Iran
Henry A. Grunwald – Austria
Pamela C. Harriman – Great Britain
Antonia Hernandez – Mexico
Charles Issawi – Egypt
Reginald H. Jones – Great Britain
Otto H. Kahn – Germany
Zalmay Khalilzad – Afghanistan
Sukhan Kim – South Korea
Henry A. Kissinger – Germany
Antoine T. Knoppers – Netherlands
Josef Korbel – Czechoslovakia (served as Czechoslovakian Ambassador to Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1948)
Walter M. Kotschnig – Austria
Marie-Josee Kravis – Canada
Bette Bao Lord – Republic of China (mainland China)
Roman Martinez IV – Cuba
Oskar Morgenstern – Germany (Professor of Economics at Princeton University (1944-1970))
Hans J. Morgenthau – Germany (Professor of Political Science at University of Chicago (1949-1968))
Henry Morgenthau – Germany
Rupert Murdoch – Australia
Alexander Sachs – Russia
Nadav Safran – Egypt
Edward W. Said – Jerusalem, British Mandate of Palestine
David Sarnoff – Minsk, Russia (Belarus)
Richard Schifter – born in Austria
Harold T. Shapiro – Canada
James T. Shotwell – Canada
Hans Simons – Germany
Arthur Smithies – Australia
Louis B. Sohn – Lemburg, Austria (present-day Lviv, Ukraine)
Hans Christian Sonne – Denmark
Helmut Sonnenfeldt – Germany
George Soros – Hungary
Emile Edmund Sobry – Great Britain
Eric Stein – Czechoslovakia
J.E. Wallace Sterling – Canada
Fritz Stern – Germany
Robert McLean Stewart – Canada
John G. Stoessinger – Austria
Oscar S. Straus – Germany
Robert Strausz-Hupe – Austria
Hans A. Vogelstein – Germany
Felix Warburg – Germany
Paul Warburg – Germany
James D. Wolfensohn – Australia
Ezra K. Zilkha – Iraq
Mortimer B. Zuckerman – Canada

The War and Peace Studies of The Council On Foreign Relations (1939-1945)

The War and Peace Studies of The Council On Foreign Relations 1939-1945, The Harold Pratt House 58th E. 68th Street, NY, 1946, pg. 2-3; Appendix A (pgs. 19-24) lists the personnel and dates of service of the War and Peace Studies group members as:

STEERING COMMITTEE

Officers:
Norman H. Davis, Chairman (December 1939-July 1944)
Isaiah Bowman, (December 1939-became Chairman, March 1945)
Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Vice Chairman, (December 1939-September 1945)
Walter H. Mallory, Secretary (December 1939-September 1945)
Paul F. Jones, Administrative Secretary, (January 1940-November 1940)
Francis P. Miller, Administrative Secretary, (December 1940-February 1942)
Dwight E. Lee, Administrative Secretary, (September 1942-September 1943)
Julius W. Pratt, Administrative Secretary, (September 1943-September 1944)
Richard C. Snyder, Administrative Secretary, (October 1944-February 1945)
William Edwin Diez, Administrative Secretary, (March 1945-September 1945)

Members:
Hanson W. Baldwin (July 1940-September 1945)
Isaiah Bowman (December 1939-Chairman, March 1945)
Allen W. Dulles (December 1939-December 1943)
Carter Goodrich (August 1942-September 1945)
Alvin H. Hansen (December 1939-September 1945)
Whitney H. Shepardson, (December 1939-June 1942)
Jacob Viner, (December 1939-September 1945)
Edward P. Warner, (January 1944-September 1945)
Henry M. Wriston, (June 1942-September 1945)

SECURITY AND ARMAMENTS GROUP:
Rapporteurs:
Allen W. Dulles, Rapporteur (02/40-06/40); Joint Rapporteur (07/40-12/43)
Hanson W. Baldwin, Joint Rapporteur (07/40-09/45)
Edward P. Warner, Joint Rapporteur (01/44-09/45)

Research Secretaries:
William M. Franklin (02/40-05/41)
Grayson Kirk (06/41-09/45)

Members:
Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Betts (07/40-12/43)
Maj. Gen. Clayton Bissell (01/44-09/45)
Rear Adm. Ralph Davison (07/41-12/43)
Edward M. Earle (03/45-09/45)
Maj. George Fielding Eliot (02/41-09/45)
Joseph C. Green (11/43-09/45)
Brig. Gen. Haywood S. Hansell (07/41-07/42)
Stacy May (07/40-02/45)
Maj. Gen. Frank R. McCoy (04/40-09/45)
Col. James F. Olive (02/43-02/44)
Adm. William V. Pratt, Ret. (04/41-02/45)
David N. Rowe (03/45-09/45)
Capt. Richard W. Ruble (11/43-05/45)
Harold F. Sheets (07/42-09/45)
Harold Sprout (02/44-09/45)
Adm. William H. Standley, Ret. (02/40-11/40)
Maj. Gen. George V. Strong (07/44-09/45)
Edward P. Warner (02/40-11/44)
Brig. Gen. John Weckerling (01/44-09/45)
Hugh R. Wilson (02/41-11/42)
Theodore P. Wright (02/41-09/45)


ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL GROUP

Rapporteurs:
Alvin H. Hansen, Joint Rapporteur (02/40-09/45)
Jacob Viner, Joint Rapporteur (02/40-09/45)

Economic and Financial Group Research Secretaries:
Arthur R. Upgren (02/40-07/40)
William Diebold Jr. (08/40-09/43)
Arthur D. Gayer (10/43-09/45)

Economic and Financial Group Members:
Percy W. Bidwell (02/40-09/45)
Edwin F. Chinlund (11/43-09/45)
Benjamin V. Cohen (09/41-09/45)
Lauchlin Currie (02/43-09/45)
Ralph E. Flanders (07/42-11/40)
Heman Greenwood (03/45-09/45)
Leon Fraser (02/40-11(40)
Calvin B. Hoover (01/44-09/45)
Winfield W. Riefler (02/40-03/42)
William H. Schubart (07/42-12/44)
Harold F. Sheets (02/40-05/42)
Allan Sproul (02/41-12/43)
Eugene Staley (02/40-09/45)
Arthur R. Upgren (07/40-09/45)
Jacob Viner (02/40-09/45)
John H. Williams (02/40-11/40)

POLITICAL GROUP

Rapporteurs:
Whitney H. Shepardson (02/40-06/42);
Henry M. Wriston, Rapporteur, July 1942; Joint Rapporteur (08/42-09/45)
Carter Goodrich, Joint Rapporteurs (08/42-09/45)

Research Secretaries:
Walter Langsam (02/40-02/41)
Walter R. Sharp (02/41-09/45)

Members:
Frank Altschul (03/45-09/45)
Hamilton Fish Armstrong (02/40-09/45)
James P. Baxter III (11/43-02/45)
Charles W. Cole (03/45-09/45)
John Foster Dulles (02/40-09/40)
Maj. George Fielding Eliot (02/40-09/45)
Thomas K. Finletter (03/45-09/45)
Carter Goodrich (09/41-became Joint Rapporteur 08/42)
William Langer (03/45-09/45)
Owen Lattimore (03/45-09/45)
Dwight E. Lee (03/45-09/45)
Francis P. Miller (05/40-05/43)
Philip E. Mosely (09/42-02/45)
Lindsay Rodgers (02/41-09/45)
David N. Rowe (11/43-02/45)
James T. Shotwell (02/40-02/43)
Arthur Sweetser (02/41-09/45)
Payson S. Wild (03/43-09/45)
Henry M. Wriston (05/40-became Rapporteur 07/42) TERRITORIAL GROUP

Rapporteur:
Isaiah Bowman (02/40-02/45)

Research Secretaries:
Philip E. Mosely (03/40-09/41 & 08/42-02/45)
William P. Maddox (09/41-06/42)

Members:
Hamilton Fish Armstrong (02/40-02/45)
H. Foster Bain (02/44-02/45)
Charles H. Behre Jr., (06/42-02/45)
Charles W. Cole (05/42-02/45)
John C. Cooper Jr., (02/40-11/40)
Rupert Emerson (05/43-02/45)
A. Whitney Griswold (09/41-01/42)
John Gunther (02/41-08/41)
Bruce C. Hopper (02/40-02/45)
Owen Lattimore (04/40-02/45)
Frank W. Notestein (11/43-02/45)
Walter H. Voskuil (09/43-02/45)
William L. Westermann (02/40-02/45)

PEACE AIMS GROUP

Chairman: Hamilton Fish Armstrong (06/41-02/45)

Research Secretaries:
Philip E. Mosely (06/41-09/41)
Mose L. Harvey (11/41-05/42)
Dwight E. Lee (09/42-02/45)

Members:
Jay Allen (11/41-09/42)
Frank Altschul (06/41-02/45)
Percy W. Bidwell (06/41-02/45)
Crane Brinton (09/42-12/42)
Allen W. Dulles (06/41-02/45)
Frank D. Graham (10/43-02/45)
John Gunther (06/41-11/45)
Bruce C. Hopper (06/41-02/45)
Tracy B. Kittredge (06/41-04/42)
William L. Langer (06/41-02/45)
James G. McDonald (06/41-02/45)
Philip E. Mosely (09/41-02/45)
Winfield W. Riefler (06/41-02/45)
Lindsay Rodgers (06/41-02/45)
Whitney H. Shepardson (06/41-02/45)
William L. Shirer (10/43-02/45)
George N. Shuster (06/41-02/45)
Oscar C. Stine (06/41-02/45)
Arthur Sweetser (09/42-02/45)
Max W. Thornburg (06/41-11/41)
Jacob Viner (10/42-03/43)
John K. Wright (11/42-02/45)

Hierarchy of the Council on Foreign Relations

Chairman of the Board
Russell C. Leffingwell 1946-1953
John J. McCloy 1953-1970
David Rockefeller 1970-1985
Peter G. Peterson 1985-2007
Carla A. Hills 2007-present (co-Chairman)
Robert E. Rubin 2007-present (co-Chairman)

Vice Chairman of the Board
Grayson L. Kirk 1971-1973
Cyrus R. Vance 1973-1976, 1985-1987
Douglas Dillon 1976-1978
Carroll L. Wilson 1978-1979
Warren Christopher 1987-1991
Harold Brown 1991-1992
Bobby R. Inman 1992-1993
Jeane J. Kirkpatrick 1993-1994
Maurice R. Greenberg 1994-2002
Carla A. Hills 2001-2007
William J. McDonough 2002-2003
Robert E. Rubin 2003-2007
Richard E. Salomon 2007-present
David M. Rubenstein 2012-present

Presidents
John W. Davis 1921-1933
George W. Wickersham 1933-1936
Norman H. Davis 1936-1944
Russell C. Leffingwell 1944-1946
Allen W. Dulles 1946-1950
Henry M. Wriston 1951-1964
Grayson L. Kirk 1964-1971
Bayless Manning 1971-1977
Winston Lord 1977-1985
John Temple Swing 1985-1986
Peter Tarnoff 1986-1993
Alton Frye 1993
Leslie Gelb 1993-2003
Richard N. Haass 2003-present

Editors of Foreign Affairs
Archibald Cary Coolidge 1922-1928
Hamilton Fish Armstrong 1928-1972
William P. Bundy 1972-1984
William G. Hyland 1984-1992
James F. Hoge Jr. 1992-present

Executive Directors
Hamilton Fish Armstrong 1922-1928
Malcolm W. Davis 1925-1927
Walter H. Mallory 1927-1959
George S. Franklin Jr. 1953-1971

Secretaries
Edwin F. Gay 1921-1933
Allen W. Dulles 1933-1944
Frank Altschul 1944-1972
John Temple Swing 1972-1987
Judith Gustafson 1987-2000 [not a CFR member]
Lilita V. Gusts 2000-present [not CFR member] Treasurers
Edwin F. Gay 1921-1933
Whitney H. Shepardson 1933-1941
Clarence E. Hunter 1942-1951
Devereux C. Josephs 1951-1952
Elliott V. Bell 1952-1964
Gabriel Hauge 1964-1981
Peter G. Peterson 1981-1985
C. Peter McColough 1985-1987
Lewis T. Preston 1987-1988
James E. Burke 1988-1989
David Woodbridge 1989-1994
Janice L. Murray 1994-present

Vice Presidents
Paul D. Cravath 1921-1933
Norman H. Davis 1933-1936
Edwin F. Gay 1933-1940
Frank L. Polk 1940-1943
Russell C. Leffingwell 1943-1946
Allen W. Dulles 1944-1946
Isaiah Bowman 1945-1949
Henry M. Wriston 1950-1951
David Rockefeller 1950-1970
Frank Altschul 1951-1971
Devereux C. Josephs 1951-1952
David W. MacEachron 1972-1974
John Temple Swing 1972-1986
Alton Frye 1987-1993
William H. Gleysteen Jr. 1987-1989
John A. Millington 1987-1996
Margaret Osmer-McQuade 1987-1993
Nicholas X. Rizopoulos 1989-1994
Karen M. Sughrue 1993-1998
Abraham F. Lowenthal 1995-2005
Janice L. Murray 1995-2002
David J. Vidal 1995-1997
Ethan B. Kapstein 1995-1996
Frederick C. Broda 1996-1997
Kenneth R. Maxwell 1996
Gary C. Hufbauer 1997-1998
David Kellogg 1997-2002
Paula J. Dobriansky 1997-2001
Lawrence J. Korb 1998-2002
Anne R. Luzzatto 1998-present
Elise Carlson Lewis 1999-present
Robert C. Orr 2002-2003
Irina A. Faskinaos 2002-present
Lisa Shields 2003-present
James M. Lindsay 2003-present
Nancy E. Roman 2004-present
Suzanne E. Helms 2005-present

Directors of the Council on Foreign Relations

Isaiah Bowman 1921-1950 President of Johns Hopkins University
Archibald Cary Coolidge 1921-1928 Editor of Foreign Affairs
Paul D. Cravath 1921-1940 Vice President of CFR
John W. Davis 1921-1955 President of CFR; U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain
Norman H. Davis 1921-1944 Under Secretary of State; President of CFR
Stephen P. Duggan 1921-1950 President of Institute of International Education
John H. Finley 1921-1929 President of the City College of New York
Edwin F. Gay 1921-1945 Professor of Economic History at Harvard University (1924-1936)
David F. Houston 1921-1927 Secretary of the Treasury; Secretary of Agriculture
Otto H. Kahn 1921-1934 Partner of Kuhn, Loeb, & Co.
Frank L. Polk 1921-1943 Under Secretary of State
Whitney H. Shepardson 1921-1966 Treasurer of CFR
William R. Shepherd 1921-1927 Professor of Government at Yale University
Paul M. Warburg 1921-1932 Vice Chairman of the Federal Reserve
George W. Wickersham 1921-1936 U.S. Attorney General
Allen W. Dulles 1927-1969 Director of Central Intelligence Agency; President of CFR
Russell C. Leffingwell 1927-1960 Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co.; Chairman of CFR
George O. May 1927-1953 Senior Partner of Price, Waterhouse & Co. public accountants (1911-61)
Wesley C. Mitchell 1927-1934 Professor of Economics at Columbia University
Owen D. Young 1927-1940 Chairman of the board of General Electric Co.
Hamilton Fish Armstrong 1928-1972 Editor of Foreign Affairs
Charles P. Howland 1929-1931 Professor of Government at Yale University
Walter Lippmann 1932-1937 Columnist for New York Herald Tribune
Clarence M. Woolley 1932-1935 Chairman of the board of American Radiator Company
Frank Altschul 1934-1972 Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. [banking firm] (1916-1945)
Philip C. Jessup 1934-1942 Professor of International Law at Columbia University (1934-1946);
Judge of the International Court of Justice
Harold W. Dodds 1935-1943 President of Princeton University
Leon Fraser 1936-1945 Chairman and President of Bank for International Settlements
John H. Williams 1937-1964 Dean of Graduate School of Public Administration at Harvard; Vice President of Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1936-1947)
Lewis W. Douglas 1940-1964 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain
Edward Warner 1940-1949 Member of the Civil Aeronautics Board (1939-1945)
Clarence E. Hunter 1942-1953 Vice Pres. in charge of foreign business, New York Trust Co. (1928-1949)
Myron C. Taylor 1943-1959 Personal Representative to the Vatican City
Henry M. Wriston 1943-1967 President of Brown University
Thomas K. Finletter 1944-1967 Secretary of the Air Force; U.S. Representative to NATO
William A.M. Burden 1945-1974 U.S. Ambassador to Belgium
Walter H. Mallory 1945-1968 Executive Director of CFR
Philip D. Reed 1945-1969 Chairman of General Electric Co.
Winfield W. Riefler 1945-1950 Assistant to the Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1948-1959)
David Rockefeller 1949-1985 Chairman of Chase Manhattan Bank; Chairman of CFR
W. Averell Harriman 1950-1955 U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union; Governor of New York
Joseph E. Johnson 1950-1974 President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Grayson L. Kirk 1950-1973 President of CFR; President of Columbia University
Devereux C. Josephs 1951-1958 Chairman of New York Life Insurance Co.
Elliott V. Bell 1953-1966 Treasurer of CFR; Superintendent of Banks of New York State
John J. McCloy 1953-1972 Chairman of Chase Manhattan Bank; Chairman of CFR
Arthur H. Dean 1955-1972 Partner of Sullivan & Cromwell
Charles M. Spofford 1955-1972 Partner of Davis, Polk & Wardwell
Adlai E. Stevenson 1958-1962 U.S. Representative to the United Nations
William C. Foster 1959-1972 Director of Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
Caryl P. Haskins 1961-1975 President of Carnegie Institution (of Washington)
James A. Perkins 1963-1979 President of Cornell University
William P. Bundy 1964-1974 Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs
Gabriel Hauge 1964-1981 Chairman of the board of Manufacturers Hanover Trust Co.
Carroll L. Wilson 1964-1979 Professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
C. Douglas Dillon 1965-1978 Secretary of the Treasury
Henry R. Labouisse 1965-1974 U.S. Ambassador to Greece
Robert V. Roosa 1966-1981 Partner of Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.
Lucian W. Pye 1966-1982 Professor of Political Science at MIT
Alfred C. Neal 1967-1976 First Vice President of Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (1951-56)
Bill Moyers 1967-1974 Publisher of Newsday; White House Press Secretary
Cyrus R. Vance 1968-1976, 1981-1987 Secretary of State
Hedley Donovan 1969-1979 Editor-in-Chief of Time, Inc.
Najeeb E. Halaby 1970-1972 Administrator of Federal Aviation Agency
Bayless Manning 1971-1977 President of CFR
W. Michael Blumenthal 1972-1977, 1979-1984 Secretary of the Treasury
Zbigniew Brzezinski 1972-1977 National Security Advisor
Elizabeth Drew 1972-1977 Correspondent for The New Yorker
George S. Franklin Jr. 1972-1983 Executive Director of CFR
Marshall D. Shulman 1972-1977 Professor of Government at Columbia University
Martha Redfield Wallace 1972-1982 Executive Director of The Henry Luce Foundation, Inc.
Paul C. Warnke 1972-1977 Director of Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
Peter G. Peterson 1973-1983, 1984-2007, 2011-present Chairman of Lehman Brothers; Chairman of CFR
Robert O. Anderson 1974-1980 Chairman of Atlantic Richfield Co. (ARCO)
Edward K. Hamilton 1974-1983
Harry C. McPherson Jr. 1974-1977 Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs
Elliot L. Rchardson 1974-1975 U.S. Attorney General; Secretary of Defense
Franklin Hall Williams 1975-1983 U.S. Ambassador to Ghana
Nicholas deB. Katzenbach 1975-1986 U.S. Attorney General; General Counsel of IBM
Paul A. Volcker 1975-1979, 1988-1999 Chairman of the Federal Reserve
Theodore M. Hesburgh 1976-1985 President of University of Norte Dame
Lane Kirkland 1976-1986 President of AFL-CIO
George H.W. Bush 1977-1979 President of the United States; CIA Director
Lloyd N. Cutler 1977-1979 Counselor to the President of the U.S.
Phlip L. Geyelin 1977-1987 Editor of the Editorial Page of The Washington Post
Henry A. Kissinger 1977-1981 Secretary of State; National Security Advisor
Winston Lord 1977-1985 President of CFR; U.S. Ambassador to Red China
Stephen Stamas 1977-1989 Vice President of Public Affairs at Exxon
Marina v.N. Whitman 1977-1987 Professor
C. Peter McColough 1978-1987 Chairman and CEO of Xerox Corp.
Richard L. Gelb 1979-1988 Chairman and CEO of Bristol-Myers Co.
Graham T. Allison Jr. 1979-1988 Dean of Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University
William D. Ruckelshaus 1979-1983 Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency
James F. Hoge Jr. 1980-1984 Editor of Foreign Affairs; Publisher of Chicago Sun Times
George P. Shultz 1980-1982 Secretary of State; Secretary of the Treasury
William D. Rogers 1980-1990 Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs
Walter B. Wriston 1981-1987 Chairman of Citibank
Lewis T. Preston 1981-1988 President of the World Bank; Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co.
Warren Christopher 1982-1991 Secretary of State
Alan Greenspan 1982-1988 Chairman of the Federal Reserve
Robert A. Scalapino 1982-1989 Professor of Government at University of California at Berkeley
Harold Brown 1983-1992 Secretary of Defense
Stanley Hoffmann 1983-1992 Professor of Government at Harvard
Juanita M. Kreps 1983-1989 Secretary of Commerce
Brent Scowcroft 1983-1989 National Security Advisor
Clifton R. Wharton Jr. 1983-1992 Chairman and CEO of TIAA-CREF; Chairman of Rockefeller Foundation
Donald F. McHenry 1984-1993 U.S. Representative to the United Nations
Bobby R. Inman 1985-1993 Deputy Director of Central Intelligence Agency
Jeane J. Kirkpatrick 1985-1994 U.S. Representative to the United Nations
Charles McC. Mathias Jr. 1986-1992 U.S. Senator
Ruben F. Mettler 1986-1992 Chairman and CEO of TRW, Inc.
Peter Tarnoff 1986-1993 President of CFR
James E. Burke 1987-1995 Chairman and CEO of Johnson & Johnson
Richard B. “Dick” Cheney 1987-1989, 1993-1995 Vice President of the United States; Secretary of Defense
Robert F. Erburu 1987-1998 Chairman and CEO of Times Mirror Company
Karen Elliott House 1987-1998, 2003-2008 Publisher of Wall Street Journal
Glenn E. Watts 1987-1990 President of Communications Workers of America
Rep. Thomas S. Foley 1988-1994 Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives
James D. Robinson III 1988-1991 Chairman and CEO of American Express Co.
Strobe Talbott 1988-1993 President of Brookings Institution; Deputy Secretary of State
John L. Clendenin 1989-1994 President of Southern Bell Telephone & Telegraph Co.
William S. Cohen 1989-1997 U.S. Senator; Secretary of Defense
Joshua Lederberg 1989-1998 President of Rockefeller University
John S. Reed 1989-1992 Chairman of Citibank
Alice M. Rivlin 1989-1992 Vice-Chairman of the Federal Reserve
(Adm.) William J. Crowe Jr. 1990-1993 U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain; Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Thomas R. Donahue 1990-2001 Secretary-Treasurer of AFL-CIO
Richard C. Holbrooke 1991-1993, 1996-1999, 2001-2009 U.S. Representative to the United Nations
Robert D. Hormats 1991-2004 Vice Chairman of Goldman Sachs International (1987-2009)
John E. Bryson 1992-2002 Chairman and CEO of Edison International
Maurice R. Greenberg 1992-2002, 2004-2009 Chairman and CEO of American International Group
Karen N. Horn 1992-1995 President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland
James R. Houghton 1992-1996 Chairman and CEO of Corning, Inc.
Charlayne Hunter-Gault 1992-1998
Kenneth W. Dam 1992-2001 Deputy Secretary of State
Donna E. Shalala 1992-1993 Secretary of Health and Human Services
Alton Frye 1993 President and Vice President of CFR
Richard N. Cooper 1993-1994 Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs
Rita E. Hauser 1993-1997 President of the Hauser Foundation
E. Gerald Corrigan 1993-1995 President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Leslie H. Gelb 1993-2001, 2002-2003 President of CFR
Paul A. Allaire 1993-2002 Chairman and CEO of Xerox Corp.
Robert E. Allen 1993-1996 Chairman and CEO of AT&T
Theodore C. Sorensen 1993-2004 Special Counsel to the President of the U.S. (under Kennedy)
Garrick Utley 1993-2003 NBC and CNN Correspondent
Carla A. Hills 1994-present U.S. Trade Representative; Co-Chairman of CFR
Helene L. Kaplan 1994-1996 Chairman of Carnegie Corporation of New York
Frank G. Zarb 1994-1996 Chairman of NASDAQ Stock Exchange
Robert B. Zoellick 1994-2001 U.S. Trade Representative; Deputy Secretary of State
Les Aspin 1995 Secretary of Defense
Mario L. Baeza 1995-2001
Peggy Dulany 1995-2003 Chairman of The Synergos Institute
Jessica P. Einhorn 1995-2005 Dean of Paul Nitze School at Johns Hopkins University
William J. McDonough 1995-2004 President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Frank Savage 1995-2002
George Soros 1995-2004 Chairman of Soros Fund Management
Hanna Holborn Gray 1995-1998 President of the University of Chicago
George J. Mitchell 1995-2005 U.S. Senator
Louis V. Gerstner Jr. 1995-2005 Chairman of the Carlyle Group; Chairman and CEO of IBM
Lee Cullum 1996-2006 Columnist for Dallas Morning News
Vincent A. Mai 1997-2003
Warren B. Rudman 1997-2005 U.S. Senator
Laura D’Andrea Tyson 1997-2007 Dean of London Business School of Economics
Roone Arledge 1998-2002 Chairman of ABC News
Diane Sawyer 1998-1999 ABC News journalist
Martin S. Feldstein 1998-2008, 2009-pres. Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers
Bette Bao Lord 1998-2003 Chairman of Freedom House
Michael H. Moskow 1998-2008 President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago
John Deutch 1999-2004 Director of Central Intelligence Agency
Robert E. Rubin 2000-present Secretary of the Treasury; Co-Chairman of CFR
Andrew Young 2000-2005 U.S. Representative to the United Nations
Henry S. Bienen 2001-2011 President of Northwestern University
Kenneth M. Duberstein 2001-2012 White House Chief of Staff
Joan E. Spero 2001-2011 Under Secretary of State for Economic, Business, and Agricultural Affairs
Vin Weber 2001-2011, 2012-pres. Member of the U.S. House of Representative
Fouad Ajami 2002-2012 Professor of Middle Eastern Studies at Johns Hopkins University
Ronald L. Olson 2002-2010 Partner of Munger, Tolles & Olson [law firm]
Jeffrey L. Bewkes 2002-2006 President of Time Warner
Thomas R. Pickering 2002-2007 U.S. Representative to the United Nations
Helene D. Gayle 2003-2008 President and CEO of CARE
Richard N. Haass 2003-present President of CFR
Richard E. Salomon 2003-present Vice-Chairman of CFR; Chairman of Mecox Ventures
Anne-Marie Slaughter 2003-2009 Dean of Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University
Madeleine K. Albright 2004-present Secretary of State; U.S. Representative to the United Nations
Richard N. Foster 2004-2009
Joseph S. Nye Jr. 2004-present Dean of JFK School of Government at Harvard University
Fareed Zakaria 2004-present Editor of Newsweek International (2000-present)
Peter Ackerman 2005-present Managing Director of Rockport Capital, Inc.
Charlene Barshefsky 2005-2010 U.S. Trade Representative
Stephen W. Bosworth 2005-2009 U.S. Ambassador to South Korea
Tom Brokaw 2005-present Anchor of NBC Nightly News
David M. Rubenstein 2005-present Founder of the Carlyle Group
Frank J. Caufield 2006-2010 Co-Founder of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers (KPCB)
Ann M. Fudge 2006-present Chairman and CEO of Young & Rubicam Brands
Alberto Ibarguen 2006-present President of John S. and James L. Knight Foundation
Henry R. Kravis 2006-present Founding Partner of Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.
James W. Owens 2006-present Chairman and CEO of Caterpillar Inc.
(Gen.) Colin L. Powell 2006-present Secretary of State; Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Christine Todd Whitman 2006-present Governor of New Jersey
Sylvia Mathews Burwell 2007-2013 Director of Office of Management and Budget (2013-present)
Stephen Friedman 2007-present Director of National Economic Council (2003-2005)
Judith A. “Jami” Miscik 2007-present Deputy Central Intelligence Agency Director for Intelligence
Alan S. Blinder 2008-present Vice Chairman of the Federal Reserve
J. Tomilson Hill 2008-present Vice Chairman of The Blackstone Group
Shirley Ann Jackson 2008-present President of the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
George E. Rupp 2008-present President of Columbia University (1993-2002)
David G. Bradley 2009-present Chairman of Atlantic Media Company
Donna J. Hrinak 2009-present U.S. Ambassador to Venezuela
Penny Pritzker 2009-present President of Classic Residence by Hyatt (1987-present)
Frederick W. Smith 2009-present Chairman and CEO of Federal Express Corp. [FedEx]
(Gen.) John P. Abizaid 2010-present Commander of U.S. Central Command
Mary Boies 2010-present Managing Partner of Boies & McInnis LLP
Pamela B. Gann 2010-present President of Claremont McKenna College
Thomas H. Glocer 2011-present Former Chief Executive Officer of Thomson Reuters
Eduardo J. Padrón 2011-present President of Miami Dade College
Peter B. Henry 2012-present Dean of New York University Stern School of Business (2010-present)
Muhtar Kent 2012-present Chairman and CEO of The Coca-Cola Company (2009-present)
Margaret Warner 2012-present Senior Correspondent, PBS NewsHour

1922 Council on Foreign Relations Membership Roster
(as of November 1, 1922)

HONORARY MEMBERS

Tasker H. Bliss – U.S. Army Chief of Staff (Sept. 22, 1917-May 18, 1918); U.S. Army General; graduated from U.S. Military Academy in 1875
Elihu Root
U.S. Secretary of War (1899-1904); U.S. Secretary of State (1905-1909); U.S. Senator (Republican Party-New York; 1909-1915)
President of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1910-1925)
President of The American Society of International Law (1907-1924)
President of American Bar Association (1915)
Ambassador Extraordinary at the head of a special diplomatic mission from the United States to Russia in 1917 (“Root Mission”)
Commissioner Plenipotentiary to the Conference on Limitation of Armament at Washington, D.C. (1921-1922)
Born in Clinton, New York on February 15, 1845; Died in New York City on February 7, 1937
A.B. Hamilton College 1864; LL.B. New York University 1867
Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1912

MEMBERS

Alfred L. Aiken
Chairman of the board of New York Life Insurance Co. (1940-1942)
President of New York Life Insurance Co. (1936-1940); Vice President of New York Life Insurance Co. (1925-1936)
Chairman of the board (1923-1924) and President (1918-1923) of National Shawmut Bank in Boston
President of the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (November 25, 1914-December 20, 1917)
Member of the Republican Party; Member of the Pilgrims Society
Born in Norwich, Connecticut on July 6, 1870; died in New York City on December 13, 1946; B.A. Yale 1891
James S. Alexander
President of National Bank of Commerce (1911-1923); Chairman of Guaranty Trust Co.
Member of the board of directors of American Express Co., American Telephone & Telegraph Co., and Prudential Insurance Co.
Former Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Frederick H. Allen – Hawaiian Charge d’affaires to the U.S. (1883); member of Allen & Cammann [law firm in New York City]
Frank Altschul
Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. [banking firm in New York City] (July 1, 1916-1945)
Chairman of General American Investors Co., Inc. (?-1961)
Vice President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1951-1971)
Secretary of the Council on Foreign Relations (1944-1972)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1934-1972)
Born in San Francisco on April 21, 1887; died on May 29, 1981; B.A. Yale 1908
Hamilton Fish Armstrong
Assistant Military Attaché to the U.S. Ambassador of Yugoslavia (1918)
Member of the editorial staff of the New York Evening Post (1919-1921)
Executive Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1922-1928)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1928-1972)
Editor of Foreign Affairs magazine (1928-1972)
President of Woodrow Wilson Foundation (1935-1937)
Adviser to the U.S. delegation at the San Francisco Conference (1945)
Born in New York City on April 7, 1893; died on April 24, 1973
A.B. Princeton 1916
W. W. Atterbury – President of Pennsylvania Railroad (1925-1935); Ph.B. Yale 1886
Jules S. Bache
Head of J.S. Bache & Co. (formerly Leopold Cahn & Co.) [banking firm in New York City] (1892-1944)
President of Dome Mines Limited (1919-1942)
Director of Chrysler Corp., Cuba Distilling Co., Ann Arbor Railroad Co., and American Indemnity Co. (Baltimore)
Member of the Pilgrims Society; Member of The Economic Club of New York
Born in New York City on November 9, 1861; died on March 24, 1944
Robert L. Bacon
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives (Republican Party-New York; March 4, 1923-September 12, 1938)
Born in Boston on July 23, 1884; died on September 12, 1938
Freemason; A.B. Harvard 1907; LL.B. Harvard 1910
George Barr Baker
Literary Editor of Delineator (1911-1914); Director of American Relief Administration
Navy Commander during World War I, served as executive officer of U.S. Naval Cable Censorship for 3rd Naval District (1917)
Ray Stannard Baker – Woodrow Wilson’s press secretary at Paris Peace Conference; author of Woodrow Wilson: Life and Letters
Julius H. Barnes
President of U.S. Food Administration Grain Corporation (Aug. 1917-July 1919); President of U.S. Grain Corporation (1919-1920)
President of McDougall-Duluth Shipbuilding Co.
President (1922-1924) and Chairman of the board (1929-1931) of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States
Robert I. Barr – Member of the Red Cross Mission to Russia in 1917

Amos L. Beaty
Chairman of the board of Texaco [Texas Co.] (March 16, 1926- Dec. 21, 1927)
President of Texaco (March 23, 1920- March 16, 1926); General Counsel of Texaco (November 25, 1913- March 23, 1920)
Chairman of the board of Transcontinental Oil Company (1929-?)
Member of the board of directors of Phillips Petroleum Company (1931-?)
Chairman of the Petroleum Code Authority, National Recovery Administration (1934); Member of the Democratic Party
Born in Red River County Texas on September 1, 1870, U.S.A.; Died on April 29, 1939
John G. Berquist
Samuel R. Bertron
President of Bertron, Griscom & Company, Inc., international financiers [New York City, Philadelphia, and Paris] (1912-1938)
President of International Equities Corporation (1928-1936); Special partner in Storrs & Smith (1895-1912)
Member of the Special Diplomatic Mission to Russia [The Root Mission] (May 1917)
Member of the Excess Profit Tax Commission during World War I
Assisted in drafting the Federal Reserve Act (1913)
Former Chairman of the American-Russian Chamber of Commerce
Born in Port Gibson, Mississippi on February 26, 1865; died on June 30, 1938
Member of Skull & Bones at Yale University; B.A. Yale 1885
Bruce Bliven – Managing Editor of New York Globe; Editor of New Republic
George Blumenthal
Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. [banking firm in New York City] (1893-1904); Senior Partner of Lazard Freres & Co. (1904-1925)
President of The Metropolitan Museum of Art [New York City] (1934-1941)
Married Florence Meyer, the sister of Washington Post publisher Eugene Meyer
Born in Frankfurt am Main, Germany on April 7, 1858; Died in New York City on June 26, 1941
William P. Bonbright – President of Bonbright & Co., Inc.; Vice President of Societe Financiere pour Entreprises Electriques
Alfred C. Bossom – Supervising Architect of the U.S. Shipping Board (1917-1918)
Isaiah Bowman
President of Johns Hopkins University (1935-1948)
Director of American Geographic Society [New York] (1915-1935)
Assistant Professor of Geography at Yale University (1909-1915)
Member of the board of directors of American Telephone & Telegraph Company
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1950); Vice President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1945-1949)
Trustee of World Peace Foundation (1930-1933)
Born in Ontario, Canada on December 26, 1878; Died on January 6, 1950
B.S. Harvard 1905; Ph.D. Yale 1908
Charles H. Brent – a bishop; President of World Conference on Faith and Order
Albert Breton
Norman Bridge
Professor of Medicine at University of Chicago (1887-1901); President of Chicago Board of Education (1882-1883)
M.D. Chicago Medical College 1868
Elmer E. Brown
President of New York University (1911-1933); U.S. Commissioner of Education (1906-1911)
Professor of Science and Art of Teaching at University of California (1893-1906)
A.B. University of Michigan 1889; Ph.D. University of Halle-Wittenberg [Germany] 1890
Philip Marshall Brown
Secretary of the American Embassy at Constantinople, Turkey [Ottoman Empire] (1907-1908)
U.S. Minister to Honduras (1909-1910)
Professor of International Law at Princeton University (1915-1929)
President of American Peace Society (1940-1946)
President of English-Speaking Union of Washington (1944-1946)
Born in Hampden, Maine on July 31, 1875; died on May 10, 1966
B.A. Williams College 1898; M.A. Harvard 1912
Arthur Bullard – State Department Chief of the Russian Division (1919-1921)
William Butterworth – President of Deere & Co. (1907-1928); President of Peoples Savings Bank & Trust Co.
James Byrne – President of The Association of the Bar of the City of New York (1921-1923); A.B. Harvard 1877; LL.B., Harvard 1882
Robert J. Caldwell – President of R.J. Caldwell Co., Inc.; a conciliatory commissioner for the U.S. Department of Labor (1920)
William F. Carey
President of Madison Square Garden (1929-1932)
Commissioner of Sanitation for the City of New York (1936-1946); General Superintendent of the Panama Canal (1904)
Thomas L. Chadbourne – New York City lawyer
William M. Chadbourne – lawyer and founder of present-day Brown & Wood law firm
Joseph T. Chamberlain – Professor of Public Law at Columbia University (1923-1950); Ph.D. Columbia 1923
Lewis L. Clarke – President of American Exchange National Bank; President of American Exchange Securities Corporation
Charles A. Coffin – Chairman of the board of General Electric Co. (1913-1922)
Archibald Cary Coolidge
Professor of History at Harvard University (1908-1928)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1928)
Editor of Foreign Affairs magazine (1922-1928)
Great-great-grandson of former U.S. President Thomas Jefferson
Grandson of Joseph Coolidge IV, partner of Russell & Co. opium syndicate
Brother of John Gardner Coolidge, former U.S. Minister to Nicaragua
Born in Boston on March 6, 1866; died on January 14, 1928
A.B. Harvard 1887; Ph.D. University of Freiburg [Germany] 1892

Joseph P. Cotton
Member of Spooner & Cotton [law firm in New York City] (1910-1919)
Member of McAdoo, Cotton & Franklin [law firm in New York City] (1919-1921)
Member of Cotton & Franklin [law firm in New York City] (1921-1929)
Under U.S. Secretary of State (1929-1931)
A.B. Harvard 1896; A.M. Harvard 1897; LL.B. Harvard 1900
Frederic R. Coudert
Member of Coudert Bros. [law firm in New York City] (1895-1955)
Special Assistant to the U.S. Attorney General (1913-1914)
Legal adviser to the British Embassy in Washington, D.C. (1915-1920)
A.B. Columbia 1890; A.M. Columbia 1891; Ph.D. Columbia 1894
Paul D. Cravath
Member of Cravath, de Gersdorff, Swaine and Wood [law firm in New York City]
Chairman of the board of Westinghouse Electric Corp. (1927-1929)
Chairman of The Economic Club of New York (1936-1938)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1940)
Vice President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1933)
Born in Ohio on July 14, 1861; died on July 1, 1940
A.B. Oberlin 1882; LL.B. Columbia 1886
F. Kingsbury Curtis
Member of Curtis, Mallet-Prevost, Colt & Mosle [law firm in New York City] (1889-1926)
Former General Counsel of New York and Puerto Rico Steamship Company; President of Connecticut Steel Co. (1920-1922)
Born in New York City on February 3, 1863; died in Venice, Florida on March 4, 1936
B.A. Yale 1884; LL.B. Columbia 1886
John W. Davis
Member of Davis, Polk & Wardwell [law firm in New York City] (1921-1955)
U.S. Ambassador to Great Britain (December 18, 1918-March 9, 1921)
Solicitor General of the United States (1913-1918)
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives (Democratic Party-West Virginia; 1911-1913)
President of American Bar Association (1922); President of the New York City Bar Association (1931-1933)
Trustee of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1921-c.1929)
Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation (1922-1938)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1955); President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1933)
President of the English-Speaking Union of the U.S. (1930-1938)
Presidential candidate for the Democratic Party (1924); a 33rd Degree Freemason
Son of former U.S. Congressman John James Davis (Democratic Party-West Virginia)
Born in West Virginia on April 13, 1873; died in Charleston, South Carolina on March 24, 1955
A.B. Washington and Lee University 1892; LL.B. Washington and Lee University 1895
Malcolm W. Davis
Managing Editor of Our World (1922-1924)
Executive Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1925-1927)
Editor of Yale University Press (1927-1931)
Representative for the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Geneva, Swizerland (1931-1935)
Director of European Center of Carnegie Endowment in Paris, France (1935-1947)
B.A. Yale 1911, A.M. Columbia 1924
Norman H. Davis
Under U.S. Secretary of State (1920-1921)
Assistant Secretary of the Treasury (1919-1920)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1944)
Vice President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1933-1936)
President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1936-1944)
Chairman of the American Red Cross (1938-1944)
Former trustee of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Born in Tennessee on August 9, 1878; died on July 1, 1944
F. Trubee Davison
Member of the New York State Assembly (1922-1926)
Assistant Secretary of War for Air (1926-1933)
President of the American Museum of Natural History (1933-1951)
Director of Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for Personnel (1951-1952)
Former Brigadier General of the U.S. Army Air Forces during World War II
Son of J.P. Morgan & Co. partner Henry P. Davison Sr.
Born in New York City on February 7, 1896; Died November 14, 1974
Member of Skull & Bones at Yale University; B.A. Yale 1918; LL.B. Columbia 1922
Clive Day
Knox Professor of Political Economy at Yale University (1922-1936)
Professor of Economic History at Yale University (1907-1922)
Chief of the Balkan Division, American Commission to Negotiate Peace at the Paris Peace Conference (1918-1919)
Born in Hartford, Connecticut on February 11, 1871; died in Greensboro, Vermont on July 27, 1951
Member of Skull & Bones at Yale University; B.A. Yale 1892; Ph.D. Yale 1899
Henry W. de Forest
Member of deForest & Weeks [law firm in New York City] (1879-1893)
Member of deForest Brothers [law firm in New York City] (1893-1932)
Chairman of the board of Southern Pacific Railway Co. (1929-1932)
Chairman of the executive committee of Southern Pacific Railway Co. (1925-1928)
Vice President of Southern Pacific Railway Co. (1917-1925)
Member of the board of directors of Southern Pacific Railway Co. (1905-1938)
Member of the board of directors of The Guaranty Trust Company (1909-1938)
Member of the board of directors of Texas & New Orleans Railroad, Wells Fargo & Co., and Western Union Telegraph Company
Member of the board of trustees of Bank for Savings [New York City] (1888-1938)
Chairman of the executive committee, Bank for Savings (1925-1938)
President of New York Botanical Garden (1928-1937); governor of New York Hospital (1890-1938)
Born in New York City on October 29, 1855; Died in Long Island, New York on May 28, 1938
Member of Scroll & Key at Yale University; B.A. Yale 1876; LL.B. Columbia 1878
Alfred L. P. Dennis
Professor of History at University of Wisconsin (1906-1920)
Assistant Military Attaché to the American Embassy in London (1919)
A.B. Princeton 1896; Ph.D. Columbia 1901
Clarence Dillon – Member of Dillon, Read & Co. [banking firm]; A.B. Harvard 1905
Frank N. Doubleday
Chairman of the board of Doubleday, Page & Co. [publishing firm] (1928-1934)
President of Doubleday, Page & Co. [publishing firm] (1900-1927); Former manager of Scribner’s Magazine
Russell Doubleday – Secretary of Doubleday, Page & Co. publishing firm
Stephen P. Duggan
Professor of Political Science at College of the City of New York (1896-1928)
Director of Institute of International Education (1919-1946)
Trustee of World Peace Foundation (1920-1947)
Director of the National Committee for Mental Hygiene
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1950)
Born in New York on December 20, 1870; died on August 18, 1950
B.S. College of the City of New York 1890; M.A. Columbia 1898; Ph.D. Columbia 1902
John Foster Dulles
Member of Sullivan & Cromwell [law firm in New York City] (1911-1949)
U.S. Secretary of State (1953-1959); U.S. Senator (Republican Party-New York; 1949)
Representative to the General Assembly of the United Nations (1946-1949)
Chairman of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1946-1949?)
Chairman of the Rockefeller Foundation (1950-1952); Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation (1935-1952)
Born in Washington, D.C. on February 25, 1888; died in Washington, D.C. on May 24, 1959
A.B. Princeton 1908; LL.B. George Washington University 1911
Arthur Dunn
T. Coleman du Pont
U.S. Senator (Republican Party-Delaware; 1921-1922, 1925-1928)
President of E. I. du Pont de Nemours Company (1902-1915)
Member of the Republican National Committee (1908-1930)
Born in Louisville, Kentucky on December 11, 1863; died in Wilmington, Delaware on November 11, 1930
Otto M. Eidlitz – President of U.S. Housing Corporation (1917-1919)
Karl Eilers – Vice President of American Smelting & Refining Co. (1916-1920)
Abram I. Elkus
U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (October 2, 1916-April 20, 1917)
Judge of the New York State Court of Appeals (November 12, 1919-December 31, 1920); LL.B. Columbia 1888
Born in New York City on August 6, 1867; Died in Red Bank, New Jersey on October 15, 1947
William H. P. Faunce
President of Brown University (1899-1929)
President of World Peace Foundation; Trustee of World Peace Foundation (1910-1930)
Pastor of Fifth Avenue Church in New York City (1889-1899)
Pastor of State Street Church in Springfield, Massachusetts (1884-1889)
Born in Worcester, Massachusetts on January 15, 1859; died on January 31, 1930
A.B. Brown University 1880; A.M. Brown University 1883; D.D. Brown University 1895
John H. Finley
Editor-in-Chief of the New York Times (1937-1938)
Associate Editor of the New York Times (1921-1937)
President of the University of the State of New York (1913-1921)
Commissioner of Education of the State of New York (1913-1921)
President of the City College of New York (1903-1913)
Professor of Politics at Princeton University (1900-1903)
Editor of Harper’s Weekly (1899)
President of Knox College (1892-1899)
Head of American Red Cross in Palestine and Near East (1918-1919)
Member of the Board of Director of New York Life Insurance Co. (1910-1922); trustee of Sage Foundation
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1929)
Decorated Order of Rising Sun (Japan) and Officer of the Legion of Honor (France)
Born in Grand Ridge, Illinois on October 19, 1863; died on March 7, 1940
A.B. Knox College 1887; A.M. Knox College 1890

Henry Fletcher
Member of Fletcher, Sillcocks & Leahy [law firm in New York City] (1902-1920)
Member of Fletcher, Brown & Twyeffort [law firm in New York City]
Chairman of the board of Swan & Finch Co. (Standard Oil subsidiary) (1915-1922)
Trustee of Yale-in-China; B.A. Yale 1898; LL.B. Harvard 1901
Allen B. Forbes
Head of Harris, Forbes & Co. [New York City]; Director of Bankers Trust Co.
LL.B. Northwestern University 1886; LL.B. Yale 1888
Raymond B. Fosdick
Commissioner of Accounts for New York City (1910-1913)
Member of the Bureau of Social Hygiene [organization funded by the Rockefellers] (1913-1915)
Member of the New York City Board of Education (1915-1916)
Under Secretary-General of the League of Nations (1919-1920)
Member of Curtis, Fosdick, and Belknap [law firm] (1920-1936)
President of the Rockefeller Foundation (1936-1948); Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation (1921-1948)
Trustee of World Peace Foundation (1933-1935)
Born in Buffalo, New York on June 9, 1883; Died on July 18, 1972
A.B. Princeton 1905; M.A. Princeton 1906; LL.B. New York Law School 1908
P. A. S. Franklin – President of International Mercantile Marine Co.; Director of National City Bank of New York (1916-1939)
Leopold Frederick – Manager of foreign exchange department at National Bank of Commerce (1907-1911); Treasurer of the Yukon Gold Co.
Walter E. Frew – President of the Corn Exchange Bank
Louis D. Froelick – Editor of Asia magazine; A.B. Princeton 1906
John A. Gade – Naval Attaché at the American Legation in Denmark (1917-1919)
Harry A. Garfield
President of Williams College (1908-1934); Trustee of World Peace Foundation (1930-1942)
Administrator of U.S. Fuel Administration (1917-1919)
Son of former U.S. President James A. Garfield; A.B. Williams College 1885
John W. Garrett
Partner of Robert Garrett & Sons [banking firm in Baltimore] (1896-1934)
2nd Secretary at the American Embassy in Berlin, Germany (1905-1908)
1st Secretary at the American Embassy in Rome (1908-1910)
U.S. Minister to Venezuela (March 30, 1911-October 21, 1911); U.S. Minister to Argentina (Feb. 29, 1912-November 22, 1913)
U.S. Minister to the Netherlands (October 11, 1917-June 18, 1919); U.S. Minister to Luxembourg (Nov. 11, 1917-June 18, 1919)
Secretary General of the Conference on Limitation of Armaments in Washington, D.C. (1921-1922)
U.S. Ambassador to Fascist Italy (November 20, 1929-May 22, 1933)
Born in Baltimore on May 19, 1872; died on June 26, 1942; Member of the English-Speaking Union
B.S. Princeton 1895
George A. Gaston – President of Gaston & Co., Inc.; director of American Transportation Co.
Edwin F. Gay
Dean of Harvard Business School (1908-1919)
Professor of Economics at Harvard University (1906-1919)
President of New York Evening Post (1920-1923)
Professor of Economic History at Harvard University (1924-1936)
Member of the War Trade Board (February 1918-June 1919)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1945)
Vice President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1933-1940)
Treasurer and Secretary of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1933)
Born in Detroit, Michigan on October 27, 1867; died on February 8, 1946
A.B. University of Michigan 1890; Ph.D. University of Berlin 1902
Hugh Gibson
U.S. Minister to Poland (May 2, 1919-May 3, 1924)
U.S. Minister to Switzerland (May 19, 1924-April 29, 1927)
U.S. Ambassador to Belgium (May 9, 1927-June 11, 1933, July 28, 1937-June 15, 1938)
U.S. Minister to Luxembourg (December 19, 1927-June 11, 1933, November 15, 1937-June 15, 1938)
U.S. Ambassador to Brazil (August 8, 1933-December 3, 1936)
Robert Goelet – Director of Guaranty Trust Co.
Samuel P. Goldman – Member of Goldman, Heide & Unger [law firm in New York City]
William C. Grace
Prentiss N. Gray – President of J. Henry Schroder Banking Corp.
Jerome D. Greene
General Manager of Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research [New York] (1910-1912)
Secretary of the Rockefeller Foundation (1913-1917); Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation (1913-1917, 1928-1939)
Member of Lee, Higginson & Co. [banking firm in New York City] (1918-1932)
Treasurer of American Social Hygiene Association (1920-1932)
Trustee of the General Education Board (1912-1939)
Trustee of the Brookings Institution (1928-1945)
Chairman of the American Council of the Institute of Pacific Relations (1929-1932)
Resident of Toynbee Hall in London in 1918
Secretary of the Reparation Commission at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919
Overseer of Harvard University (1911-1913, 1917-1923, 1944-1950)
Born in Yokohama, Japan on October 12, 1874; died on March 29, 1959
A.B. Harvard 1896
Alexander Grosset – President of Grosset & Dunlap publishers
Sidney L. Gulick
Secretary of the department of international justice and goodwill of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America (1914-1934)
Lecturer at the Imperial University in Kyoto, Japan; a missionary in Japan
A.B. Dartmouth 1883; A.M. Dartmouth 1886
J. W. H. Hamilton
John Hays Hammond
Consulting engineer for Cecil Rhodes and British South Africa Company (1894-1899)
Professor of mining engineering at Yale University (1902-1909)
General Manager and consulting engineer of Guggenheim Exploration Company (1903-1907)
Chairman of United States Coal Commission (1922-1923); Chairman of World Court Congress (1914-1915)
Chairman of Engineers Exploration & Mining Corporation (1933-1936)
Ph.B. Yale 1876; A.M. Yale 1898
John Henry Hammond
Member of Brown Brothers & Co. [banking firm]; Deputy Attorney General of New York (1899-1901)
Former Member of Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft [law firm in New York City]
Ph.B. Yale 1892; LL.B. Columbia 1895
Francis R. Hart – President of United Fruit Company (1933-?); Vice Chairman and Director of Old Colony Trust Co. in Boston
Charles H. Haskins
Professor of European History at University of Wisconsin (1892-1902)
Professor of History at Harvard University (1902-1931)
Dean of the Graduate School of Arts and Science at Harvard University (1908-1924)
President of the American Historical Association (1922)
A.B. Johns Hopkins University 1887; Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University 1890
Charles D. Hazen
Professor of History at Smith College (1894-1914)
Professor of History at Columbia University (1916-1938)
Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University 1893
Samuel Heilner – President of Percy Heilner & Sons, Inc.
Edwin M. Herr – President of Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. (1911-1929); Ph.B. Yale 1884
Walker D. Hines
Chairman of the board of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Co. (1916-1918)
General Counsel of Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway Co. (1906-1918)
Director General of the U.S. Railroad Administration (1919)
Member of Hines, Rearick, Door, Travis & Marshall [law firm in New York City] (1927-1934)
Chairman of The Economic Club of New York (1926-1928)
Member of the board of directors of Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company
Born in Russelville, Kentucky on February 2, 1870; Died on January 14, 1934
B.S. Ogden College 1888; B.L. University of Virginia 1893
Hamilton Holt – Editor and Owner of The Independent (1913-1921); President of Rollins College (1925-1949); B.A. Yale 1894
Edward M. House
“Godfather” and co-founder of the Council on Foreign Relations; Author of Philip Dru: Administrator
Advisor to U.S. President Woodrow Wilson; American delegate to the Paris Peace Conference (1919)
Son of former Mayor of Houston Thomas W. House, a British-born merchant and Rebel blockade runner during the Civil War
Born in Houston, Texas on July 26, 1858; Died in New York City on March 28, 1938
David F. Houston
President of Texas A&M University (1902-1905)
President of University of Texas (1905-1908)
Chancellor of Washington University in St. Louis (1908-1916)
U.S. Secretary of Agriculture (1913-1920)
U.S. Secretary of the Treasury (1920-1921)
Chairman of the Federal Reserve (1920-1921)
Former Chairman of the board of Mutual Life Insurance Co. [New York]
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1927)
Author of A Critical Study of Nullification in South Carolina (1902)
Born in Monroe, North Carolina on February 17, 1866; died on September 2, 1940
A.B. South Carolina College 1887; A.M. Harvard 1892
Herbert S. Houston
Member of Doubleday, Page & Co. [New York City] (1900-1921)
President of Associated Advertising Clubs of the World (1915-1917)
Charles P. Howland
Member of Howland, Murray & Prentice and Murray, Prentice & Howland [law firm in New York City] (1900-1921)
Member of Rushmore, Bisbee & Stern [law firm in New York City] (1921-1925)
Member of Board of Aldermen of New York City (1902-1904)
Chairman of Greek Refugee Settlement Commission of League of Nations (1925-1926)
Member of Priorities Committee of War Industries Board, representing United States Shipping Board (1918-1919)
General Counsel of United States Housing Corporation during World War I
Member of the board of directors of Mortgage Bond Company of New York (1908-1932)
Member of the board of directors of Lawyers’ Mortgage Company (1913-1932)
Chairman of the research committee, Institute of Pacific Relations (1929-1932)
Trustee of Johns Hopkins University (1926-1932)
Trustee of Institute of International Education (1927-1932)
Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation (1928-1932)
Member of the executive committee of General Education Board (1919-1932)
President of Public Education Association of New York City (1909-1925)
Member of the board of directors of Foreign Policy Association (1920-1932)
Chairman of the executive committee of Foreign Policy Association (1923-1930)
An incorporator of the English-Speaking Union of the United States in 1918
Member of the board of directors of English-Speaking Union of the United States (1920-1925)
Director of research for the Council on Foreign Relations (1927-1931)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1929-1931)
Born in New York City on September 15, 1869; died in New Haven, Connecticut on November 12, 1932
Member of Wolf’s Head at Yale University; B.A. Yale 1891; LL.B. Harvard 1894
David E. Hudson
Manley O. Hudson
Bemis Professor of International Law at Harvard Law School (1923-1960)
Trustee of World Peace Foundation (1923-1960); President of The American Society of International Law (1949-1952)
LL.B. Harvard 1910
Edward N. Hurley
President of Hurley Machine Co. [Chicago] (1908-1915)
Vice Chairman [and later Chairman] of Federal Trade Commission (1914-1917)
Chairman of U.S. Shipping Board and President of Emergency Fleet Corporation (1917-1919)
Henry L. Ickelheimer
Will H. Irwin – General Managing Writer of Collier’s Weekly; war correspondent for Saturday Evening Post during World War I
Arthur Curtiss James – Vice President of Phelps Dodge Corporation; Vice President of New York Chamber of Commerce; A.B. Amherst 1889
James N. Jarvie – founder of the Jarvie Commonweal Fund
Alba B. Johnson
President of Burnham, Williams & Co. (1911-1919)
Class B (1914-1926) and Class C (1927-1934) Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Douglas W. Johnson – Professor of Physiography at Columbia University (1919-1944); Ph.D. Columbia 1903
Joseph E. Jones
Otto H. Kahn
Partner of Kuhn, Loeb, & Co. [banking firm in New York City] (1897-1934)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1934); Vice President of the English-Speaking Union
Awarded Order of the Rising Sun (Japan) and Commander Legion of Honor (France)
Born in Mannheim, Germany on February 21, 1867; Died on March 29, 1934
Archibald C. Kains – President of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco (November 25, 1914-July 5, 1917)
Royal R. Keely
Frederic R. Kellogg – Member of Kellogg, Emery Inness, Brown & Cuthell [law firm in New York City]; LL.B. Columbia 1888
Fred I. Kent – Vice President of Bankers Trust Co.; Deputy Governor of Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1917-1918)
William S. Kies
General Attorney of Chicago & Western Indiana Railroad Co. (1910-1913)
Vice President of National City Bank (1915-1918); Vice President of American International Corp. (1916-1920)
LL.B. University of Wisconsin 1901
Willard V. King – President of Columbia Trust Co. (1908-1923); former Vice President of Continental Trust Co.; A.B. Columbia 1889
Alvin W. Krech – President of Equitable Trust Co.; former Chairman of the board of Western Pacific Railroad Co.
Thomas W. Lamont
Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1911-1948)
Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1943-1948)
Secretary, Treasurer, and Vice-President of Bankers Trust Co. (1903-1909)
Vice President of First National Bank (1909-1911)
Owner of New York Evening Post
Member of the board of directors of U.S. Steel Corp.
Representative of U.S. Treasury, American Commission to Negotiate Peace (1919)
Chairman of the American group, International Consortium for Assistance of China
Chairman of the International Committee of Bankers for adjustment of Mexican foreign debt
Trustee of Carnegie Foundation for Advancement of Teaching; President of Markle Foundation
Overseer of Harvard University (1912-1925); A.B. Harvard 1892
Born in Claverack, New York on September 30, 1870; died on February 2, 1948
Kenneth S. Latourette
Professor of Missions at Yale University (1921-1927)
Professor of Missions and Oriental History at Yale University (1927-1953)
B.A. Yale 1906; Ph.D. Yale 1909
A. B. Leach – President of A.B. Leach & Co., Inc.; Chairman of Liberty Loan Commission of New York City during World War I
Henry Goddard Leach
Secretary of the American-Scandinavian Foundation (1912-1921)
A.B. Princeton 1903; A.M. Harvard 1906; Ph.D. Harvard 1908
Ivy L. Lee
General European Manager for Harris, Winthrop & Co., bankers (1910-1912)
Executive Assistant for Pennsylvania Railroad (1912-1914)
Member of the personal advisory staff of John D. Rockefeller (1915-1916)
Assistant to the Chairman of Red Cross War Council (1917-1919); Advocate for U.S. recognition of Soviet Union
Born in Cedartown, Georgia, U.S.A. on July 16, 1877; died on November 9, 1934
A.B. Princeton 1898

R. C. Leffingwell
Partner of J.P. Morgan & Co. (1923-1950)
Chairman of J.P. Morgan & Co. (February 14, 1948-November 1, 1950)
Member of Cravath, Henderson, Leffingwell & de Gersdorff [law firm in New York City] (1907-1917, 1920-1923)
Assistant Secretary of the Treasury (1917-1920)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1927-1960)
President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1944-1946)
Chairman of the board of the Council on Foreign Relations (1946-1953)
Former Chairman of the board of trustees of Carnegie Corporation of New York
Born in New York City on September 10, 1878; died on October 2, 1960; member of the Pilgrims Society
B.A. Yale 1899; M.A. Yale 1919; LL.B. Columbia 1902
Herbert H. Lehman
Partner of Lehman Brothers [banking firm in New York City] (1908-1914, 1919-1928)
Lieutenant Governor of New York (1929-1932); Governor of New York (1933-1942)
Director General of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (1943-1946)
U.S. Senator (Democratic Party-New York; 1949-1957)
Born in New York City on March 28, 1878; died in New York City on December 5, 1963
A.B. Williams College 1899; M.A. Williams College 1921
Samuel A. Lewisohn – President and Director of Miami Copper Co.; A.B. Princeton 1904; LL.B. Columbia 1907
Samuel McCune Lindsay
Professor of Social Legislation at Columbia University (1907-1939)
Professor of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania (1896-1907)
Ph.B. University of Pennsylvania 1889; Ph.D. University of Halle [Germany] 1892
Walter Lippmann – Editor of the New York World; Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1932-1937); B.A. Harvard 1910
Robert H. Lord
Professor of History at Harvard University (1924-1926)
Pastor of St. Paul’s Church in Wellesley, Massachusetts (1944-1954)
A.B. Harvard 1906; Ph.D. Harvard 1910
John R. MacArthur – Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Commission that negotiated the treaty of peace with Spain in 1898
Severo Mallet-Prevost
Member of Curtis, Mallet-Prevost & Colt [law firm in New York City] (1897-1948)
Counsel for the Government of Venezuela before the Paris Arbitration Tribunal in the British Guiana boundary arbitration
President of the Pan-American Society (1921-1927)
Born in Zacatecas, Mexcico on October 8, 1860; died on December 10, 1948
B.S. University of Pennsylvania 1881
Louis C. Marburg
Gregory Mason – Special Correspondent for Outlook
John H. McClement
Comptroller of Chicago Terminal Transfer Railroad (1897-1899)
Member of George P. Butler & Brothers (1899-1908)
Former Chairman of the board of Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co.
Member of the board of directors of General Motors Corp.
Vance C. McCormick
Mayor of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (1902-1905)
Member of the Harrisburg [Pennsylvania] City Council (1900-1902)
Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (1914-1915)
Chairman of the War Trade Board (1917-1919); Ph.B. Yale 1893
James G. McDonald
Chairman of the board of Foreign Policy Association, Inc. (1919-1933)
High commissioner for refugees coming from Germany (1933-1935)
Member of the editorial staff of the New York Times (1936-1938)
President of Brooklyn Institute for Arts and Sciences (1938-1942)
Member of New York City Board of Education (1940-1942)
U.S. Ambassador to Israel (1949-1950)
Trustee of World Peace Foundation (1933-1935)
Born in Coldwater, Ohio on November 29, 1886; died on September 26, 1964
A.B. Indiana University 1909; A.M. Indiana University 1910
Gates McGarrah
Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1926-1930)
Chairman and President of the Bank of International Settlements (1930-1933)
James H. McGraw
President of McGraw-Hill Co., Inc. [school textbook publishing company] (1917-1928)
Born in New York on December 17, 1860; died on February 21, 1948
Constantine E. McGuire
Treasurer of the American Historical Association (1930-1936)
A.B. Harvard 1911; M.A. Harvard 1912; Ph.D. Harvard 1915
John McHugh – President of Discount Corporation of New York; Director of Mercantile Trust Co.
Samuel McRoberts – Vice President of National City Bank; Chairman of The Economic Club of New York (1930-1932)
S. Stanwood Menken – member of Beekman, Menken & Griscom [law firm in New York City]; LL.B. Columbia 1894

Herman A. Metz
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives (Democratic Party-New York; 1913-1915)
Comptroller of New York City (1906-1910); Director of American I.G. [Farben]
Voted “Yea” (Yes) on the Federal Reserve Act in the U.S. House of Representatives on December 22, 1913
Born in New York City on October 19, 1867; Died in New Rochelle, New York on May 17, 1934
J. Meyer, Jr.
Sidney E. Mezes
President of College of the City of New York (1914-1927)
President of University of Texas [at Austin] (1908-1914)
Professor of Philosophy at University of Texas [at Austin] (1897-1908)
Director of The Inquiry (1917-1918)
Director of Territorial Section of American Commission to Negotiate Peace (1918-1919)
Born in California on September 23, 1863; died on September 11, 1931
B.S. University of California 1884; A.B. Harvard 1890; A.M. Harvard 1891; Ph.D. Harvard 1893
John G. Milburn – Chairman of The Economic Club of New York (1910-1912); President of the Pan-American Exposition (1901)
David Hunter Miller – New York City lawyer; technical adviser to the American Commission at the Paris Peace Conference
Robert G. Montgomery – Professor of Accounting at Columbia University (1919-1931)
Edward C. Moore – Parkman Professor of Theology at Harvard University (1901-1929); Ph.D. Brown University 1891
Henry Morgenthau
Member of Lachman, Morgenthau & Goldsmith [law firm in New York City (1879-1899)
President of Central Realty Bond & Trust Co. [New York City] (1899-1905)
President of Henry Morgenthau Co. (1905-1913)
U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (December 11, 1913-February 1, 1916)
Director of Equitable Life Assurance Society of the U.S. (1915-1921)
Chairman of the finance committee of Democratic National Committee (1912, 1916)
Chairman of Greek Refugee Settlement Commission of League of Nations (1923)
Vice Chairman of Near East Relief (1919-1921); Director of Institute of International Education
Technical Expert to the Monetary and Economic Conference in London (1933)
Chairman of The Economic Club of New York (1918-1920)
Father of Secretary of the Treasury Henry Morgenthau Jr.
Born in Mannheim, Germany on April 26, 1856; died on November 25, 1946; arrived in America in 1865
LL.B. Columbia 1877
Roland S. Morris
U.S. Ambassador to Japan (October 30, 1917-May 15, 1920)
Member of Duane, Morris & Heckscher [law firm in Philadelphia] (1904-1945)
Professor of International Law at University of Pennsylvania (1924-1945)
Chairman of the Democratic State Finance Committee (1908, 1913-1916)
State Chairman of the Democratic Party in Pennsylvania (1913-1916)
Trustee of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Trustee of the Brookings Institution
Trustee of Princeton University
Delegate to the Democratic National Convention (1904, 1908, 1912, 1928)
Participated in a Special Mission to Siberia (September-November 1918, January-March 1919, July-October 1919)
Born in Olympia, Washington on March 11, 1874; died on November 23, 1945
A.B. Princeton 1896; LL.B. University of Pennsylvania 1899
George Murnane – Vice President of New York Trust Co.; American Red Cross Deputy Commissioner for France (1918-1919)
William A. Neilson
President of Smith College (1917-1939)
Professor of English at Harvard University (1906-1917)
A.M. Harvard 1896; Ph.D. Harvard 1898
Charles D. Norton
Assistant Secretary of the Treasury (1909-1910)
Vice President of First National Bank of New York (1911-1918)
President of First Security Co. [New York] (1918-1922)
A.B. Amherst 1893; Died on March 6, 1922
W. W. Norton – founder of W.W. Norton & Company (publishing house)
Henry R. Noyes
Howard T. Oliver
William Church Osborn
Member of Osborn, Fleming & Whittlesey [law firm in New York City]
Chairman of The Economic Club of New York (1922-1924)
A.B. Princeton 1883; LL.B. Harvard 1889
Maurice A. Oudin
Vice President (International) of General Electric Co.
Decorated by the Emperor of Japan with Order of Rising Sun in 1911
A.B. College of the City of New York 1885
William Barclay Parsons – chief engineer of the New York Rapid Transit Commission (1894)
Frederick H. Payne – President and Chairman of Greenfield Tap & Die Corp.; Assistant Secretary of War (1930-1933)
George F. Peabody
Deputy Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1916-1921)
Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1914-1921)
Andrew C. Pearson – Chairman of the board of United Publishers Corp. (1926-1933); a Freemason

James H. Perkins
Chairman of the board of National City Bank of New York (1933-1940)
President of Farmers Trust & Loan Co. (1921-1929)
Vice President of National City Bank of New York (1914-1919)
Vice President (1908-1912) and President (1912-1914) of National Commercial Bank [Albany, New York] (1912-1914)
Director of Globe Indemnity Co., Liverpool & London & Globe Insurance Co. Ltd., Royal Indemnity Co., and New York Edison Co.
Commissioner to France and Europe for the American Red Cross (June 1917-September 1918)
Assistant Chief of Staff, U.S. 3rd Army (Army of Occupation) (November 1918-January 1919)
Born in Milton, Massachusetts on January 11, 1876; died on July 12, 1940
A.B. Harvard 1898
Lewis E. Pierson
President of Hanover National Bank [New York City] (1904-1906)
President and Chairman of the board of Irving National Exchange Bank (1906-1912)
President of Austin, Nichols & Co., Inc. (1913-1916)
Chairman of the board of Irving Trust Co. (1916-1939)
Frank L. Polk
Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell [law firm in New York City] (1914-1943)
Under Secretary of State (1919-1920); Counselor of the U.S. State Department (1915-1919)
Corporation Counsel of New York City (1914-1915); Collector of the Port of New York (1913-1914)
Member of the Municipal Civil Service Commission (1907-1909)
Member of the Board of Education of New York City (1906-1907)
Head of the American delegation to the Paris Peace Conference (July 28, 1919-December 9, 1919)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1943)
Vice President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1940-1943)
Member of the council of Yale-in-China (1927-1931); Member of the Pilgrims Society
President of Kingsley Trust Association [Scroll & Key] (1926-1928)
Member of Scroll & Key at Yale University; B.A. Yale 1894; LL.B. Columbia 1897
Born in New York City on September 13, 1871; Died on February 7, 1943
James H. Post
Former President of National Sugar Refining Company of New Jersey
Former Chairman of the board of Cuban-American Sugar Company
Director of National City Bank of New York (1898-1938)
John T. Pratt – President of Joint Securities Corporation
Roger W. Riis
Wallace B. Rogers
Arthur Rosenthal
Leo S. Rowe
Professor of Political Science at University of Pennsylvania (1904-1917)
Assistant Secretary of the Treasury (1917-1919)
State Department Chief of Division of Latin American Affairs (1919)
Member of the Commission to Revise and Compile the Laws of Puerto Rico (1900-1901)
Ph.B. University of Pennsylvania 1890; LL.B. University of Pennsylvania 1895; Ph.D. University of Halle [Germany] 1892
Lindsay Russell
Member of McLaughlin, Russell & Sprague (1903-?) [law firm in New York City]
Former Chairman of Pilgrims Society of London and New York; former President of Japan Society
LL.B. University of Michigan 1893
Charles H. Sabin
Vice President of National Commercial Bank (1902-1907)
President of National Copper Bank [New York] (1907-1910)
Vice President of Mechanics and Metals National Bank (1910)
Vice President of Guaranty Trust Company of New York (1910-1915)
President of Guaranty Trust Company of New York (1915-1921)
Chairman of the board of Guaranty Trust Company of New York (1921-1933)
Born in Williamstown, Massachusetts on August 24, 1868; died on October 11, 1933
Melvin E. Sawin
Mortimer L. Schiff
Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. [banking firm in New York City] (1900-1931)
Member of New York Stock Exchange
Member of the board of directors of Union Pacific Railroad, Western Union Telegraph Co., and Wells Fargo Co.
Former President of Jewish Board of Guardians
President of Boy Scouts of America (1931); Former Vice President of Boy Scouts of America
Son of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. partner Jacob H. Schiff
Born in New York City on June 5, 1877; died on June 4, 1931
James Brown Scott
Secretary of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1910-1940)
Trustee of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1910-1943)
President of The American Society of International Law (1929-1939)
Secretary of The American Society of International Law (1906-1924)
President of Institute of International Law (1925-1927, 1928-1929)
Solicitor of the U.S. State Department (1906-1910)
Born in Ontario, Canada on June 3, 1866; died on June 25, 1943
B.A. Harvard 1890; A.M. Harvard 1891
Henry R. Seager
Professor of Political Economy at Columbia University (1905-1930)
B.A. University of Michigan 1890; Ph.D. University of Pennsylvania 1894
E. R. A. Seligman
Professor of Political Economy and Finance at Columbia University (1891-1904)
McVickar Professor of Political Economy and Finance at Columbia University (1904-1931)
Author of The Income Tax (2nd edition) (1914)
Born in New York City on April 25, 1861; died on July 18, 1939
A.B. Columbia 1879; LL.B. Columbia 1884; Ph.D. Columbia 1885
Cordenio A. Severance
Member of Davis, Kellogg, Severance & Morgan [and predecessors] [law firm in St. Paul, Minnesota] (1887-1925)
President of American Bar Association (1921)
Trustee of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1918-1925)
Chairman of American Red Cross Commission to Serbia (1917)
Charles Seymour
President of Yale University (1937-1950)
Provost of Yale University (1927-1937)
Professor of History at Yale University (1918-1937)
Chief of Austro-Hungarian Division, American Commission to Negotiate Peace, Paris Peace Conference (1918-1919)
Trustee of the World Peace Foundation (1939-1945)
Born in New Haven, Connecticut on January 1, 1885; died on August 11, 1963
Member of Skull & Bones at Yale University; B.A. Yale 1908; Ph.D. Yale 1911
Albert Shaw
Editor of American Review of Reviews (1891-1937); Editor of Minneapolis Tribune (1883-1890)
Member of the General Education Board (1902-1929)
A.B. Grinnell College 1879; A.M. Grinnell College 1882; Ph.D. Johns Hopkins University 1884
Lawrence H. Shearman
Whitney H. Shepardson
Attorney for U.S. Shipping Board (1917-1918); Member of P.N. Gray & Co. [New York City] (1920-1923)
Employee, International Education Board [New York City] (1923-1927)
President of Bates International Bag Co. (1928-1930)
Member of J. Henry Schroder Banking Corp. (1930-1931)
Vice President of International Railways of Central America (1931-1942)
Director of British Dominions and Colonies Fund at Carnegie Corporation of New York (1946-1953)
President of Free Europe Committee (1953-1956)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1966)
Treasurer of the Council on Foreign Relations (1933-1941)
Born in Worcester, Massachusetts on October 30, 1890; died on May 29, 1966
A.B. Colgate University 1910; B.A. Oxford 1913 (Rhodes Scholar); LL.B. Harvard 1917
William R. Shepherd
Seth Low Professor of History at Columbia University (1926-1934)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1927)
Born in Charleston, South Carolina on June 12, 1871; died on June 7, 1934
A.B. Columbia 1893; A.M. Columbia 1894; Ph.D. Columbia 1896
Albert Shiels – Superintendent of Schools of Los Angeles, California (1916-1919); A.B. College of the City of New York 1886
Wallace D. Simmons
President of Simmons Hardware Co. (1898-1923); Director of Philadelphia National Bank
Member of Skull & Bones at Yale University; B.A. Yale 1890
Francis H. Sisson – Vice President of Guaranty Trust Co.
Clarence C. Stetson – Executive Secretary of the Colorado River Commission (1922)
Oscar S. Straus
U.S. Secretary of Commerce and Labor (December 17, 1906-March 5, 1909)
U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (October 4, 1909-September 3, 1910)
U.S. Minister to the Ottoman Empire (July 1, 1887-June 16, 1889, October 15, 1898-December 20, 1899)
Member of L. Straus & Sons, importers of pottery and glassware in New York City (1881-1906)
Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague (1902-?)
Chairman of New York Public Service Commission, First District (1915-1918)
Trustee of Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (1910-1926)
Brother of former U.S. Congressman Isidor Straus and R.H. Macy & Co. co-founder and philanthropist Nathan Straus
Born in Otterberg [near Kaiserslautern], Germany on December 23, 1850; died in New York City on May 3, 1926
A.B. Columbia 1871; LL.B. Columbia 1873; A.M. Columbia 1874
Albert Strauss
Vice Chairman of the Federal Reserve (October 26, 1918-March 15, 1920)
Member of J. & W. Seligman & Co. (1901-1918, 1921-1929)
Director of Cuba Cane Sugar Corp.; Director of Cuban Tobacco Company
Member of the Republican Party
Born in New York City on August 26, 1864; died on March 28, 1929
Simeon Strunsky – Editor of the New York Evening Post
Arthur Sweetser – Associated Press correspondent; Assistant Director of Information Section of League of Nations (1918-?)

Henry W. Taft
Member of Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft [law firm in New York City] (1899-1945)
President of The Association of the Bar of the City of New York (1923-1925)
President of the Japan Society of New York (1922-1928, 1934-1941)
Brother of former U.S. President William Howard Taft; son of former U.S. Secretary of War Alphonso Taft
Born in Cincinnati, Ohio on May 27, 1859; Died in New York City on August 11, 1945
Member of Skull & Bones at Yale University; B.A. Yale 1880
Archibald W. Taylor
Dean of Graduate School of Business Administration at New York University (1919-1944)
Professor of Economics at New York University (1919-1944); A.M. University of Wisconsin 1908
Carl Taylor
Erastus T. Tefft
Archibald G. Thacher – Partner of Barry, Wainwright, Thacher & Symmers [law firm in New York City] (now called Thacher, Profitt & Wood)
William B. Thompson
Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1914-1919)
Head of the American Red Cross Mission to Russia in 1917
Member of the board of directors of Metropolitan Life Insurance Company
Republican Party Presidential Elector in 1912; Delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1916 and 1920
Born in Virginia City, Montana on May 13, 1869; died on June 27, 1930
Roy Tomlinson
President of National Biscuit Company [Nabisco] (1917-1929); Chairman of the board of Nabisco (1929-?)
LL.B. University of Wisconsin 1901
Guy E. Tripp
Chairman of the board of Westinghouse Electric Corp. (1912-1927)
Member of the board of directors of Chase National Bank and Radio Corporation of America
Member of the board of directors of American Sugar Refining Co. and Brazilian Securities Corp.
Born in Wells, Maine on April 22, 1865; died on June 14, 1927
Felix Warburg
Partner of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. [banking firm in New York City] (1896-1937)
Former Chairman of the Federation for Support of Jewish Philanthropic Society of New York City
Born in Hamburg, Germany on January 14, 1871; Died on October 20, 1937
Arrived in America in 1894; naturalized in 1900; brother of Paul M. Warburg and I.G. Farben director Max M. Warburg
Paul M. Warburg
Vice Chairman of the Federal Reserve (August 10, 1916-August 9, 1918)
Member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve (August 10, 1914- August 9, 1918)
Partner of Kuhn, Loeb, & Co. (1902-1914)
Former Chairman of the board of International Acceptance Bank [New York City]
Member of the board of directors of Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Western Union Telegraph Co., and Union Pacific Railroad Co.
Member of the board of directors of American I.G. Chemical Corp. [subsidiary of I.G. Farben] and Agfa Ansco Corp.
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1932)
Born in Hamburg, Germany on August 10, 1868; Died in New York City on January 24, 1932
Harry E. Ward
President of Irving Trust Co. (1919-1942); Chairman of Irving Trust Co. (1942-1949)
Member of the board of directors of F.W. Woolworth Co.; Trustee of Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
Member of the Pilgrims Society; B.A. Yale 1901
Allen Wardwell
Member of Davis, Polk, Wardwell [law firm in New York City] (1909-1953)
Commissioner of the Red Cross Mission to Russia (1917-1918)
Born in New York City on October 4, 1873; died on December 5, 1953
Member of Scroll & Key at Yale University; B.A. Yale 1895; LL.B. Harvard 1898
John I. Waterbury
Vice President of Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York (1912-1916)
Member of the board of directors of American Telephone & Telegraph Co., Chase National Bank, and Western Union Telegraph Co.
U.S. delegate to the International Preliminary Conference on Wireless Telegraphy at Berlin, Germany in 1903
B.S. College of the City of New York 1870
Vanderbilt Webb
Member of Webb, Patterson & Hadley [law firm in New York City] (1922-1929)
Member of Murray, Aldrich & Webb [law firm in New York City] (1929-1931)
Member of Milbank, Tweed, Hope & Webb [law firm in New York City] (1931-1938)
Member of Scroll & Key at Yale University; B.A. Yale 1913; LL.B. Harvard 1916
James G. White
Chairman of The J.G. White Engineering Corporation; President of J.G. White, Inc. [Connecticut] (1903-?)
Member of the Pilgrims Society
A.B. Pennsylvania State College 1882; Ph.D. Cornell 1885
Russell R. Whitman – Owner and Publisher of New York Commercial

George W. Wickersham
Member of Strong & Cadwalader [law firm in New York City] (1887-1909)
Member of Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft (1914-1936)
U.S. Attorney General (March 4, 1909-March 4, 1913)
Chairman of The Economic Club of New York (1920-1922)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1921-1936); President of the Council on Foreign Relations (1933-1936)
Trustee of the University of Pennsylvania (1920-1926)
President of International Arbitral Tribunal under the Young Plan treaties (1932-?)
Member of the Committee on Progressive Codification of International Law appointed by Council of League of Nations (1924-1929)
Born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on September 19, 1858; Died on January 25, 1936
LL.B. University of Pennsylvania 1880
Albert H. Wiggin
Chairman of the board of Chase National Bank [banking firm in New York City] (1918-1930)
President of Chase National Bank (1911-1917, 1921-1926); Vice President of Chase National Bank (1904-1911)
Class A Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1932-1933)
U.S. Fuel Administrator for the State of New York (1917-1918)
Member of the board of directors of American Express Company
Member of the Republican Party; Member of the Pilgrims Society
Born in Medfield, Massachusetts on February 21, 1868; died on May 21, 1951
William H. Williams – railroad baron; Chairman of the board of D. & H. Co.
William H. Woodin
U.S. Secretary of the Treasury (March 5, 1933-December 31, 1933)
President of American Car & Foundry Co. (1916-1922)
Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (April 1, 1927-March 3, 1933)
Member of the board of directors of Remington Arms Co.; Member of the board of directors of Cuba Railroad Co.
Member of the Republican Party
Born in Pennsylvania on May 27, 1868; died on May 3, 1934
Allyn A. Young
Professor of Economics at Harvard University (1920-1927)
Professor of Economics and Finance at Cornell University (1913-1920); Ph.D. University of Wisconsin 1902
C. G. Young
President of C.G. Young Co., Inc.
General Superintendent of Mt. Morris Electric Lighting Co. in New York (1887-1892); an engineer
Owen D. Young
General Counsel of General Electric Co. (1913-1922)
Chairman of the board of General Electric Co. (1922-1939, 1942-1944)
Chairman of the board of Radio Corporation of America [RCA] (1919-1929)
Chairman of the executive committee of Radio Corporation of America (1929-1933)
Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1938-1940)
Deputy Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1927-1937)
Class B Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1923-1925)
Class C Director of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (1926-1940)
Member of the Allied Reparations Commission and author of the “Young Plan” (German reparations plan) in 1929
Chairman of the International Chamber of Commerce (1925-1928)
Director of the Council on Foreign Relations (1927-1940)
Trustee of the Rockefeller Foundation (1928-1939)
Member of the General Education Board and the International Education Board (1925-1940)
Member of the Pilgrims Society [Pilgrims of the United States]
Born in New York on October 27, 1874; Died on July 11, 1962
A.B. St. Lawrence University 1894; LL.B. Boston University Law School 1896

Note: Four names on the original Council on Foreign Relations membership roster (November 1922) were misspelled. “Joseph T. Chamberlain” is actually Joseph P. Chamberlain. “Henry L. Ickelheimer” is actually Henry R. Ickelheimer. “Robert G. Montgomery” is actually Robert H. Montgomery. “John G. Berquist” is actually John G. Bergquist.

Sources:
Council on Foreign Relations Annual Reports (1922-2010)
Marquis Edition of Who’s Who in America and Marquis Edition of Who Was Who in America
Yale Obituary Record (1859-1952) (http://mssa.library.yale.edu/obituary_record/)
Congressional Biographical Directory (http://bioguide.congress.gov/)
U.S. Department of State (http://www.state.gov)
List of U.S. Federal Judges (http://www.fjc.gov/history/home.nsf/judges_frm)
Other Internet websites via http://www.google.com and http://www.yahoo.com

Council on Foreign Relations’ International Advisory Board

The International Advisory Board (IAB), established by the Board of Directors in 1995 under the chairmanship of David Rockefeller, Honorary Chairman of the Council, meets annually in conjunction with the fall Board meeting to offer perspectives on a broad range of matters of concern to the Council. IAB members are invited to comment on institutional programs and strategic directions, and on practical opportunities for collaboration between the Council and institutions abroad. They also provide invaluable international insights into U.S. foreign policy in discussions on a variety of issues—from the need for new strategies and institutions for the twenty-first century, to the value of multilateral approaches toward world problems, to ways to foster democratization.

The IAB includes the following distinguished individuals:

Peter G. Peterson,
Chairman, International Advisory Board
Chairman Emeritus, Council on Foreign Relations;
Senior Chairman and Co-Founder, The Blackstone Group

Syed Babar Ali
(Pakistan) Chairman, Interbank; Advisor, Packages Limited;
Former Minister of Finance, Economic Affairs and Planning, Pakistan

Khalid A. Alturki
(Saudi Arabia), Chairman, Trading and Development Company (TRADCO)

Mukesh D. Ambani
(India), Chairman and Managing Director, Reliance Industries Ltd.

Ahmad E. Bishara
(Kuwait), Secretary-General, National Democratic Movement

Mark C. Chona
(Zambia), Chairman and CEO, Sumika Consultancy and Management Services Ltd.;
former Political Adviser to the President of Zambia

Gustavo A. Cisneros
(Venezuela), Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Cisneros Group of Companies

Gerhard Cromme
(Germany) Chairman, Supervisory Board, ThyssenKrupp AG

Abdel Raouf El Reedy
(Egypt) Chairman, Egyptian Council on Foreign Affairs

Jacob A. Frenkel
(Israel), Vice Chairman, American International Group; former Governor, Bank of Israel

Mikhail Fridman
(Russia), Chairman, Alfa Bank

Toyoo Gyohten
(Japan), President, Institute for International Monetary Affairs; former Vice Minister of Finance, Japan

Baba Gana Kingibe
(Nigeria), AU Special Representative in the Sudan; former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Nigeria

Yotaro Kobayashi
(Japan), Chief Corporate Adviser, Fuji Xerox Company, Ltd.

Rahmi M. Koç
(Turkey), Honorary Chairman, Koç Holdings A.S.

Luiz Felipe Lampreia

(Brazil), Vice Chairman of the Board of Trustees, Centro Brasileiro de Relações Internacionais;
former Foreign Minister of Brazil
Maurice Lévy
(France), Chairman of the Management Board and CEO, Publicis Groupe

Brian Mulroney
(Canada), former Prime Minister of Canada; Senior Partner, Ogilvy Renault

Sari Nusseibeh
(Palestinian Authority), President, Al Quds University

Sadako Ogata
(Japan), President, Japan International Cooperation Agency; former U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees
Lubna S. Olayan
(Saudi Arabia), Chief Executive Officer, Olayan Financing Company

Ana Palacio
(Spain), Senior Vice President, International Affairs and Marketing, AREVA

Surin Pitsuwan
(Thailand), Secretary-General, Association of Southeast Asian Nations; former Foreign Minister of Thailand

Prannoy Roy
(India), President, New Delhi Television Ltd.

Zalman Shoval
(Israel), Head, Foreign Policy Bureau, Likud Party; former Israeli Ambassador to the United States

Khehla Shubane
(South Africa), Director, RMB Holdings

Washington SyCip
(Philippines), Chairman and Founder, SGV Group; Chairman, Asian Institute of Management

Horst M. Teltschik
(Germany), Chairman, Teltschik Associates GmbH

Jacob Wallenberg
(Sweden), Chairman of the Board, Investor AB

Jusuf Wanandi
(Indonesia) Senior Fellow, Centre for Strategic and International Studies (Jakarta)

Shirley V. T. Brittain Williams
(United Kingdom), Member, House of Lords

Yuan Ming
(China), Director, Institute for International Relations, Beijing University

Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León
(Mexico), former President of Mexico; Director, Center for the Study of Globalization, Yale University

Source: http://www.cfr.org/about/people/international_advisory_board.html

EXTRA: NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL (1947-present)

Notes: CFR = Council on Foreign Relations, TC = Trilateral Commission, BM = Bilderberg Meetings
Notes: RS = Rhodes Scholars, S&B = Skull & Bones, S&K = Scroll & Key, BG = Bohemian Grove

President of the United States
Theodore Roosevelt (R-New York, 1901-1909) BG
William Howard Taft (R-Ohio, 1909-1913) S&B, BG
Woodrow Wilson (D-New Jersey, 1913-1921)
Warren G. Harding (R-Ohio, 1921-1923)
Calvin Coolidge (R-Vermont, 1923-1929)
Herbert Hoover (R-California, 1929-1933) CFR, BG
Franklin D. Roosevelt (D-New York, 1933-1945)
Harry S. Truman (D-Missouri, 1945-1953)
Dwight D. Eisenhower (R-Kansas, 1953-1961) CFR, BG
John F. Kennedy (D-Massachusetts, 1961-1963)
Lyndon B. Johnson (D-Texas, 1963-1969)
Richard M. Nixon (R-California, 1969-1974) CFR, BG
Gerald R. Ford (R-Michigan, 1974-1977) CFR, BM, BG
Jimmy Carter (D-Georgia, 1977-1981) CFR, TC, BG
Ronald Reagan (R-California, 1981-1989) BG
George H.W. Bush (R-Texas, 1989-1993) CFR, TC, S&B, BG
Bill Clinton (D-Arkansas) 1993-2001) CFR, TC, BM, RS
George W. Bush (R-Texas, 2001-2009) S&B, BG
Barack H. Obama Jr. (D-Illinois, 2009-present)
Vice President of the United States
Charles G. Dawes (1925-1929)
Charles Curtis (1929-1933)
John N. Garner (1933-1941)
Henry A. Wallace (1941-1945)
Harry S. Truman (1945)
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The Thomas Jefferson – Sally Hemings Myth and the Politicization of American History by David N. Mayer

 

ThomasJeffersonAdvantagesJesus

Jefferson’s original draft of the Declaration of Independence states : “he has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life & liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating & carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither. this piratical warfare, the opprobrium of infidel powers, is the warfare of the CHRISTIAN king of Great Britain. determined to keep open a market where MEN should be bought & sold, he has prostituted his negative for suppressing every legislative attempt to prohibit or to restrain this execrable commerce and that this assemblage of horrors might want no fact of distinguished die, he is now exciting those very people to rise in arms among us, and to purchase that liberty of which he has deprived them, by murdering the people upon whom he also obtruded them; thus paying off former crimes committed against the liberties of one people, with crimes which he urges them to commit against the lives of another.http://www.princeton.edu/~tjpapers/declaration/declaration.html

If the original draft of the Declaration of Independence had been approved there would have been no slavery after the revolution of 1776. The original draft was not approved, slavery was not abolished, and a civil war was fought leaving a legacy of bitterness in America still felt today.

The Thomas Jefferson – Sally Hemings Myth and the Politicization of American History 

Individual Views of David N. Mayer,
Concurring with the Majority Report of the
Scholars Commission on the Jefferson-Hemings Matter

by: David N. Mayer
Professor of Law and History
Capital University
Columbus, Ohio

April 9, 2001

Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Evolution of the Myth
  3. Myth vs. History: Oral Tradition as Unreliable Evidence
  4. Broader Context of the Myth Today: The Assault on Standards
  5. The Flawed Case for the Jefferson-Hemings Story
    1. Annette Gordon-Reed’s Book
    2. The TJMF (Monticello) Committee Report
  6. The Implausibility of the Story
    1. Denials by Jefferson Himself and Virtually All His Contemporaries
    2. Jefferson’s Character
  7. Conclusion
  1. Introduction

I concur in the Scholars Commission’s conclusion that the allegation that Thomas Jefferson fathered one or more children by his slave Sally Hemings is “by no means proven.” My own view is that the allegation is not at all plausible. Moreover, I unreservedly join Robert F. Turner in his individual views, which I regard as the most complete and objective analysis yet written of all the evidence relevant to the Jefferson-Hemings allegation. I write my own separate report to state my views on the matter and to discuss the Jefferson-Hemings controversy in a broader context. As I see it, belief in the paternity allegation—which, to me, is quite literally a myth—is a symptom of a disturbing trend in the history profession in recent years, discussed below.

It is primarily out of my concern for the history profession, and far less so out of my concern for Jefferson’s legacy, that I agreed to serve on the Commission and that I am writing this essay. Let me make clear from the outset what has motivated me, and what has not motivated me, in this endeavor.

I freely admit that I am an admirer of Thomas Jefferson; but my admiration for Jefferson always has focused on his ideas, principally his ideas about government, and not on Jefferson as a man. For over 25 years—since I first began my formal studies of Jefferson’s political and constitutional thought as an undergraduate student at the University of Michigan—I have been fascinated with Jefferson’s philosophy. My own studies have focused particularly on Jefferson’s ideas about limits on governmental power, the subject of my book The Constitutional Thought of Thomas Jefferson (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1994). While I necessarily learned a great deal about Jefferson’s life and times while doing the research for this book and my other writings on Jefferson’s thought, I always have found the substance of his ideas far more interesting than the circumstances of his life. Moreover, I believe that Jefferson’s place in American history—his central role in our nation’s founding and the evolution of its system of government—justly derives from his ideas. As I see it, genealogy is irrelevant: the true “children” of Jefferson today are those who understand his ideas and work to keep them alive. His true legacy is the body of ideas he has given us, ideas still quite relevant today, to the perennial problems of protecting individual rights and limiting the powers of government. The attributes of Jefferson the man—his character and the circumstances of his life—are essentially irrelevant to that legacy. Indeed, as I noted in my comments at the University of Virginia on the 250th anniversary of his birth (April 13, 1993), it saddens me that Americans today seem to have done a better job preserving Jefferson’s legacy in bricks and mortar (having in mind the splendid restorations of Jefferson’s “academical village” in the University as well as his two homes, Monticello and Poplar Forest) than we have in preserving his legacy of ideas.

Frankly, I regard Jefferson’s personal life as neither interesting nor important. What troubles me most about the controversy over Jefferson’s alleged relationship with Sally Hemings is that this matter unjustifiably has overshadowed Jefferson’s true significance. I do not join with those who regard the Hemings paternity allegation as a per se libel of Jefferson’s character; as discussed below, belief in that allegation has served to advance the interests of a number of partisans, some of them detractors of Jefferson but others genuine admirers of Jefferson, who use the story of a relationship with Sally Hemings to transform Jefferson into either a villain or a hero to advance their own agendas.

I agreed to serve on the Scholars Commission because I became increasingly concerned about the way both the admirers and the detractors of Jefferson were willing to use the Hemings story for their own purposes without regard to historical truth or to objective, well-recognized standards of good historical scholarship. I was particularly troubled by the fact that many eminent scholars have so readily abandoned professional standards in seizing upon the 1998 DNA study—and, in the process, either blithely ignoring or deliberately misrepresenting the findings of that study—as so-called “proof” of the paternity allegation, again to advance their own partisan agendas.

  1. Evolution of the Myth

Throughout American history, the Jefferson-Hemings paternity allegation has been used for partisan purposes. That certainly was the case of the allegation’s early history, during Jefferson’s own lifetime. It originated in an 1802 Richmond, Virginia newspaper story by the hatchet journalist James Thomson Callender, a disappointed job-seeker who felt he had been betrayed by the new President and whose bitterness toward Jefferson was quite evident throughout the piece. The allegation was nothing more than unsubstantiated rumor, for there is no evidence that Callender had any first-hand knowledge of Monticello. The allegation then was spread by Jefferson’s political enemies in the bitterly partisan Federalist press, particularly in the fall of 1802. Significantly, however, after Americans gave President Jefferson and his party an overwhelming vote of confidence by bolstering Republican majorities in both the House and Senate in the mid-term Congressional elections, the Hemings allegation seemed to die. “Little was said about Hemings, for example, in the months before [Jefferson’s] 1804 landslide re-election, and only infrequently during the remainder of Jefferson’s lifetime did references to the alleged affair appear in print,” concluded the scholar who has most thoroughly studied the Hemings story in the context of Jefferson’s reputation during his lifetime. (Robert M.S. McDonald, “Race, Sex, and Reputation: Thomas Jefferson and the Sally Hemings Story,” Southern Cultures 4: 46-63 (Summer 1998), p. 47.) The Hemings paternity allegation resurfaced again in New England—the last bastion of the Federalist party—in 1805, occasioning Jefferson’s letter to friends denying the “charges” made against him, except for the truthful allegation of his youthful affair with the wife of his neighbor John Walker, an allegation which at the time probably was taken far more seriously than the Hemings story. (Ibid., pp. 55-59.)

In the decades following Jefferson’s death, both before and after the Civil War, the Hemings paternity allegation—together with other miscegenation stories linked to Jefferson—surfaced from time to time as partisans of North and South, Whigs (or Republicans) and Democrats, and anti-slavery political activists and pro-slavery Southern apologists, all used the “Jefferson image” to help further their own cause. As Merrill D. Peterson has noted, the story was revived and retold especially by abolitionists in the antebellum period. “The most common version of the story in anti-slavery circles was the one related in 1838 by Dr. Levi Gaylord, of New York. He had heard, he said, from the lips of a Southern gentleman: `I saw for myself, the DAUGHTER OF THOMAS JEFFERSON sold in New Orleans, for one thousand dollars.’ Gaylord wanted this `sounded longer and louder through the length and breadth of the land’ until a virtuous indignation should wipe out slavery. Goodell’s Friend of Man printed Gaylord’s story, whence it spread to other newspapers.” (Peterson, The Jefferson Image in the American Mind (New York: Oxford University Press, 1960, 1962, p. 182.) After the anonymous poem “Jefferson’s Daughter” appeared in the abolitionist newspaper Liberator, other anti-slavery activists—principally the black writer and abolitionist William Wells Brown—popularized the story. “Upon the flimsy basis of oral tradition, anecdote, and satire, the most intelligent and upright abolitionists avowed their belief in Jefferson’s miscegenation,” Peterson reports. (Ibid., p. 183.)

Although the underlying motives changed, 19th-century exponents of the Hemings story and other Jefferson miscegenation legends continued to use the allegations for partisan purposes. “Unlike the Federalists, the abolitionists were smearing the South’s peculiar institution, not Jefferson or democracy. They dwelled less on Jefferson’s `African brothel’ than on his alleged mulatto offspring.” (Ibid., p. 182.) Peterson also notes that one other group contributed to the revival of the legend in the second quarter of the 19th century: British aristocrats who, in their commentary on America found Jefferson—the symbol of American democracy—”a convenient target for their criticism.” (Ibid., pp. 183-84.) After the Civil War, the legend continued to be used for partisan purposes, by Republican Party activists (many of them former abolitionists) who took Jefferson as a symbol for both the defeated Confederate cause and for the Democratic Party.

It is in the context of this 19th-century manipulation of the “Jefferson image” that we must place the so-called “memoirs” of Madison Hemings, published on March 13, 1873 as the first of a series of interviews with former slaves entitled “Life Among the Lowly,” in the Pike County (Ohio) Republican, a partisan newspaper edited by Samuel F. Wetmore, a Republican Party activist. As Professor Turner notes in his individual views, there are many good reasons to be highly skeptical of this 1873 newspaper article. One reason is that we are not sure the statements attributed to Madison Hemings really were his and not the words of the editor, Wetmore. Even if the statements were indeed Hemings’, they are clearly hearsay, for Madison Hemings had no first-hand knowledge of a relationship between Jefferson and his mother. Indeed, given that there is no evidence that Sally Hemings herself claimed Jefferson as the father of any of her children as well as the fact that Madison Hemings’ statements so closely resemble the original Callender allegations from 1802 (for example, in their identical misspellings of John Wayles’ name), it is possible that Hemings based his story on Callender’s. Whatever the source of the words attributed to Madison Hemings, they clearly reflect a deep bitterness toward Jefferson—a bitterness that is fully understandable if Madison Hemings genuinely believed he was Thomas Jefferson’s son, for all the available evidence indicates Jefferson essentially ignored him. (The significance of the lack of any evidence showing Jefferson’s affection toward Madison Hemings, or any of Sally Hemings’ other children, in refuting the paternity allegation is discussed more fully in Part VI.B., below.)

The unreliability of Madison Hemings’ story as reported in the 1873 Pike County Republican is further highlighted by Wetmore’s follow-up interview in his “Life Among the Lowly” series with another former Monticello slave, Israel Jefferson, which Samuel Wetmore published in his newspaper several months later (on December 25, 1873) in an effort to corroborate Hemings’ story. As Professor Turner notes in his individual views, Israel Jefferson’s statements are even less credible than Madison Hemings’. Shortly after Israel’s story was published, Jefferson’s grandson, Thomas Jefferson Randolph, wrote a scathing six-page letter to the editor in response, pointing out many factual errors in Israel’s account and, of course, denying the “calumny” of the Hemings paternity allegation. Randolph added, “To my knowledge and that of others 60 years ago the paternity of these parties were admitted by others.” (Thomas Jefferson Randolph letter, c. 1874, University of Virginia Library.)

The “others” to whom Randolph referred were Peter and Samuel Carr, nephews of Thomas Jefferson (the sons of his sister Martha and his childhood friend Dabney Carr, whom he raised as if they were his own sons). James Parton, in his 1874 biography of Jefferson, quoted Jefferson’s grandson Thomas Jefferson Randolph as telling fellow Jefferson biographer Henry S. Randall that “there was not the shadow of suspicion that Mr. Jefferson in this or any other instance had commerce with female slaves.” T. J. (Jeff) Randolph alleged that Sally Hemings was the mistress of Peter Carr, while Sally’s sister Betsey Hemings was the mistress of Peter’s brother, Samuel. (Letter from Henry S. Randall to James Parton, June 1, 1868, printed in Milton E. Flower, James Parton: The Father of Modern Biography, Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1951, pp. 236-37.) Jeff Randolph also told Randall that he once confronted Peter and Samuel Carr over the matter (after a visitor at Monticello had left a newspaper with “insulting remarks about Mr. Jefferson’s mulatto children”), and that the Carr brothers tearfully confessed their guilt, with Peter saying, “Ar’nt you and I a couple of _____ pretty fellows to bring this disgrace on poor old uncle who has always fed us! We ought to be _____, by _____.” (Ibid., p. 238.)

Randall explained that he did not include the allegation against the Carr brothers in his Life of Jefferson because Jeff Randolph prohibited him from doing so, saying “You are not bound to prove a negative. If I should allow you to take Peter Carr’s corpse into Court and plead guilty over it to shelter Mr. Jefferson, I should not dare again to walk by his grave: he would rise and spurn me.” Randall added, again citing Jeff Randolph, that Jefferson was “deeply attached to the Carrs—especially to Peter. He was extremely indulgent to them and the idea of watching them for faults or vices probably never occurred to him.” (Ibid.)

Randolph’s sister, Ellen Randolph Coolidge, claimed that the father of Sally Hemings’ children rather was Samuel Carr, “the most good-natured Turk that ever was master of a black seraglio kept at other men’s expense.” (Ellen Randolph Coolidge to Joseph Coolidge, October 24, 1858, Coolidge Family Papers, University of Virginia Library.) Ellen Coolidge further claimed that her brother had overheard Peter Carr “say with a laugh, that `the old gentleman had to bear the blame of his and Sam’s (Col. Carr) misdeeds.” (Ibid.)

One other direct observer of happenings at Monticello offered his testimony denying the Hemings paternity allegation against Jefferson. Edmund Bacon, who was Jefferson’s slave overseer for many years, in a reminiscence first recorded in 1862, denied that Sally Hemings’ daughter (presumably Harriett) was Jefferson’s daughter. “She was not his daughter, she was—–‘s daughter. I know that. I have seen him come out of her mother’s room many a morning when I went up to Monticello very early.” (Rev. Hamilton Wilcox Pierson, “Jefferson at Monticello: The Private Life of Thomas Jefferson,” manuscript of the recollections of Edmund Bacon, printed in James A. Bear, ed.,Jefferson at Monticello, Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1967, p. 102.)

Notwithstanding the denial of the Hemings paternity allegation by members of Jefferson’s family and eyewitnesses to life at Monticello, the allegation survived in the oral traditions of several American families who claimed descent from Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings, including the descendants of Madison Hemings as well as the descendants of Thomas Woodson, who claimed to be the child Callender had identified as “Tom.” (These oral traditions are discussed more fully in Part III, below.) The Hemings allegation also remained alive in the writings of many black American political activists and scholars, including W.E.B. DuBois. (See Peterson, Jefferson Image in the American Mind, p. 184.) But the allegation was given new life when the claims made in Madison Hemings’ “memoir” were resurrected in a bestselling biography of Jefferson published in the 1970s.

In her book Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History(1974), the late Fawn M. Brodie resurrected the story attributed to Madison Hemings, as well as the original 1802 Callender allegation, that while in France, Jefferson took as his “concubine” the teenaged Sally Hemings. Jefferson scholars have long rejected Ms. Brodie’s flimsy “psychological evidence” of a Jefferson-Hemings affair in France (see Brodie,Intimate History, pp. 294-300)—and with good reason, for Brodie’s “psycho-history” was not only implausible but also failed to fit the facts. As Jefferson biographer Willard Sterne Randall writes: “[Brodie] suggested that, when Jefferson traveled through France and Germany and eight times described soil as mulatto in his twenty-five sheets of notes, he was not referring, as he labeled the appropriate column of his charts, to yellowish soil in the hills and valleys he traveled through but was really thinking of the contours of Sally’s body. And when he was taking notes on a new kind of mold-board plow that he invented shortly after the journey, he was really thinking of plowing the fertile Sally as soon as he returned to Paris. But mulatto is a precise term describing yellowish-brown soil. And when Jefferson used the term mulatto to describe soil during his French travels, Sally was still on a ship with Polly, accompanying her to France. If he had ever noticed her or remembered her at all, Sally had been only ten years old when Jefferson last visited Monticello hurriedly in 1784 to pack [Sally’s brother] James Hemings off to France with him. She was only eight when Jefferson last resided at Monticello and was mourning his wife’s death. Unless Brodie was suggesting that Jefferson consoled himself by having an affair with an eight-year-old child, the whole chain of suppositions is preposterous.” (Randall, Thomas Jefferson: A Life, New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1993, p. 476.)

Despite its obvious shortcomings, Fawn Brodie’s account of a sexual liaison between Jefferson and Sally Hemings, beginning in France and continuing at Monticello following their return to the United States, captured the imagination of many people and became a part of American popular culture in the last quarter of the 20th century. From scholarly treatments such as Winthrop Jordan’s book Black over White (1968) to imaginative recreations such as Barbara Chase-Riboud’s novel Sally Hemings (1979) or the Merchant-Ivory film Jefferson in Paris (1995), the story of a Jefferson-Hemings relationship became widely accepted by many Americans. Thus, when Annette Gordon-Reed, an African-American associate professor of law at New York Law School, sought to vindicate Madison Hemings’ claims in her bookThomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy (1997), she found a ready audience. (The flawed case for Jefferson’s paternity of Hemings’ children presented in Professor Gordon-Reed’s book is further discussed in Part V.A., below.) Although historian Joseph J. Ellis, in his book American Sphinx: The Character of Thomas Jefferson (1997), had joined other Jefferson biographers in doubting the story of a sexual liaison with Sally Hemings, he had read the manuscript of Gordon-Reed’s book—which was going to print just as his own book was published—and declared in a blurb for its inside cover, “Short of digging up Jefferson and doing DNA testing on him and Hemings’ descendants, Gordon-Reed’s account gets us as close to the truth as the available evidence allows.”

Without having to disturb Jefferson’s corpse, Dr. Eugene A. Foster was able to conduct DNA tests, which compared the Y chromosome haplotypes of 14 individuals: five living male-line descendants of two sons of Field Jefferson (Thomas Jefferson’s paternal uncle), five living male-line descendants of two sons of Thomas Woodson, three living male-line descendants of three sons of John Carr (paternal grandfather of Samuel and Peter Carr), and one living male-line descendant of Eston Hemings. The results showed a match between Eston Hemings’ descendant and the descendants of Field Jefferson. The tests found no match, however, between the Jefferson male DNA and that of Thomas Woodson’s descendants. Nor did the tests find a match between the Eston Hemings descendant and the Carr descendants. As historian (and fellow Scholars Commission member) Lance Banning succinctly puts it in his paper “Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: Case Closed?”: “Although they implicate a Jefferson, not a Carr, as Eston Hemings’ father, the DNA results cannot exclude the Carrs as possible fathers of Sally Hemings’ earlier children. Neither can they show, in and of themselves, that Thomas Jefferson was any more likely to have been Eston’s father than any of Thomas’s male-line relatives who might have had relations with Sally Hemings at the relevant times.” (Professor Banning’s paper, pp. 9-10.) In fact, Jefferson was one of at least 25 adult male Jeffersons (male-line descendants of his paternal grandfather, Field Jefferson) who might have fathered Eston Hemings, passing on to him the Y chromosome with the distinctive Jeffersonian characteristics. Indeed, eight of these 25 Jefferson males lived within 20 miles (a half-day’s ride) of Monticello—including Thomas Jefferson’s younger brother, Randolph Jefferson, and Randolph’s five sons, who ranged in age from about 17 to 26 at the time of Eston’s birth.

The results of Dr. Foster’s DNA tests were reported in the November 5, 1998 issue of the British journalNature, in an article bearing the misleading headline, “Jefferson fathered slave’s last child.” (A more accurate headline, of course, would have been “AJefferson—not necessarily Thomas Jefferson—fathered” Sally Hemings’ youngest child.) The article on the DNA test results was accompanied by an article “Founding father,” co-authored by Professor Ellis, which proclaimed that the DNA analysis “confirms that Jefferson was indeed the father of at least one of Hemings’ children.”

Thus began the “spin” on the DNA test results—and the most recent telling of the Jefferson-Hemings story. No doubt referring to his own book which portrayed Jefferson as an enigmatic “sphinx,” Professor Ellis wrote, “Recent work has also emphasized his massive personal contradictions and his dexterity at playing hide-and-seek within himself. The new evidence only deepens the paradoxes.” And, further evidencing new uses for the Jefferson image in modern American politics, Professor Ellis concluded, “Our heroes—and especially presidents—are not gods or saints, but flesh-and-blood humans, with all the frailties and imperfections that this entails.”

The timing of the Nature article’s publication—on the eve of the November 1998 Congressional elections and just weeks before the U.S. House of Representatives’ vote to impeach President Bill Clinton—was not purely coincidental. Professor Ellis’ accompanying article also noted, quite frankly, “Politically, the Thomas Jefferson verdict is likely to figure in upcoming impeachment hearings on William Jefferson Clinton’s sexual indiscretions, in which DNA testing has also played a role.” In television interviews following release of the article, Professor Ellis elaborated on this theme; and Clinton’s apologists made part of their defense the notion that every President—even Jefferson—had his “sexual indiscretions.” (It should be added that Ellis was among the so-called “Historians in Defense of the Constitution” who signed an October 1998 ad in theNew York Times opposing Clinton’s impeachment.)

Others besides Clinton apologists seized upon the alleged DNA “proof” of Jefferson paternity to advance their own ideological agendas. British journalists and commentators used the story much as they had in the 19th century, to denigrate American Revolutionaries by associating them with slaveholding. Thus, for example, Christopher Hitchens suggested in The Nation that Jefferson henceforth be described as “the slave-owning serial flogger, sex addict, and kinsman to ax murderers.” (One is reminded of reviews in the British press of the Mel Gibson movie, “The Patriot,” last summer. The Express noted that the real Francis Marion, the “Swamp Fox” on whom Gibson’s Benjamin Martin character was based, “raped his slaves and hunted Red Indians for sport.”) And for many scholars of race and race relations in America, the Jefferson-Hemings story and reactions to it (particularly by those who continued to be skeptics) provided further evidence of the racism they say permeates American society. Indeed, for many, acceptance of the paternity thesis has become a kind of litmus test for “politically correct” views: those of us who continue to question it have been denounced as racially insensitive, if not racist. (For more on this, see the discussion of Annette Gordon-Reed’s views, in Part V.A. below.)

The Jefferson-Hemings story is useful symbolism for people of various political persuasions today: to those on the left, for example, it can serve as a metaphor for racism in America; to those on the right, a metaphor for immorality. Not just leftists, but conservatives too, have used the Hemings story to denigrate Jefferson and, with him, two of the cardinal values of his life, reason and individualism. As Timothy Sandefur notes in his essay “Anti-Jefferson, Left and Right” (Liberty, October 1999, p. 52), “What damns Thomas Jefferson in conservative and multiculturalist eyes alike is his appeal `to all men and at all times,’ and not to the considerations of race, class, and sex, of which the left approves, or to the `whispers of dead men’ that the conservative hears.” The Hemings story permits some to see Jefferson’s whole political philosophy as “bound up in the sexual exploitation of a slave,” Sandefur adds. “Jefferson’s position as theEnlightenment figure in America can thus be seen as inseparable from his ownership and exploitation of slaves, and the Enlightenment can be dismissed accordingly. Conservative writer Dinesh D’Souza describes a conversation he had with some thoroughly indoctrinated college students: `On Jefferson, the three were agreed: he was, in various descriptions, a `hypocrite,’ a `rapist’. . ., and a `total racist.’ Jeffersonian principles of individualism, reason, science, and private property, all become tainted.” (Ibid., p. 34.)

It is not just the enemies of the Enlightenment in America today who find symbolism in the Hemings story. Libertarians, too, find the story a useful vehicle for advancing their agendas, whether they are detractors or admirers of Jefferson. Some want to believe the story because they are anxious to pull him off his pedestal, to show in Jefferson’s hypocrisy “the need to be a nation of laws and not of men,” as an editor of Reason magazine put it. (Nick Gillespie, in reply to the author’s and other readers’ letters “In Defense of Jefferson,” Reason, April 1999, p. 11.) Others, who genuinely admire Jefferson, hope that “this new, racially-conflicted Jefferson,” who some now imagine as having had a long-term monogamous relationship with a mulatto woman, might be “more authentically libertarian” than “the old, much more `racist’ Jefferson,” as one libertarian scholar suggested to me in private correspondence. This last comment suggests that some admirers of Jefferson, whatever their political persuasion, find in the Hemings story a new way to “humanize” Jefferson, to make him less aloof. Indeed, for some who idolize Jefferson, the Hemings story provides proof that Jefferson was able to transcend the racial attitudes of his time. They are, frankly, engaged in wishful thinking, idealizing Jefferson into a 20th- (or even 21st-) century individualist comfortable with interracial relationships—which, sadly, he was not (as his retirement-years writings on race matters show).

The lesson is obvious: today, as throughout American history since the inception of the story nearly 200 ago, many Americans for various reasons want passionately to believe that Thomas Jefferson fathered some or all of Sally Hemings’ children, whether or not the evidence supports the charge.

III. Myth vs. History: Oral Tradition as Unreliable Evidence

Traditionally, historians long have recognized the unreliability of oral tradition as evidence. Family “oral history” or “family tradition” particularly is unreliable, for many reasons, as Professor Turner points out in his report. These include the high probability of errors creeping into stories that are told and retold from one generation to the next, as well as the tendency “to embellish the family legacy to instill pride and confidence in the next generation.” The problem is not peculiar to American history or modern times: notables in ancient Rome, for example, frequently claimed descent from the gods—Julius Caesar, from the goddess Venus, for example—to make them even more patrician.

Indeed, family oral traditions really ought not to be called “history” at all, for they are rather, quite literally, myth. That realization hit home with me last summer when I was attending a conference at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver and visited the Museum of Archeology, which is famous for its collection of totem poles and other artifacts relating to Pacific Northwest Indians (or “First Peoples,” as they are called in Canada). Totem poles, of course, were used by the native peoples to memorialize their own myths. Here’s how the guidebook I purchased at the Museum explained their mythology:

There were two kinds of myths on the Northwest Coast—those which were known to and could be told by everyone and those which were the private property of particular families and could only be told by their members. Both kinds tell of a primordial age before the world became as it is now, a time when finite divisions between humans, animals, and spirits had not yet been created and beings could transform themselves from one form into another. . . . It was a time now lost but remembered. It was a world now gone, but one that people recreated in art and ritual. Through ceremonial and artistic re-enactment of their heritage, through dance, song, and ritual acting, people maintained continuity with their genesis. So, even though mythological time belonged to long ago, before mankind became separated and distinguished from animals and nature, the memory of it could be kept alive.

The myths which everyone could tell concerned the change of that other world into this one. . . . The family myths, on the other hand, told of family origins, of ancestors who came down from the sky as birds or who married mythical animals and shining celestial beings; they told of the wanderings of the ancestors, their settlement in their present locations, and their acquisition of the privileges and powers which defined the greatness of the family line. Paramount among these were those rights whose representations the family could display on totem poles and ceremonial objects to broadcast their heritage to others.

(Marjorie M. Halpin, Totem Poles: An Illustrated Guide, Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 981, pp. 9-10.)

As noted in Part V. B. below, the Monticello Committee report essentially takes the “family myths” of the Madison Hemings descendants and treats them as history. It would be like a historian today saying that a famous tribal leader among the Pacific Northwest First Peoples really was descended from a raven bird, because his family myth says so—it must be true because it’s a story people “continued to tell their children and grandchildren . . ., often at significant times in their lives”! (See discussion of Monticello Committee report, below.)

There are many reasons to doubt the reliability of the oral tradition handed down by the Madison Hemings’ descendants. Significantly, there is no evidence of an oral tradition corroborating the assertions attributed to Madison Hemings which antedates the publication of the 1873 Pike County Republican story. Thus, rather than being an oral history handed down to her descendants by Sally Hemings herself—or by any contemporaries of hers with first-hand knowledge of happenings at Monticello, or even by Madison Hemings himself, who presumably had only second-hand knowledge of his paternity—the allegation of Jefferson’s paternity of Sally Hemings’ children appears to have originated with these 1873 newspaper stories. And, like the oral tradition handed down to Thomas Woodson’s descendants, it is quite likely that the Madison Hemings oral tradition ultimately owes its origin to the original 1802 Callender allegation.

Yet, as discussed in Part V.B. below, the Monticello Committee report treats the Madison Hemings story as key evidence linking Jefferson to Sally Hemings—and indeed, apart from the so-called “Monte Carlo” simulation (the problems of which are also discussed in Part V.B. below), it is literally the only evidence cited by the Committee report in support of its conclusion that Jefferson likely fathered all the children of Sally Hemings—that is, the children other than Eston.

Among other families of Hemings descendants, a quite different oral tradition—attributing the paternity of Sally Hemings’ children to an “uncle” of Jefferson’s—appears to have been handed down from generation to generation. The Monticello Report’s effort to discount that tradition, while accepting the Madison Hemings story, is quite unconvincing, as noted below.

  1. Broader Context of the Myth Today: The Assault on Standards

The rise of three related phenomena in higher education generally—the “political correctness” movement, multiculturalism, and post-modernism—helps explain why the Jefferson-Hemings myth has become so readily accepted today, not only by the American general public but also by scholars who should know better.

The term political correctness was coined in the early 1990s, in the midst of a controversy over perceived threats to academic freedom on America’s college and university campuses. Originally an approving phrase used by those on the Leninist left to denote someone who steadfastly toed the party line, “politically correct” or “P.C.” began to be used ironically by critics of the left—first by conservatives (such as Dinesh D’Souza, author of the best-selling bookIlliberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus (1991)) and later by liberals and many old-school leftists —who sought to defend campus freedoms against “P.C.” censors. The debate encompasses many issues, among them official campus speech codes, designed to protect certain groups of students from “oppressive” or even merely “insensitive” racist or sexist speech, as well as new curriculums emphasizing race and ethnic distinctions. (Paul Berman, Introduction to Debating P.C.: The Controversy over Political Correctness on College Campuses, New York: Dell Publishing, 1992, pp. 1-6. On the threats to campus speech generally, see Alan Charles Kors and Harvey A. Silverglate, The Shadow University: The Betrayal of Liberty on America’s Campuses, New York: The Free Press, 1998.)

Perhaps the most important attribute of the “politically correct” movement has been its emphasis on “race/class/gender-ism,” which pictures culture and language as giant hidden structures that permeate life and which assumes that American culture (or Western culture generally) has been dominated by the culture and language of European white males. (Berman, Introduction to Debating P.C., pp. 14-15.) In its opposition to this perceived hegemony, the P.C. movement overlaps with the other two modern movements in higher education, multiculturalism and postmodernism.

Multiculturalism began as a well-intentioned movement to diversify education—and the teaching of history, in particular—by calling attention to the experiences of women, blacks, American Indians, immigrants, and members of other groups whose stories largely had been neglected in textbooks. What began as a movement on behalf of diversity and cultural pluralism, however, devolved into a “particularist” movement that, in its overreaction to perceived “Eurocentrism,” fostered even more extremely distorted views of American history, such as Afrocentrism. (See generally Diane Ravitch, “Multiculturalism: E Pluribus Plures,” in Berman, ed.,Debating P.C., pp. 271-98.) Particularists “have no interest in extending or revising American culture; indeed, they deny that a common culture exists. Particularists reject any accommodation among groups, any interactions that blur the distinct lines between them. The brand of history that they espouse is one in which everyone is either a descendant of victims or oppressors.” (Ibid., p. 278.)

When advocates of political correctness or extreme multiculturalism challenge the culture of rationalism and humanism, they also ally themselves with an even more pervasive movement among American intellectuals in recent decades, the so-called “post-modern” movement. Postmodernist theory attempts to “deconstruct,” or expose, the underlying subjectivity and indeterminacy of everything we assume we know. Among historians, postmodernism has meant an assault on objectivity: a rejection of traditional standards for discovering facts, weighing evidence, and interpreting events. Traditional analytic and empirical methods are rejected in favor of history as mere “narrative.” As one theorist put it, “The past is not discovered or found; it is created or represented by the historian as text.” History, to the postmodernists, is no more factual or objective than any other discipline; “there are no grounds to be found in the historical record itself for preferring one way of construing its meaning over another,” for interpretation is inevitably “socially constructed.” (See Daniel A. Farber and Suzanna Sherry, Beyond All Reason: The Radical Assault on Truth in American Law, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997, pp. 15, 108-10.)

Postmodernists and radical multiculturalists frequently argue that white male culture has achieved domination over other cultures through values such as rationalism, humanism, universality, and literary merit—values which the multiculturalists claim are not objective but rather are tools for oppressing other people by persuading them of their own inferiority. (Berman, inDebating P.C., p. 14.) These views lead to “disturbing distortions in scholarship and public discourse,” argue law professors Daniel Farber and Suzanna Sherry. (It should be noted that Professors Farber and Sherry are not conservatives; they are mainstream liberal law professors who are alarmed at the threats posed to law and legal scholarship by radical multiculturalist movements in the legal academy such as Critical Legal Studies, radical feminism, and Critical Race Theory.) “Because they reject objectivity as a norm, the radicals are content to rely on personal stories as a basis for formulating views of social problems. These stories are often atypical or distorted by self-interest, yet any criticism of the stories is inevitably seen as a personal attack on the storyteller,” they observe. Indeed, “because radical multiculturalists refuse to separate the speaker from the message, they can become sidetracked from discussing the merits of the message itself into bitter disputes about the speaker’s authenticity and her right to speak on behalf of an oppressed group. Criticisms of radical multiculturalism are seen as pandering to the power structure if they come from women or minorities, or as sexist and racist if they come from white men.” (Farber and Sherry, Beyond All Reason, p. 12.) Thus, not only objectivity, but also civility—the basic prerequisite for genuine dialogue—has been jeopardized.

In recent years, many American historians have become concerned at the degree to which radical multiculturalism and postmodernism have apparently dominated the nation’s two leading organizations of historians, the American History Association (AHA) and the Organization of American Historians (OAH). Many historians consequently have resigned their membership in one or both of these groups. A politically diverse coalition of historians, ranging in their political views from conservative and libertarian to left-liberal—all who share a concern for how radical multiculturalism and “identity politics” have been destroying the profession—even have formed a new organization to compete with the AHA and the OAH, called The Historical Society (THS). (See, for example, William R. Keylor, “Clio on the Campus: The Historical Society at Boston University,” inBostonia, Summer 1999, pp. 20-23.)

Sadly, the historical profession today has lost much of the standards by which evidence can be objectively weighed and evaluated in the search for historical truth. History, in effect, has become politicized in America today, as illustrated by the widespread acceptance of the Jefferson-Hemings myth as historical fact.

Taken together, political correctness, multiculturalism, and post-modernism have created an environment in the academic world today in which scholars feel pressured to accept the Jefferson-Hemings myth as historical truth. White male scholars in particular fear that by questioning the myth—by challenging the validity of the oral tradition “evidence” cited by some of the Hemings descendants—they will be called racially “insensitive,” if not racist. As discussed more fully in my critique of Annette Gordon-Reed’s book inPart V.A., below, among many proponents of the Jefferson paternity claim there has emerged a truly disturbing McCarthyist-like inquisition that has cast its pall over Jefferson scholarship today. Questioning the validity of the claim has been equated with the denigration of African Americans and the denial of their rightful place in American history. In this climate of scholarly and public opinion, it requires great personal courage for scholars to question the Jefferson paternity thesis and to point out the dubious historical record on which it rests.

  1. The Flawed Case for the Jefferson-Hemings Story

The two most significant briefs on behalf of the Jefferson-Hemings paternity claim that have appeared thus far in print are Annette Gordon-Reed’s book,Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1997), and the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation (TJMF) Ad Hoc Research Committee Report (referred to below as the Monticello Report), released in 2000 and available on the Monticello website (www.monticello.org). I refer to both these works as briefs on behalf of the paternity claim, for both share this essential weakness: rather than objectively weighing all the relevant evidence according to established standards of historical scholarship, they both are markedly one-sided, based on a highly selective reading of the evidence, presenting the case for Jefferson’s paternity as if it were accepted as an article of faith. And for both Professor Gordon-Reed and for the staff at Monticello, it apparently is.

  1. Annette Gordon-Reed’s Book

Annette Gordon-Reed is a law professor, not trained as a historian; her book is a classic example of what historians call “lawyer’s history”—an advocacy brief which marshals the evidence in favor of a predetermined thesis rather than objectively weighs the evidence in the search for historical truth.

In both the preface and conclusion to her book, Professor Gordon-Reed quite directly admits that her mission is to expose the “troubling”—i.e., racist—assumptions made by historians who have denied “the truth of a liaison between Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings.” To sustain the denial, she argues, historians must “make Thomas Jefferson so high as to have been something more than human” and “make Sally Hemings so low as to have been something less than human.” Historians have engaged in “the systematic dismissal of the words of the black people who spoke on this matter—Madison Hemings, the son of Sally Hemings, and Israel Jefferson, a former slave who also resided at Monticello—as though their testimony was worth some fraction as that of whites.” Indeed, she regards Madison Hemings as “a metaphor for the condition of blacks in American society.” He was, she notes, “a black man who watched his three siblings voluntarily disappear into the white world” and yet who “chose to remain black and to speak for himself,” only to be “vilified and ridiculed in a vicious manner” and then be “forgotten.” To vindicate him, she wrote the book. (Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy, pp. xiv, 234-35.)

Throughout her book, Professor Gordon-Reed vilifies as racist—without ever directly using that term—virtually every historian who has ever written about Jefferson and Sally Hemings: these include established Jefferson scholars such as Merrill Peterson, Douglass Adair, Dumas Malone, and John Chester Miller, as well as younger scholars such as Andrew Burstein. Her treatment of Burstein is illustrative of her technique. In his 1995 book The Inner Jefferson: Portrait of a Grieving Optimist, Burstein briefly addressed Madison Hemings’ 1873 newspaper interview, noting that it was “possible that his claim was contrived—by his mother or himself—to provide an otherwise undistinguished biracial carpenter a measure of social respect.” Burstein added, “Would not his life have been made more charmed by being known as the son of Thomas Jefferson than the more obscure Peter or Samuel Carr?” Professor Gordon-Reed answers this rhetorical question with an emphatic “no,” in the process ridiculing Burstein’s choice of words, particularly his reference to a “charmed” life. (Jefferson and Hemings: American Controversy, p. 18.) Burstein has since reversed his position of skepticism and now argues that the DNA test results “have convincingly linked [Jefferson] to Sally Hemings sexually.” (Andrew Burstein, “Jefferson’s Rationalizations,” William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd ser. 57:183 (Jan. 2000).)

In addition to rhetorical arguments designed to ridicule the white male historians who have written about the Jefferson-Hemings matter—suggesting not so subtly that their writings have been infused with racist assumptions—Professor Gordon-Reed also carefully selects the evidence and presents it in the light most favorable to her cause, exposing what she regards as “double standards” in historical scholarship. In the process, however, she breaks down most accepted standards for weighing evidence, particularly for weighing oral tradition evidence, creating a new double standard which gives preference to the oral tradition supporting the Jefferson paternity thesis. Legitimate doubts about the veracity of the 1873 newspaper “memoir” attributed to Hemings—doubts based not only on the many problems found in the account itself but also in its broader political context, as noted in Part II above—are swept aside, as Professor Gordon-Reed focuses on such matters as scholars’ questioning whether a word like encientewould have been used by a black man at that time period. (Jefferson and Hemings: American Controversy, p. 20.) Her aim, again, is to vindicate Madison Hemings and his story, “to present the strongest case to be made that the story might be true.” (Ibid., p. 210.)

More broadly, Professor Gordon-Reed’s agenda is to use the Jefferson-Hemings story as a metaphor for American race relations. In a letter to the editor published soon after the DNA test results went public, Professor Gordon-Reed admitted quite directly the “silver lining” she found in this controversy, what it shows about “the history of racism in America”: “If people had accepted this story, he would never have become an icon. All these historians did him a favor until we could get past our primitive racism. I don’t think he would have been on Mount Rushmore or on the nickel. The personification of America can’t live 38 years with a black woman.” (“The All-Too-Human Jefferson,” Letter to the editor, Wall Street Journal, November 24, 1998.)

Because her mission was to rebut the case made by Jefferson scholars—virtually all of whom have accepted on face value the paternity allegations made against Peter and Samuel Carr by Jefferson’s grandchildren T.J. Randolph and Ellen Coolidge Randolph—Professor Gordon-Reed ignores entirely the possibility that Jefferson’s brother Randolph or one of Randolph Jefferson’s five sons could have fathered one or more of Sally Hemings’ children. Although she lists in her bibliography Bernard Mayo’s Thomas Jefferson and His Unknown Brother Randolph (1942), she excludes Randolph and his sons from her genealogical table of “The Jeffersons and Randolphs (Relevant Connections Only),” as well as from the nearly 50 “Important Names” listed in Appendix A to her book. Nor are Randolph Jefferson or any of his children even referenced in her index.

The flawed scholarship of the book is further epitomized by a significant transcription error which appears in Appendix E, the text of Ellen Randolph Coolidge’s 1858 letter to Joseph Coolidge. In relevant part, the original letter as found in the Coolidge Letterbook, University of Virginia Library—in clear handwriting—states the following about Jefferson’s rooms at Monticello:

His apartments had no private entrance not perfectly accessible and visible to all the household. No female domestic ever entered his chambers except at hours when he was known not to be there and none could have entered without being exposed to the public gaze.

As printed in the appendix to Professor Gordon-Reed’s book, however, the passage reads:

His apartments had no private entrance not perfectly accessible and visible to all the household. No female domestic ever entered his chambers except at hours when he was known not to be in the public gaze.

(Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy, p. 259.) Even if we give Professor Gordon-Reed the benefit of the doubt and assume that omission of the crucial words—which obviously changes significantly the meaning of the sentence—was not a deliberate distortion of the evidence but rather an innocent transcription mistake, so critical an error casts doubt on the reliability of her work.

  1. The TJMF (Monticello) Committee Report

Following release of the DNA study in the fall of 1998, Daniel P. Jordan, the president of the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation (TJMF)—the institution that owns and operates Jefferson’s home Monticello—appointed a nine-person in-house research committee which was charged, in Jordan’s words, to “review, comprehensively and critically, all the evidence, scientific and otherwise,” including Dr. Foster’s DNA study, “relating to the relationship of Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings.” The Committee was chaired by Dianne Swann-Wright, Director of Special Programs at Monticello (including its Getting Word Oral History Project described below), and its members—described in its report as “including four Ph.D.’s and one medical doctor”—were all Monticello staff members. Although the Committee consulted with members of two other Monticello committees—the Advisory Committee for the International Center for Jefferson Studies and the Advisory Committee on African-American Interpretation—it is worth emphasizing that no scholar independent of Monticello had any input in the report.

Although the Committee had concluded its work by spring 1999, its report was not released until January 27, 2000. (See “Report of the Research Committee on Thomas Jefferson & Sally Hemings,” Thomas Jefferson Foundation, January 2000.) The report was immediately posted on the Internet, and Dan Jordan noted that within a week the Monticello website received nearly 60,000 “hits” a day, with some 3000 different individuals downloading the report. Two weeks later, after the television airing of the CBS miniseries Sally Hemings: An American Scandal, Jordan noted that the hits “maxed out” Monticello’s system, with as many as 900,000 in one day. Although he dismissed the CBS miniseries as “ridiculous as history,” “a soap opera,” and “strictly Hollywood,” Jordan acknowledged that “it certainly did encourage an interest in the story.” He added, “Anything that encourages and raises the consciousness of the American people about history and race is a good thing.” (Dan Jordan, interviewed in Shannon Lanier and Jane Feldman, Jefferson’s Children: The Story of One American Family, New York: Random House, 2000, p. 113.)

What was not mentioned in the TJMF’s press conference and not acknowledged on its website until about three months later, on March 23, 2000, was that one of the members of the Monticello Committee—White McKenzie (Ken) Wallenborn, M.D. (the “medical doctor” identified in the committee’s description)—had dissented stridently from the Committee’s report. Noting several areas of disagreement with the majority’s report, Dr. Wallenborn in his minority report (dated April 12, 1999) concluded that “[t]here is historical evidence of more or less equal statu[r]e on both sides of this issue that prevent a definitive answer as to Thomas Jefferson’s paternity of Sally Hemings’ son Eston Hemings or for that matter the other four of her children.” He urged the TJMF to continue to regard the paternity question as an open one. In an essay published subsequent to the release of his minority report, Dr. Wallenborn has charged that the Monticello Committee—and particularly its chair, Dianne Swann-Wright, and Lucia (Cinder) Stanton (Shannon Senior Research Historian at Monticello), whom he identified as the principal author of the Committee’s final report—”had already reached their conclusions” at the start of their deliberations. According to Dr. Wallenborn’s account, the Committee followed “the same tactic” that Professor Annette Gordon-Reed employed in her book, of ignoring or dismissing as problematic “most of the evidence that would exonerate Mr. Jefferson.” (White McKenzie Wallenborn, “A Committee Insider’s Viewpoint,” in The Jefferson-Hemings Myth: An American Travesty, Eyler Robert Coates, Sr. ed., Charlottesville, Va.: Thomas Jefferson Heritage Society, 2001, special advance ed., pp. 57-58.) Equally troubling is Dr. Wallenborn’s statement that Dianne Swann-Wright failed to share his dissenting report with other members of the committee. Indeed, he notes that it was not shared with the interpretive staff at Monticello nor with the TJMF Board of Trustees until he began circulating it after the January 26, 2000 press conference. (Ibid., p. 64.)

Dr. Wallenborn’s criticisms of the Monticello Committee appear to be well-founded. Upon close reading, its final report is far from being the “scholarly, meticulous, and thorough” analysis Dan Jordan claims it is. Its general conclusion, that Thomas Jefferson fathered one, if not all, of Sally Hemings’ children, fails to be adequately supported by the evidence gathered by the Committee and summarized in its findings.

Indeed, a fundamental problem with the Committee report is the apparent absence of any methodology for evaluating or weighing evidence. When the report concludes, specifically, that the “currently available documentary and statistical evidence, indicates a high probability that Thomas Jefferson fathered Eston Hemings, and that he was most likely the father of all six of Sally Hemings children,” it offers no standard by which the conclusory terms high probability ormost likely can be objectively measured. Generally speaking, the Committee report seems to rest this conclusion on just a few pieces of evidence—the results of Dr. Foster’s DNA tests, Madison Hemings’ 1873 “memoir,” and the “Monte Carlo” statistical study conducted by Committee member Fraser Nieman—plus one critical, but unsupported, assumption: that all of Sally Hemings’ children were fathered by just one man. This single father postulate rests on the flimsiest of evidence: the naming of the Hemings siblings’ children after one another, which supposedly demonstrates the “closeness” of the family (and thus, it is assumed, Sally Hemings’ monogamy), and the claim of an absence of evidence that Sally Hemings was not monogamous (a false claim in light of the Edmund Bacon evidence, which the Committee discounts, as noted below). The only documentary evidence which the Committee can cite in support of its conclusion that Jefferson “most likely” fathered Sally Hemings’ children other than Eston is the Madison Hemings 1873 interview. (Appendix H, Sally Hemings and Her Children: Information from Documentary Sources, pp. 8, 10, 12.)

Another fundamental flaw in the Committee’s report is the problem of bias and conflict of interest. Since 1993 the TJMF has been conducting an oral history research project called “Getting Word,” to locate the descendants of Monticello’s African-American community and to record and preserve their stories and histories. The project has interviewed over 100 people, including 22 descendants of Madison Hemings and four descendants of Eston Hemings. The very fact that Monticello staff members have been involved in this project makes it difficult for an in-house research committee to objectively evaluate oral history evidence. The problems of bias in favor of oral history evidence generally—and selective bias in favor of those particular families interviewed through the Getting Word project—were compounded by the fact that the chair of the ad hoc research committee was Dianne Swann-Wright, director of Special Programs at Monticello, who had been employed to work on the project since its inception (and her arrival at Monticello) in 1993. Given the intimate involvement of Dr. Swann-Wright and other Committee members with the people interviewed for the Getting Word project, it is not surprising that the Committee report heavily relies on the 1873 Madison Hemings story and the oral tradition among his descendants as the key evidence in support of the Jefferson paternity thesis.

As noted above in Part III, oral tradition evidence has a general problem of unreliability. The Committee report is flawed not only because it relies heavily on oral tradition evidence, but that it relies on itselectively, taking seriously only that oral tradition that fits with the story of Jefferson’s paternity. The bias is evident in the report, where it infers from the seriousness of the Madison Hemings’ descendants’ “history” that it is true and therefore ought to be treated on par with documentary and other evidence. “In a climate of disbelief and hostility,” the report notes, “they continued to tell their children and grandchildren of their descent from Thomas Jefferson, often at significant times in their lives. . . . ” (Appendix G, Oral History in the Hemings Family.) On the same page of the report, however, the Committee notes that the oral history of the Eston Hemings descendants claimed descent from Jefferson’s “uncle”—an oral tradition which apparently was taken just as seriously by this line of the family, until publication of Fawn Brodie’s Intimate History prompted family members to change the story—but the Committee dismisses the earlier tradition among Eston Hemings’ descendants as “altered to protect their passing into the white world.” (Ibid.) The change of the Eston Hemings family oral tradition following publication of the Brodie book is acknowledged by family members. “We’re just learning—from some of our cousins—stories we weren’t able to hear,” one family member said. (See Julia Westerinen, interview in Lanier and Feldman,Jefferson’s Children, p. 56.)

Significantly, the Committee report also concluded that Thomas Woodson was not the son of Thomas Jefferson, and indeed that there was no documentary evidence linking him even to Monticello and Sally Hemings. (Appendix K, Assessment of Thomas C. Woodson’s Connection to Sally Hemings.) The significance of this is twofold. First, it acknowledges the falsity of a core allegation of both the original 1802 Callender story and the 1873 story attributed to Madison Hemings: the notion that Jefferson’s sexual relationship with Sally Hemings began in France, and that she bore him a son soon after their return to the United States. As the Committee report finds, there is no evidence of any child being born to Sally Hemings prior to 1795. Second, the findings regarding Thomas Woodson starkly reveal the inherent unreliability of oral tradition as evidence. The Woodson descendants just as fervently believed that their ancestor was the son of Thomas Jefferson, and the Committee found that “the longstanding oral history warrants inclusion of information” about Woodson despite the absence of documentation to connect him to Sally Hemings and Monticello, let alone to Thomas Jefferson. (Appendix H, Sally Hemings and Her Children, p. 6.)

There is one other oral tradition, of course, which was summarily rejected by the Committee. Beginning with the direct testimony of Jefferson’s grandchildren, Thomas Jefferson Randolph and Ellen Randolph Coolidge, the oral tradition in the family descended from Jefferson’s daughter Martha Jefferson Randolph has identified one of the Carr brothers, Peter or Samuel (Jefferson’s nephews by his sister Martha) as the father of Sally Hemings’ children. Although that tradition apparently too was taken just as seriously as the tradition of Hemings descendants—and although it is arguably far more reliable, for it was based on the testimony of eyewitnesses to the events in question—the report essentially dismisses Carr paternity by pointing to the DNA test results on Eston Hemings’ descendant and assuming that Sally Hemings’ children were all fathered by the same man.

The Committee’s bias is evident also in the double standard it employs in weighing evidence. For example, the published account of Monticello overseer Edmund Bacon, which identified another, unnamed man as the father of Harriet Hemings, is dismissed as having “problems of chronology,” noting that Bacon was not employed at Monticello until five years after Harriet’s birth (Review of Documentary Sources, p. 4). But this ignores the real possibility that Bacon resided at Monticello as early as 1800 and also assumes that Bacon was describing an event he witnessed prior to Harriet’s birth when indeed he might have concluded that the man he saw some years later was the father of her children. However, immediately following this curt dismissal of Bacon’s account, the Committee report states that Israel Jefferson’s 1873 interview “corroborated Madison Hemings’s claim of Jefferson paternity”—even though Israel Jefferson’s account, besides the many problems noted in Part II above, also has a real “chronology problem” of its own: Israel was only eight years old at the time of the birth of Sally Hemings’ youngest child, Eston! (Ibid., p. 4.)

Important pieces of evidence that question the Jefferson paternity thesis are either ignored or blithely dismissed by the Committee’s report. For example, Jefferson’s own denial of the Callender allegations, in an 1805 letter written to a member of his administration, is dismissed as “ambiguous” (Review of the Documentary Evidence, p. 2)—an assessment that fails to take into account its clear historical context (as discussed in Part VI.A., below). The account of former household slave Isaac Jefferson, who mentioned and described Sally Hemings in his memoir, is omitted from the Committee report, even though the fact that Isaac did not so much as hint that there was any special relationship between Jefferson and Sally Hemings is powerful evidence questioning the paternity thesis. (Memoirs of a Monticello Slave, Isaac Jefferson as interviewed by Charles W. Campbell in 1847, printed in James A. Bear, ed.,Jefferson at Monticello, Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1967.)

Other problems, though relatively minor, in the Committee’s report reveal that it was far less meticulously written as one would expect it to be. For example, although the report does include a facsimile of the 1858 Ellen Randolph Coolidge letter, it follows it with the flawed transcription as found in Appendix E of Professor Gordon-Reed’s book. The draft of Committee member Fraser Nieman’s article, “Coincidence or Causal Connection? The Relationship between Thomas Jefferson’s Visits to Monticello and Sally Hemings’s Conceptions”—which was going to print in The William and Mary Quarterly in January 2000, just as the Committee report was released—contains a typographical error which distorts the DNA study in a significant way. The molecular geneticists tested “male-line descendants of Thomas Jefferson” (emphasis added), the article states, when of course it was not Thomas but Field Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson’s paternal grandfather, whose descendants were tested.

The article by Mr. Nieman, who is director of archeology at Monticello, has far more serious problems than this embarrassing typographical error. As the Scholars Commission report notes, none of us were impressed by this so-called “Monte Carlo” statistical study. The Monte Carlo approach estimates the probability of a given outcome by comparing it to a very large number of random outcomes generated by a simulation model. Nieman’s study rested on two unsupported postulates: that there could only be a single father for all of Sally Hemings’ children, and that rival candidates to Thomas Jefferson would have had to arrive and depart on the exact same days he did. Here, the assumption of random behavior makes little sense, because the visits to Monticello of the other candidates for paternity—Jefferson’s friends and relatives (including his brother Randolph, Randolph Jefferson’s sons, and the Carr brothers)—were not random occurrences; they certainly would have been far more likely to occur after Jefferson’s return to Monticello from extended absences in Washington or elsewhere. The final impression one gets of the Nieman study is of a simulation whose parameters were deliberately set to “get” Thomas Jefferson as the father of Sally Hemings’ children. (Ken Wallenborn reports that when Nieman presented his study to the Committee, he stated: “I’ve got him!” Wallenborn, “A Committee Insider’s Viewpoint,” in The Jefferson-Hemings Myth: An American Travesty, p. 53.)

As Dr. Wallenborn has noted, Neiman’s statistical study “cries out for valid comparative studies of the other Jefferson males who might have fathered Eston, and in the absence of these comparisons, the results are inconclusive.” (Ibid., p. 51.) As the Scholars Commission report notes, the circumstantial case that Eston Hemings was fathered by Randolph Jefferson, Thomas Jefferson’s younger brother, is “many times stronger” than the case against Jefferson himself. Significantly, even the Monticello Committee report notes documentary evidence that Randolph Jefferson visited Monticello in August 1807, a probable conception time for Eston Hemings (this evidence consisting of a letter from Jefferson to his brother, inviting him to visit Monticello while Randolph’s twin sister, Anna Marks, was then visiting)—but the Committee rejects this evidence because no corroborating evidence has been found to indicate that Randolph did in fact visit at this time. (Appendix J, Summary of research on the possible paternity of other Jeffersons.) The Committee report also notes that Randolph Jefferson’s sons Thomas, in 1800, and Robert Lewis, in 1807, “may well have been at Monticello during the conception periods of Harriet and Eston Hemings.” (Part V, Assessment of Possible Paternity of Other Jeffersons.)

One final, critical assumption made both in the Nieman study and in the Monticello Committee report as a whole is the assumption that Sally Hemings was continuously present at Monticello. As the Scholars Commission concludes, however, that assumption may be problematic. Sadly, we simply do not know enough about Sally Hemings—even her duties at Monticello—to conclude that she would have remained at Monticello rather than travel to, say, Poplar Forest, at some of the probable times of her conceptions. The question is particularly important given biographer Henry Randall’s intriguing reference to “well known circumstances” that prove Martha Jefferson Randolph’s denial of the charge that Jefferson fathered Sally Hemings’ children. As documented by Randall, Jefferson’s daughter “directed her sons’ attention to the fact that Mr. Jefferson and Sally Hemings could not have met—were far distant from each other—for fifteen months prior to the birth” of the child who supposedly most resembled Jefferson. Almost everyone has assumed that Mrs. Randolph was referring to Jefferson’s absence from Monticello at that time, but she may very well have been referring to Sally Hemings’. (Letter from Henry S. Randall to James Parton, June 1, 1868, in Flower,James Parton, pp. 237-38.) This intriguing possibility is yet another matter that cries out for additional research.

  1. The Implausibility of the Story

Some people have suggested that the logical principle of Occam’s Razor, which states essentially that the simplest of competing theories be preferred to the more complex, when applied to this controversy would make Thomas Jefferson the father of Sally Hemings’ children, or at least of Eston Hemings. But this is a gross misapplication of the principle. Indeed, as Professor Banning points out in his paper, “Occam’s Razor tells us to prefer the simplest theory only when the simplest theory seems equally true.” (Professor Banning, “Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: Case Closed?”, p. 11.) Here, the simple theory advanced by proponents of the Jefferson-Hemings story—that Sally Hemings’ children all had the same father, and that he was Thomas Jefferson—seems plausible only if one ignores all the many facts that strongly suggest against Jefferson’s paternity. Both Professor Banning and Professor Turner have identified a large number of relevant facts, either ignored or unjustifiably downplayed by Professor Gordon-Reed and the Monticello Report, which raises serious questions about the Jefferson paternity thesis. I agree fully with these points and would like here to emphasize two additional matters which, to me, make the thesis extremely implausible.

  1. Denials by Jefferson Himself and Virtually All His Contemporaries

Jefferson refused to dignify Callender’s charges by denying them publicly, but in private correspondence stated generally that there was “not a truth existing which I fear or would wish unknown to the whole world.” (Jefferson to Henry Lee, May 15, 1826; see also Jefferson to William Duane, March 22, 1806.) And on one occasion in private correspondence he denied the Hemings paternity charge, among other allegations.

In a cover letter dated July 1, 1805 and written to Secretary of the Navy Robert Smith, Thomas Jefferson denied the “charges” made against him, admitting that he was guilty only of one—”that when young and single [he] offered love to a handsome lady”—which he maintained was “the only one founded in truth among all their allegations against me.” Jefferson’s letter to Smith referenced an enclosed letter written to Attorney General Levi Lincoln which fully responded to the charges but which, unfortunately, has not survived. From Jefferson’s cover letter it is clear that he desired both Smith and Lincoln to read the enclosed letter, as “particular friends” of Jefferson with whom he “wish[ed] to stand . . . on the ground of truth.”

Both the Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation majority report (Review of the Documentary Evidence, p. 2) and Professor Annette Gordon-Reed (Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy, p. 146) dismiss Jefferson’s letter as “ambiguous” and referring directly only to the charge of Jefferson’s affair with Mrs. John Walker. Although it is true that the cover letter on its face does not identify either the “charges” or those who were asserting them, nevertheless it is reasonably clear from the full context of Jefferson’s letter itself and its historical circumstances that Jefferson was denying all the charges made against him by his political enemies, including the Hemings paternity allegation.

Jefferson wrote the letter ten days after the Washington, D.C. newspaper The Washington Federalist reprinted a letter from a “Thomas Turner, Esq.,” declared to be a Virginia gentleman, which had been first published in the Boston newspaper The Repertory on May 31, 1805. The newspaper articles raised virtually the same charges Callender had made in the Richmond Recorder in 1802, including the affair with Mrs. Walker, “Mr. Jefferson’s disgraceful concubinage” with Sally Hemings, and Jefferson’s “timidity” as Governor of Virginia when it was invaded by British troops during the Revolutionary War. (Text of the June 19, 1805 Washington Federalist article as reproduced in Rebecca L. McMurry and James F. McMurry, Jefferson, Callender, and the Sally Story: The Scandalmonger and the Newspaper War of 1802, Toms Brook, Va.: Old Virginia Books, 2000, pp. 107-110.) Indeed, Jefferson referred directly to the latter accusation (“transactions during the invasion of Virginia”) in his cover letter to Smith, in the sentence immediately following his admission of the Walker affair.

The Washington Federalist and Boston Repertoryarticles also alleged, according to “opinion,” that Sally Hemings was “the natural daughter” of John Wayles, misspelled “Wales” as it was in the original Callender article.

The fuller context of the reappearance of the Callender allegations in Boston newspapers—including the debates on Jefferson’s character in the Massachusetts legislature in January 1805—is discussed in Dumas Malone, Jefferson the President: First Term, 1801-1805 (Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1974), pp. 218-223. Given the political climate in Massachusetts, it is not surprising that Jefferson wrote this letter to Levi Lincoln, who served as Jefferson’s political adviser on matters concerning New England, and Massachusetts in particular.

The significance of Jefferson’s denial in this letter to a friend, who was also a member of his administration and a political confidant, should be obvious: it is the only direct evidence left by Jefferson in his own words and handwriting that bears on the question.

The Monticello Committee report also notes, without any analysis, the only known account of the paternity allegation being raised in Jefferson’s presence: biographer Henry S. Randall’s report that when confronted by his indignant daughter Martha with an offending poem (a couplet by Irish poet Thomas Moore linking Jefferson with a slave), his only response was a “hearty, clear laugh.” (Review of the Documentary Evidence, p. 2.) This was hardly the response of a man with a guilty conscience.

Taken together, Jefferson’s denials are consistent with the testimony of many family members, friends, and acquaintances who similarly denied the Sally Hemings paternity allegation. With the exception of those few cited in the Monticello Committee report, there is little evidence that the Jefferson paternity allegation survived, even among Jefferson’s political enemies, much past the 1802 elections, but for the brief resurrection of the Callender allegations in Massachusetts in 1805. Jefferson’s 19th-century biographer Henry Randall reported that Dr. Robley Duglison, Jefferson’s doctor in 1825 and 1826, did not believe the story and that both Dr. Duglison and Professor Tucker, “who lived years near Mr. Jefferson in the University, and were often at Monticello,” never heard the subject mentioned in Virginia. (Randall to Parton, in Flower, James Parton, p. 239.) Significantly, after his retirement from the presidency, not even Jefferson’s political enemies took the allegation seriously enough to press it.

  1. Jefferson’s Character

Historians and biographers who have spent their lives studying Thomas Jefferson have found the notion of an “affair” with Sally Hemings highly implausible, given various aspects of Jefferson’s character. Indeed, before his recent turnabout resulting from the TJMF Report, TJMF president Dan Jordan once described a Jefferson-Hemings liaison as “morally impossible,” echoing the very words used by Jefferson’s granddaughter, Ellen Randolph Coolidge, in her 1858 letter.

Annette Gordon-Reed deals with this issue by presenting superficial “character” arguments—Jefferson as “gentleman,” Jefferson as “cold-blooded,” Jefferson as “family man,” and Jefferson as “racist”—and then dealing with each of these strawman arguments. (Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy, pp. 107ff.) But the character questions are far deeper and more complex than Professor Gordon-Reed’s caricatures suggest.

What Ellen Coolidge meant by “moral impossibility” is rather clear from the context of the statement in her letter: that it is highly unlikely that Jefferson would begin a sexual relationship with Sally Hemings in France, where she was “lady’s maid” to his daughters, for this would require us to imagine “so fond, so anxious a father, whose letters to his daughters were so replete with tenderness, and with good counsels for their conduct, should . . . have selected the female attendant of his own pure children to become his paramour.” (Ellen Randolph Coolidge to Joseph Coolidge, October 24, 1858, Coolidge Collection, U.Va. Library.) Similarly, the likelihood of such a relationship existing at Monticello during Jefferson’s presidency—given not only Jefferson’s undoubted love for his children and grandchildren but also the logistic difficulties entailed in keeping secret a sexual liaison—suggest a high improbability of such an affair.

Another sense in which a sexual relationship with Sally Hemings would have been “morally impossible” to Jefferson focuses on his own personal moral code—his self-described “Epicurean” philosophy—and the abundant evidence suggesting the seriousness of his adherence to it. (On this generally, see Jean M. Yarbrough, American Virtues: Thomas Jefferson on the Character of a Free People, Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998, and also Andrew Burstein, The Inner Jefferson: Portrait of a Grieving Optimist, Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995.) This aspect of Jefferson’s character, and its relevance to his personal life and particularly the Hemings paternity thesis, has yet to be fully explored by scholars. One obvious question is whether Jefferson’s professed beliefs that “[t]he summum bonum is not to be pained in body, nor troubled in mind” and that “the indulgence which prevents a greater pleasure, or produces a greater pain is to be avoided” (Jefferson to William Short, October 31, 1819, in Jefferson: Writings, ed. Merrill D. Peterson, New York: Library of America, 1984, pp. 1432-33) might have given Jefferson reason to remain celibate.

Virtually all the evidence we have about Jefferson himself suggests that he was celibate following the death of his wife, Martha, in 1782. The closest he came to a sexual relationship with any woman after 1782 was his “affair” with Maria Cosway in France, but that relationship might be more accurately described as a non-sexual romantic friendship. The very passion with which Jefferson expressed his feelings for Mrs. Cosway—illustrated by his effusive correspondence with her, particularly his famous “Head and Heart” letter—makes even more striking the complete absence of evidence of any similar romantic feelings toward any woman after Jefferson’s return to the United States. The intensity with which Jefferson involved himself in politics during the period 1789 – 1809 fits the pattern of other celibate persons throughout history who obsessively pursue their careers as a substitute for a fulfilling sexual relationship. (See generally Elizabeth Abbott, A History of Celibacy, New York: Scribner, 2000.) And after his retirement from the presidency, Jefferson just as passionately pursued the three admitted obsessions of his life—his “family, farm, and books”—and thus to all appearances kept his deathbed promise of fidelity to his wife, Martha.

Finally, there is the matter of Jefferson’s unquestioned love and devotion for his children and grandchildren—amply evidenced in his correspondence with them and in various other documentary evidence of life at Monticello and Popular Forest—in contrast to the complete absence of any evidence, direct or circumstantial, showing that Jefferson displayed any signs of affection toward either Sally Hemings or any of her children. Given this great contrast, one would have to assume Jefferson had a Dr. Jeckyll/ Mr. Hyde type of split personality in order to maintain these two very different families. Jefferson was a very private man and in many respects a complicated man (and some would say a man of many contradictions), but not even he would have been able so successfully to lead the double life that some proponents of the Hemings paternity thesis would have us believe he lead.

VII. Conclusion

Obviously a large number of people, for various reasons, passionately want to believe that Thomas Jefferson fathered Sally Hemings’ children. These include some of the descendants of two of Sally Hemings’ children who passionately want their families’ oral traditions—and for many of them and their supporters, their places in American history—somehow validated by widespread acceptance of the Jefferson paternity thesis as historical fact. But it is not the role of historians to make people feel good about themselves or their family stories; “feel-good” history is not good history. It is, rather, the role of historians to explain the past as best they can, by following objective methodology and the evidence. However upsetting this conclusion may be to many people, again for a wide variety of reasons, it is simply the case that no credible evidence has proven that Thomas Jefferson fathered any of Sally Hemings’ children.